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Full text of "Tyler's quarterly historical and genealogical magazine"

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eeNEAuo^^ 






ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01779 6225 



GENEALOGY 
975.5 
T97NA 
1921-1922 



^ TYLER'S Quarterly Historical 




THE SARAH CONSTANT, GOODSPEED AND DISCOVERY 
The Ships That Brought the Foxinders of the Nation to Jamestown, 1607. 



and 



Genealogical Magazine 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



VOLUME III. 



Richmond, Va. 

Richmond Press, Inc., Printers 

1922 



^ 



'^ 



Vol. III. No. 1. 



JULY, 1921 



Spier's; (JSuarterlp gisstorical 

anb 




(jlenealosical iWaga^ine 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



^pWs (J^uarterlp historical anb 
(ienealosical jUasajine 

Vol. III. JULY, 1921. No. 1. 

NOTICE 



Annual subscription, $4.00. Single numbers, $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary Quarterly, of which I was 
proprietor, have become very scarce, single copies, as far as had, may be ob- 
tained from me at $2.00 apiece. 

LYON G. TYLER, Editor 
711 Travelers Building, . _ . Richmond, Va. 



CONTENTS 



Battle of Fontenoy 1 

How New England Learned Democracy 2' 

As Others Saw Us 6 

Remarks on the Civil War 14 

Black Beard 19 

JosejDh H. Hawkins 20 

Benjamin Harrison's Mission to Philadelphia 23 

Correspondence of Col. James Wood 28 

Berkeley County, West Virginia 44 

Robert Bailey 54 

Register of Marriage Bonds of Greensville County, Vir- 
ginia, 1781-1808 58 

Mumford and Munford Families 66 

Samuel Swann's Marriage to Elizabeth Fendall 68 

Tombstones 69 

James Madison, Sr 70 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 70 

Book Notice 72 






Spier's ©uarterlp i^isitorical anb 
(genealogical JWasa^ine 

Vol. Ill JULY, 1921 No. 1 

BATTLE OF FONTENOY. 

Fontenoy is a village of Belgium, in the Province of Hainaut, 
five miles southeast of Touraine, the ancient capital of France. 

Here on May 11, 1745, the French, about 50,000 strong under 
Marshal Saxe, defeated nearly an equal number of English, Han- 
overians, Dutch and Austrians, under the Duke of Cumberland. 
In that age France, like Germany in ours, aspired to universal 
dominion, and was opposed by the combined power of Europe. 
The battle at Fontenoy was obstinate to the last and was only 
decided for the French by a smashing charge of the Household 
troops and the famous Irish brigade. The allies lost 8,000 men 
and the French 7,000. 

This is the battle where the English and French played Al- 
phonse and Gaston. As related by Voltaire in his Precis dii Siecle 
de Louis XV : 

"Les officiers Anglais saluerent les Francais en otant leurs 
chapeaux, Le Compte Chabanes. le due de Biron, qui setaient 
avances, et tons les officiers des gardes-francais leur rendirent 
le salut. Milord Charles Hai, capitaine aux gardes-anglaises, 
cria, 'Messieurs des gardes-francaises, tirez.' 

Le Comte de Hauteroche, alors lieutenant des grenadiers et 
depuis capitaine, leur dit a voix haute : 'Messieurs, nous ne tirons 
jamais les premiers; tirez vous-memes.' 

Les Anglais firent feu roulant; cest-a-dire quils tiraient par 
divisions, &c." 

Translated this reads : 

"The English officers saluted the French by lifting their hats. 
Count Chabanes and the duke de Biron, who had advanced in front 
of the line, and all the officers of the French Guards returned the 



2 Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 

salute. Lord Charles Ha}^, captain of the British Guards, cried, 
'Gentlemen of the French Guards, begin the attack.' Count de 
Hauteroche, then lieutenant of the Grenadiers and since captain, 
said to them in a loud voice: 'Gentlemen, we, Frenchmen, never 
are the first to attack, we wait to be attacked.' Then the Eng- 
lish made a rolling fire, that is to say they fired by divisions, one 
after the other, &c." 



HOW NEW ENGLAND LEARNED DEMOCRACY. 

Just as there was a Washington family on the southside of the 
James River, distinct from the Washington family of Westmore- 
land County, so there was a Lee family on the Southside which 
appears to have had no connection with the distinguished Lee 
family of the county on the Potomac. 

The Lee family of the Southside laid no pretensions to aristoc- 
racy, but they furnished two brothers, Jesse and John Lee, who 
performed an important part in the life of Virginia and the na- 
tion itself. They were both Methodist preachers, sons of a re- 
spectable and religious farmer, Nathaniel Lee, of Prince George 
County. The ministrations of John Lee were confined to the 
South, but the ministrations of Jesse Lee were almost nation wide, 
and his great work was chiefly in the New England States, where 
he was the agent above all others in establishing the Methodist 
Church. 

He was born in Prince George County in 1758, fell under the 
influence first of Rev. Dexereaux Jarrett, an Episcopal minister 
with Methodist leanings, and later was received in the folds of 
the church by Rev. Robert Williams, who was the pioneer of Meth- 
odism in Virginia. Methodism, indeed, had its stronghold in this 
State. In 1779 there were in the United States forty-two min- 
isters and 8,577 members and nearly one-half of this number were 
in Virginia. It was here the largest labor was employed and 
here the greatest product was gathered. The situation of things in 
religion was especially favorable. The church was here, and hnd 



How ISTew England Learned Democracy 3 

been here from the foundation of the Colony. There were many 
worthy ministers of the old established church living when Wil- 
liams came in 1772, but their religion was formal and lifeless, and 
had little power of opposition. 

Mr, Lee moved to North Carolina in 1779, and the following 
year was drafted into the army. But though he responded to the 
call, he soon made it known that, though willing to do any other 
service, his principles forbade him to use a gun. So he was em- 
ployed as a teamster, and was so successful in mingling religious 
teachings to the soldiers with attentions to his duties that, when 
he left the army, he received a highly honorable discharge, and 
went to his old home in Virginia with credit. 

It was in 1782' that, yielding to the earnest entreaties of Bishop 
Asbury, he consented to go on a circuit, and in 1783 he was ad- 
mitted into "travelling connection," and entered on a wide field of 
usefulness. He spent six years preaching in North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, New Jersey and New York, winning many to 
the Methodist Church, and increasing his reputation as one of the 
ablest preachers in the United States. The revival in 1787 was 
a noted one, especially in Virginia, and Mr. Lee played a great 
part. 

New England alone remained untouched by the free spirit 
of the JMethodist Church, which alone among the Protestant bodies 
had no predestination article in its creed. This region. New Eng- 
land, stood out like an iceberg in the cold and stern formalism of 
its religion. But there the church organization, unlike the Colo- 
nial Church of Virginia, had tremendous power. The preachers 
were entrenched behind special legislation, and in administering 
religion, they employed it as a great political force to dominate 
society. This was accomplished by emphasizing those parts of the 
Calvinistic creed, wliich dealt in terror and fatalism. Thus the 
preachers and a group of lawyers and wealthy laymen in each com- 
munity grasped all power, and the people had either no say, or 
servilely accepted what was marked out for them by this auto- 
cratic establishment. 

To assail this rock of l)igotry and prejudice required no ordi- 



4 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

nary courage, but Jesse Lee, of Virginia, was not the man to 
know fear. 

In 1789 he began the almost hopeless undertaking of convert- 
ing this section of the Union, and for a long time his experiences 
were discouraging — very discouraging. He received much harsh 
treatment. Was often denied the use of the meeting houses and 
often had to preach on the streets. Then the pulpit opened its 
mouth and soundly belaboured what its ministers called the "dam- 
nanable principles of Methodism," Of his reception at Greenwich, 
Mr. Lee wrote : "The priest and deacon of the place had taken 
much pains to convince the people of the evil of letting me preach 
in the parish, and withal they told the people, if the society is 
broken up, they must beai the blame. Poor priests, they seem 
like frightened sheep, when I come near them." 

Mr. Lee's account of the fast days in New England shows that 
the observance of these days was, like all the other church institu- 
tions, entirely devoid of any real devotional feeling. He wrote: 
"The manner of fasting, in general, is to eat a hearty breakfast 
as usual, then attend public worship in the forenoon and after- 
noon, without eating any dinner, and then have supper before 
night." It could be no great mortification of the body to fast 
twelve hours on two hearty meals. 

Mr. Lee visited all parts of Xew England and sometimes found 
"lewd fellows" in the crowds, disposed to insult the minister, 
and bring his services into contempt, but with a man of Mr. Lee's 
intrepidity and great readiness of speech, these attempts to bring 
ridicule upon him was never a safe experiment, and there were 
occasions when he had resort to scathing and withering words of 
rebuke. The spiritual desolation of large parts of the country 
through which Mr. Lee passed was as surprising as it was painful. 
There were hundreds of families and neighborhoods where a min- 
ister never came. In Provincetown, where the Pilgrim Fathers 
first put foot to land, the town meeting refused to allow the Meth- 
odists to build a church, and, when the Methodists nevertheless, 
collected materials to proceed with the work, a company of men 
assembled in tlie night and burnt the lumber. Mr. Lee visited the 



How Xew England Learned Democeacy 5 

melancholy scene in the morning, and said sadly, "I feel astonished 
at the conduct of the people, considering we live in a free country, 
and no such conduct can be justified." 

Mr. Lee spent the greater part of eight years in Xew England, 
returning to the South in 1797. But he had accomplished a great 
work. Xot only had he set the Methodist Church on a firm 
footing in New England, but the doctrines which he taught of 
perfect freedom went to leaven the whole mass of society. Xever 
again was the Congregational Church the same. Society might 
have much the same appearance, Init it was radically changed at 
heart. Laws were soon to be passed disestablishing the church and 
the authority of the autocrats declined. Presdestination became an 
obsolete dogma in the platforms of all the churches. 

One might say that the springs of action set in motion by Lee, 
the Methodist apostle to Xew England, were continued by another 
man who, though born in Massachusetts, had spent his early and 
active manliood in Virginia. This was John Leland, who had 
taken a leading part in disestablishing the Episcopal Church in 
Virginia. He was a Baptist, and by long residence was a Vir- 
ginian in heart and principle. From a different standpoint, he, 
like Lee. contended for religious freedom, and found on the na- 
tional stage a representative in the statesman Jefferson. 

So the election of 180i was especially one where the issue was 
democracy and freedom, religious and political. The victory that 
Jefferson won has no equal for principle or thoroughness. Espe- 
cially was it so in Xew England. He carried all the Xew England 
States except one. For the first time in their history a real democ- 
racy began to exert its influence upon the Puritan States. 

On a plain marble slab in the old Methodist burying ground 
in Baltimore appears the following inscription: 

In Memory of 

The Eev. Jesse Lee 

Born in Prince George County, Va., 1758. 

Entered the Itinerant Ministry of the M. E. Church, 1783. and 

Departed this Life September, 1816. 

Aa:ed 58 vears. 



6 Tyler's Quaeterly Magazine 

A man of ardent zeal and great ability as a minister of Christ. 

His labours were abundantly owned by God. 

Especially in the Xew England States, in which he was truly the 

Apostle of American Methodism. 



AS OTHERS SAW US. 



The Memoirs of General Frederick Adolphus Eiedesel, and the 
Memoirs of his lady, afford interesting reading. They hold up a 
mirror somewhat different from that in which our ancestors were 
accustomed to view themselves. 

General Eiedesel was Commander-in-Chief of the German 
troops hired by the British to fight the Americans. He came over 
in 1776, and was soon joined by his wife and three children, who 
shared his campaign and captivity. 

These German troops, generally referred to as "Hessians" 
from one of the provinces from which they came, were terribly 
abused by the Americans, who spoke of them as mercenaries accept- 
ing blood money. There was no limit of censure of the British 
government for hiring them. And yet no real difference existed 
between their case and that of the Germans, who in the Civil War 
were given large bounties for enlisting, and fighting the South. 
During the war whole regiments, unable to speak a single word of 
English, were captured by the Confederates. They were, never- 
theless, extolled as patriots and heroes by the Xorthern press. 

Major General Riedesel served in the campaign which had its 
fatal termination at Saratoga. The British General Burgoyne 
was a bull headed kind of man, and averse to taking advice. Had 
he minded Eiedesel, he might not have been forced to surrender. 

When the surrender took place at Saratoga, October 17, 1777, 
Eiedesel estimated the Armerican army to number 22,350 men, 
of whom there were in actual service 20,817. The British and 
German Army numbered only 5,801 men, of whom 327 were camp 



As Others Saw Us 7 

servants. Gates" fignix'S reduced the Americans to half the num- 
ber, and left the enemy at about the number given by Riedesel. 
But Burgoyne signed the articles after assurance from Gates that 
the Americans were four times as numerous. However stated, 
there is not as much glory in the surrender as we have been taught 
in our school histories. Nevertheless, the importance of the vic- 
tory cannot be over-estimated, as it decided France to take active 
steps in our behalf. 

Probably the most discreditable feature of the war, on the 
part of the Americans, was their breach of the article which guar- 
anteed the prompt return of the captured troops to England on 
parole. Eiedesel had advised Burgoyne to make Canada their 
place of return, which could have been accomplished at once. But 
Burgoyne, as in other matters where Eiedesel showed excellent 
judgment, declined the advice, and the delay occasioned by waiting 
for the means of transportation enabled the fault finders in Con- 
gress to defeat the terms of the treaty. In this matter, the influ- 
ence of General La Fayette was decisive. The British were bound 
by the articles not to fight the Americans, but he argued that they 
were under no obligations not to fight the French, who were on 
the point of becoming allies of the Americans. 

So the captured army were retained as prisoners of war for 
many years, during which time they suffered many hardships and 
m.any died. 

They first went under guard to Boston, and Lady Eiedesel 
writes : 

"Boston is quite a fine city, but the inhabitants were out- 
rageously patriotic. There were among them many wicked people, 
and the persons of my own sex were the worst. They gazed at me 
with indignation and spat when I passed by them." 

Spitting at people is an abominable breach of good manners, 
but Lady Eiedesel ascribed it to "outragous patriotism." Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, directed his general order No. 
28, in the Civil War, at New Orleans, against "any word, gesture 
or movement, on the part of any female," expressive of insult or 
contempt to a Federal officer or soldier. The words for prevention 



8 Tylee's Quakterly Magazine 

thereof expressed a presumption so shocking that Prime Minister 
Lord Palmerston denounced the order in Parliament "as unfit to 
he written in the English language." Even read at this lapse of 
time, the language is undoubtedly the most revolting attaching 
to any order in modern military annals. And yet the patriotism 
of some people was so "outrageous" that it actually found defenders 
in the North. Butler in his "Book" prides himself upon the fact 
that Lincoln and his government approved his administration and 
never revoked his order, and James Parton, his biographer, claims 
to find ample vindication of Butler in the public meetings in New 
York and Boston that greeted him on his return to the North. 

But returning to Lady Eiedesel, her remarks must not be taken 
as applying to all the women in Boston but to some* only, and 
that some Americans of the Revolutionary period, as some of the 
Civil War, were not very lovable people is shown by the following 
additional testimony from her: 

"I had, during my residence at Bristol in England, made the 
acquaintance of a Capt. Fenton, whom the Americans claimed, 
but who remained faithful to his Sovereign. Upon this the in- 
furiated rabble seized his wife, who was a most respectable woman 
and a daughter of the age of fifteen, who was very beautiful, and 
stripped them both of their dresses, without regard to their moral 
worth, their beauty and their delicacy; and, after having besmeared 
them with tar and covered them with feathers, drove them through 
the city. What had one not to fear from a people maddened to 
that degree of hatred?" 

It was maddened people of this character, disguised as In- 
dians, that have been glorified in history because they threw the 
tea overboard in Boston harbor in 1773. Such, too, was the char- 
acter of the mob in 1770, who attacked the British soldiers in the 
streets of Boston and had the unfortunate results which thev drew 



*The German officer, Schlozer, speaks very differently of the wo- 
men whom he encountered on the way from Boston to New York in 
the course of their march to their prison camp at Charlottesville, Va.: 
''So they stood by dozens all along the road, laughed mockingly at us, 
or, from time to time, dropped a michievous courtesy, and handed us 
an apple." 



As Othees Saw TJs 9 

upon themselves emblazoned in history as a massacre of the inno- 
cent. Between these so-called patriotic incidents, and lynching of 
negroes in the South for abominable crimes, there is very little 
difference. Mob rule can never be justified, no matter how good 
the cause. 

Xovember 20, 1777, was a gala day in Boston, when Governor 
Hancock attended and hundreds of people dressed in holiday at- 
tire were present from the country around. The crowds delighted 
to taunt the helpless British by cheering "King Hancock" in 
mockery of King George. At this time General Riedesel entered 
in his journal the following description of the Xew Englanders : 

"One can see in these men, here assembled, exactly the na- 
tional character of the inhabitants of Xew England. They are 
distinguished from the rest by their manner and dress. Thus they 
all, under a thick and yellow wig, have the honorable physiognomy 
of a magistrate. Their dress is after the old English fashion; 
over this, they wear, winter and summer, a blue blouse, with 
sleeves, which is fastened around the body with a strap. 

One hardly sees any of them without a whip. They are gen- 
erally thickset and middling tall, and it is difficult to distinguish 
one of them from another. 

Xot one tenth of them can read writing and still fewer can 
write. This art belongs, aside from the literary men, exclusively 
to the female sex. The women are well educated, and, therefore, 
know better than any other matrons in the world hovv- to govern the 
men. 

The New Englanders want to be politicians, and love therefore 
the taverns and the grogbowl; behind the latter of which they 
transact business, drinking from morning till night." 

This is not a very pleasant picture and was surely overdrawn. 
Certainly the men of ISTew England were not so ignorant or 
drunken, nor the women so learned and unfeminine, as represented. 

In Xovember, 1778, came orders that the prisoners must march 
to Virginia. This state and Xorth Carolina had provided the pro- 
visions tliat saved the American Army from starvation at Valley 
Forge the winter before. And now again no flour could be had in 



10 Tylee^s Quaktekly ]Magazine 

the Xorthern States for the British prisoners, and only in Vir- 
ginia was there a chance to supply them with food. Hence their 
removal. 

Lady Eiedesel went along with the army, and had several un- 
pleasant experiences. They passed through the States of Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, Xew York, Xew Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
This is what occurred at the home of Col. Howe, to whom she 
meant to pay a compliment, by asking if he was related to the 
British General Howe. 

" 'God forbid,' replied he, in great anger, 'he is not worthy 
of that honor.' The colonel was a man of very fair reputation and 
spent in husbandry the time which he was not obliged to devote 
to military service. He had a daughter, who was about 14r years 
old, and quite pretty, but very ill-natured. Sitting with her at 
the fireside, she said, on a sudden, staring at the blaze, 'Oh, if 
I had here the King of England, with how much pleasure I could 
roast and eat him.' I looked at lier witii indignation and told 
her, 'I am almost ashamed to belong to a sex, which is capable of 
uttering such fancies,' I shall never forget that detestable girl, 
and I was impatient to leave her, though we had very good ac- 
commodations." 

Tlie patriotism of some people of Virginia was hardly less 
"outrageous" than that of some peoi)le of Boston. Lady Riedesel 
writes : 

"After our arrival in Virginia, and wlien we were in a days 
journey distant from the place of our destination, we had for our 
last meal tea and a piece of bread and butter for each. This was 
the end of our little stock and we could have procured no more 
either for our present and future wants, — except some fruit, which 
a peasant gave us for our guineas. At noon we reached a house 
where we begged for some dinner, but all assistance was denied us, 
with many imprecations against the royalists. Seeing some maize, 
I begged our hostess to give me some of it, to make a little bread. 
She replied that she needed it for her black people; 'they work 
for us' ; she added, 'you come to kill us.' Captain Edmunstone 
then offered to pay her one or two guineas for a little wheat, but 



As Others Saw Us 11 

she returned, ' You shall not have it, even for hundreds of guineas, 
and it will be so much the better if you all* die.' " 

On their arrival at Charlottesville, A^irginia, in the winter of 
1779. the soldiers were afforded very poor accommodations. Their 
sufferings must have been great. The troops were "billeted in 
block houses, Avithout windows, and poorly defended from the cold." 
And the snow on the ground was three feet deep. 

Fortunately, the weeks that followed were mild and the fruit 
trees were blooming in the middle of February. The soldiers made 
haste to put up barracks which were made warm and comfortable. 
Lady Eiedesel secured good quarters and was treated with respect. 

The summer following was very hot, and the General had a 
sun-stroke which came near finishing him. He and his wife were 
permitted to go to Frederick Springs in Berkeley County (now 
known as Berkeley Springs), where they met General Washing- 
ton's family. Unfortunately no printed account is given of their 
relations to one another. Doubtless, Lady Eiedesel saw a good 
deal of dancing at the springs, for she makes this comment: 

"The Virginians are naturally indolent, which may be attri- 
buted to their hot climate, but on the least excitement they be- 
come animated and dance and whirl about, and as soon as they 
hear the reel, (an English or Scottish Xational dance), they look 
for a partner and jump about with wonderful vivacity; but when 
the music ceases, they are again like statues." 

As her husband had experienced a severe sunstroke, it was 
natural to refer the indolence of the Virginians to the heat of the 
climate. Now heat is not wholly local but comes in waves, ex- 
tending over great areas, and my experience has been that at 
similar altitudes the temperature from Boston to South Carolina 
does not differ materially in the summer. A much better explana- 
tion is given by Du Roy, the Elder, who was commissary of the 



♦Notice the use of "you all." Some Northern readers might inter- 
pret this to mean a singular as the woman was addressing Lady 
Riedesel, but of course she meant a plural, referring to the whole 
British army. No Southerner ever uses "you all" in the singular. 



12 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Second Division of the Hessians. He says that the men in Vir- 
ginia were lazy, because they had negroes to do the work for them.* 

The Eiedesels left Frederick Springs in August, 1779, and 
not long after Gen. Eiedesel was exchanged. He was given by 
Sir Henry Clinton, a command on Long Island and later one in 
Canada. When peace occurred in 1783, he and his family returned 
to Europe. 

While recipients of bad treatment from some Americans, from 
others they had many kindnesses. Lady Eiedesel states that her 
stay in Cambridge, Mass., was as happy as the conditions could 
make it, that in New York General Philip Schuyler was especially 
gentlemanly and considerate, and she makes no complaint of the 
Virginians except as stated. Maryland receives her especial com- 
mendations, not only on account of the courtesies of an opulent 
lady of that State, but of the people in general ; "for in that coun- 
try," she says, "it would be considered a crime to behave otherwise 
to strangers." 

By his exchange Eiedesel was separated from his Germans at 
Charlottesville. In August, 1780, he estimated their number there 
at 1,147. In 1781, when Cornwallis came into A^irginia, they were 
marched to Winchester, on the other side of the Blue Eidge, and in 
January, 1782, they were marched to Fredericktown, Maryland. 

♦This writer, however, does not include the Virginia women in 
the lazy catalogue. He writes: "The women are a great deal more 
industrious. A gentleman's wife considers it highly honorable to do 
some of the work herself. She sees to it that all the clothes of the 
family are made at home by the negroes * * * The women here de- 
serve to be highly respected for their industrious tendencies. They 
are quite the opposite of those in New England, and although not as 
pretty as those as a rule, they are much more polite and better man- 
nered, also more courteous towards strangers." It is rather amusing 
to find that Du Roy's description of the New Englanders is just the 
reverse of the Virginia picture. "The men are very industrious, espe- 
cially in business, but they are selfish and not sociable. The women 
are exceedingly proud, negligent and very lazy. The men have to do 
all the outside work, as milking the cows etc. The woman in New 
England is the laziest creature I know in the world." Journal of 
Du Roy, the Elder. 



As Others Saw Us 13 

A letter written at this time to Col. James Wood, the Com- 
mandant in charge of the prisoners, by Capt. Joseph Holmes, 
shows that some of them were practically without clothes* At 
other times they were practically without food ; but it appears that 
the guards fared little better. 

"Winchester, 24th Jan., 1782. 
Dear Coll : 

In consequence of the appointment with Lieut. Col. Xorth, 
I have given the necessary orders, and disposition of March foi 
the Guard and British prisnrs. They are to move tomorrow morn- 
ing exactly at the hour of 10 o'clock. The British in one column, 
the Anspachs,* in another. The extreme coldness of the season 
has induced me to refer to your consideration the hardships and 
difficulty both guard and Prisn. must encounter on the March. 
Many are almost as naked as the hour they were born, & not an 
ounce of animal food, whether you could not with pro- 
priety detain them a few days, or one half of them, then there 
might be a chance of getting into some sort of shelter at night. 
It seems to shock the feelings of humanity to drive out of a warm 
habitation a poor creature stark naked in such a season. I shall 
be glad to have your opinion with respect to the march. 

I am, dr. sir. Yours, &c. 
J. Holmes.f 



*The German troops. 

fjoseph Holmes, of Winchester, was a captain in the army, mar- 
ried Rebecca, a daughter of Capt. David Hunter. They resided at 
Winchester and from them was descended Hunter Holmes McGuire, 
the famous surgeon of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson. 



14 Tylek's Qjakteklv j.Iagazixe 

EEMAEKS OX THE CIVIL WAR. 
By Dr. A. J. Morrison'. 

Tho?e who have followed Dr. Tyler in his thoroughgoing de- 
fence of the old South, know it to be his opinion that the North 
and the South were virtually two distinct nations before 1861. 
Southerners whose memory runs back even thirty years can readily 
agree with that opinion. I, for one, can so agree. But I am by 
inheritance a Carolina Whig. If I guess right, I should have 
stayed with the South in 1861. And I have no desire now to sling 
mud at my grandparents. A stand up fight is an excellent thing 
by way of human endeavor. How else settle the matter? The 
smell of gunpowder may be very wholesome indeed. But there is 
no peace anyway. 

If the Whig party, which made the preservation of the Union 
the paramount consideration in 1861 could have subsisted, it is 
conceivable that the war might liave been avoided, but as our af- 
fairs go, the war could not have been avoided. Slavery bred mas- 
ters, very masterful men. The industrialism of the North bred 
masters, very masterful men also. Those groups went to war, and 
the group that was the more diversely experienced won the war. 

It is amazing how many men the South furnished to beat the 
South. There was Dr. Catling, for instance. There was Farragut, 
and there was Winslow, and there was any number of others, espe- 
cially navy men. There was Abraham Lincoln himself. Those 
men were somehow convinced that the experience of the North 
was more to the point in nineteenth century business. Of course 
there were Pemberton, Quitman, Slidell and any number of others 
that the North furnished the South. Naturally enough, those men 
fought for their homes and the country that had been kind to them. 

As for Abraham Lincoln. God knows what he was. No man 
can say. Lincoln seems to have been a human being wlio could 
talk like Falstaif and write like Goldsmith. What we call 'Lin- 
coln's prose' is enough to constitute his title to a place in our his- 
tory. Lincoln's politics, on tlie other hand, must be m.atter of 



Eemakks ox the Civil War 15 

debate as long as there are investigators into the grounds of men's 
conduct. 

What was the experience of the North in contrast to that of 
the South? In a political way, it is manifestly misleading to 
teach that Xew England or the Xorth was democratic. A very 
little study of the political history of Boston will show how fierce 
the struggle was there between the Federalists and the Republicans 
before 1821. And after 1821 Xathaniel Hawthorne grew up 
at Salem, where a Jeffersonian Democrat was shunned in good 
society, and Henry Cabot Lodge grew up in a quarter of Boston, 
where a Democrat was supposed to be a ruffian. The idea of a League 
of Xations is not at all more efficient than the idea of a league 
of peoples in any given community. If Xew England and other 
parts of the Xorth could have been made to understand that there 
was a very considerable democracy at the South, there might have 
been less trouble. It is remarkable that in this year 1921, the 
incoming of a Eepublican administration is held by many people 
to be a democratic event. Provincialism seems to be one of the 
primal duties. As things go. it is difficult for any individual or 
community to exist without incessant self-defence. 

Mr. Jefferson knew a thing or two about Xew England. He 
said, "I felt the very foundations of the government shaking under 
me from those Xew England town meetings." He said also, 
"Great part of the West has been settled by Xew Englanders un- 
willing to put up with the bigotry of Xew England." Jefferson 
desired to see a wholesome United States of Xorth America, and 
spent his last years bothering with an educational programme that 
he hoped might help. He thought that many men would act dif- 
ferently on beginning business if they had been taught somethinof 
of books in their youth. Even today, to what are we to ascribe the 
bungling transportation of the Valley of Virginia? And why have 
we not branch lines, steam or electric, down all the necks of Tide- 
water Virginia? 

Sheridan harried the Valley of Virginia. The Xorth won and 
the South suffered. We established our league of commonwealths, 
first and last, by blood and iron. If proof was wanted, tlie Civil 



15 Tyler's Quaeteklt II^Iagazine 

War proved that there was resourcefulness, that there was every 
sort of brains, at the South. But the Whig party was gone, and 
there was a "solid South" for many years after the war [happy 
time in very many ways], exhibiting a wonderfully happy democ- 
racy. It was striking during those years how like the Xorth and 
the South were to England and Scotland. The Scotsman regards 
the intricately organized country to the south of him as cold. 

What problems there are before us! How is the world to get 
together, with organization as it is now almost everywhere? If 
we cannot solve these problems in America, with all the oppor- 
tunities we have had and have, the outlook is dismal indeed. 

A Southern man, who finds it very difficult to fit into organiza- 
tion as it is, North and South, I have set down these few scatter- 
ing thoughts suggested by Dr. Tyler's article in the January num- 
ber of this magazine. I have been compelled to subscribe to a 
philosophy that looks at the world as an organism capable of end- 
less development at the expense of sore discomfort to individuals, 
communities, or nations Avhose processes may be hamjjering the 
general plan. As Job might have said, "It is certainly surprising 
to me that the devil is such a powerful instrument in the divine 
purpose." 
Washington. D. C, April 13, 1921. 

Editorial Comments. 

Dr. Morrison's paper furnishes food for thought. Was the 
Civil War inevitable? Men are very prone to regard a past fact 
as inevitable. Dr. Morrison himself suggests a doubt as to the in- 
evitableness of the War between the States, in favor of the Whig 
Party, could it have survived. Considered in the light of late 
events, the war might readily have been avoided if "the master- 
ful men" of the North had recognized the doctrine of self-deter- 
mination, now so generally admitted. It appears almost an anach- 
ronism that eight millions of people, with a thoroughly established 
government, occupying a territory half the size of Europe, and 
capable of fighting one of the greatest wars on record, were not 



Remarks on the Civil War 17 

permitted to set up for themselves. Since the Civil War we have 
seen Norway and Sweden separate in peace, and much of Europe 
reconstructed, with general acquiescence, on new national lines. 

This is the way Seward in his note of March 15, 1861, to the 
Confederate Commissioners, put the case of the masterful men of 
the North: "He (the President, Lincoln), sees in them (the 
actions of the Southern States) not a rightful and accomplished 
revolution and an independent nation, with an established govern- 
ment, but rather a perversion of a temporary and partisan excite- 
ment to the inconsiderate purposes of an unjustifiable and un- 
constitutional aggression upon the rights and authority vested in 
the Federal government, &c.^' 

Will any Northern historian say at this date that the secession 
.•of the Southern States was "a temporary and partisan excite- 
ment?" or that "they had no established government?" Tlie right 
of self-determination might be freely questioned in the case of the 
Philippine Islands or many of the countries under British rule, 
for they have shown no capacity for self-government, but this 
could hardly be said of the Southern people. 

Dr. Morrison's comments on democracy are well worth con- 
sidering. If the present United States stand for any well defined 
principle it is democracy, and this found its first concrete expres- 
sion in this country in the Assembly at Jamestown in 1619, elected 
by the free voice of all the people of Virginia. Later three Vir- 
ginians especially brought the light to New England, In those 
States the idea of a superior class and an established church con- 
tinued to prevail long after the American Revolution. The town 
meetings were little oligarchies, controlled by a bunch of haughty 
autocrats who held office indefinitely. It was the organization, 
not the democracy of tlie towns, which Mr. Jefferson felt as a 
power. As late as 1793 a newspaper writer complained that in 
Connecticut the chief magistrates were often chosen by one- 
twentieth of the legal voters. And in 1798 a writer from Norfolk 
County, Mass., declared that "the country people this way, in 
general never prepare their minds previous to a town meeting, 
and were, therefore, under the influence of their most influential 
and learned men, particularly the moderator," 



18 Tylek's Quaeteely Magazhste 

Pre-eminent in political influence were the Congregational 
preachers, who used the doctrine of predestination, in the sense of 
fatalism, to damn any opponent from a beginning tliat never began 
to an ending that never ended. 

It was Jesse Lee, of Virginia, the Methodist evangelist, and 
John Leland, of Virginia, the Baptist missionary, that led the way 
to better things. Through their fearless and ceaseless ministra- 
tions in New England, travelling day and night and visiting every 
corner of those States, they warmed the icy air of religion and 
raised the poorer class to a better appreciation of their dignity and 
rights. 

The cause represented by Lee and Leland in religious matters 
was lifted to a national plane by Jefferson. He was not a doctri- 
narian like them, but the freedom they demanded as the road to 
heaven he deemed equally essential to the government which regu- 
lated life on earth. The real issue between the Federalists and 
Republicans at Jefferson's second election in 1804, was no less a 
one than freedom and democracy extended to both church and 
State. And the Republicans won the fight. 

In many ways this victory was the most complete ever won. 
Jefferson actually carried all of the New England States, except 
Connecticut, against the combined wealth and power of all the 
clergy and aristocrats of that section. And this happened in a 
region where there had been no limit to the abuse hurled at the 
heads of Jefferson and his Southern democrats. 

Thus in Connecticut, a Southington pastor at Branford, 
scrupled not to call Jefferson "a debauchee, an infidel and a liar," 
and in Massachusetts, the chief Justice, in a charge to the grand 
jury, denounced him, in company with "the French system mon- 
gers," as an "apostle of atheism and anarchy, bloodshed and plun- 
der." It was usual to refer to all Virginians as "jacobins," a 
faction in France, somewhat similar in their radicalism to the 
Russian bolshevist. 

After Jefferson's great victory the old laws which maintained 
the State religion in New England were gradually modified o" 
repealed, and the people were encouraged to come to the polls and 



Remakks on the Civil War 19 

share in the government. And yet despite this, there are many 
Northern writers of the present day, who only grudgingly give 
any merit to their best friend and benefactor, Thomas Jefferson. 

Perhaps this has an historic explanation. The aristocracy of 
Virginia in colonial times had been largely spectacular without 
much real power, but the aristocracy of New England, without any 
pretensions to great show, had been essentially an autocracy. It 
has been harder to get rid of, and to a Southerner, who visits the 
North to-day, and is thrown in what is known as "best society," 
the relies of this narrowness is surprisingly apparent. There is still 
discerned among these people, descendants of the old autocrats, the 
old contempt for the poor and the ill-born. 

There are signs that this spirit will pass away some day. The 
fact that in recent years a graduate of Yale College has thought 
that "Republicanism in New England" is worthy of being seriously 
treated in book form, is one of these signs. (See "Jeffersonian 
Democracy in New England," by William A. Eobinson, Ph. D., 
1915.) 



BLACK BEARD. 



Although the name of Blackbeard is variously spelled Thach 
and Teach in Governor Spotswood's letter regarding his execution, 
it appears that, in the subsequent correspondence on the rival 
claims of Virginia and North Carolina to the captured French ves- 
sel and its cargo, the spelling is uniformily Thach. The scene 
of his activities was the upper coastal region of North Carolina, 
and there in 1740, in Chowan County, resided a man called John 
Thach, whose name appears as witness to two wills. See a volume 
published by the State Department of North Carolina, consist- 
ing of abstracts of wills. Then in 1790 the North Carolina census 
gives three or four persons of the name of Thatch as residing in 
this region — Chowan and Perquimans. This is only a slight change 
in the spelling, and the "t" was doubtless introduced to make the 
spelling more suggestive of the sound. 

The case is almost complete that Black Beard's real name was 
Capt. Edward Thach. 



20 Tylep/s Quarterly Magazine 

JOSEPH H. HAWKINS. 
By Dr. A. J. Morrison. 

Some thirty years ago Senator Lodge drew up an interesting 
statement of the case regarding "Ability in the United States." 
Appleton's Dictionary of American Biography was then a new 
work, and Mr, Lodge took the trouble to glance through all the 
six volumes of Appleton (about 15,000 names) to determine what 
the ability of the United States had been and whence it had 
sprung. The six volumes of Appleton are still the best thing we 
have, the nearest approach to a critical survey of American biog- 
raphy. But the slightest examination of that faithful piece of 
work will make it clear that Mr. Lodge's conclusions should be 
entitled, "Ability in the United States as exhibited by Appleton's 
Dictionary." General Wilson, the editor, and John Fiske, the 
assistant editor of Appleton, let in a good many names on very 
slim evidence of ability, and they left out a great many names 
that might have been included. 

General Wilson has said that the idea of that dictionary oc- 
curred to him in 1879. Ten years later the six volumes had been 
issued. In his essay (as not pertinent) Mr. Lodge did not men- 
tion the fact that nearly one-sixth part of Appleton is Latin 
American. Besides, there is in Appleton a good show of Cana- 
dian entries. The plan having been so ambitious, if six volumes 
was set as the limit, it is at once apparent that the editors were a 
good deal lumbered up, and with the best intentions had to neglect 
much of the ability on record in the United States. And then 
they set down to fn^ir task about the year 1880 or 1882'. Those 
editors, both of them fair minded men, of exceptional intelligence, 
and knowing the United States very well indeed, those really 
lovable men, James H. Wilson and John Fiske, could not possibly 
know much about the significant names in Southern achievement. 
And if they had come South and made special inquiry around the 
year 1879, they could not have found out. Something had hap- 



Joseph H. Hawkins 21 

pened. The region had been stunned. It is hardly going too far 
to assert that a dictionary of biography, made up of Southern 
names entirely, and running to six volumes, could be compiled 
from the facts of Southern achievement during the decade from 
1850 to 1860. A full list of important books written by South- 
erners during those years would make a startling catalogue. Just 
as in the few years before 1914 English-speaking people were 
impelled to do certain work (which another century may take 
stock of curiously) so in the South, during the ten years before 
the Civil War, there was a mysterious impulse to do — else the thing 
could not be done. An examination of the list of Southern books 
from 1850 to 1860 is sufficient proof. 

The war knocked winding many of those books. But the print- 
ing press recommends itself in some respects. If a book is printed 
in an edition of a thousand copies, and all but one are lost, that 
one may reach the public in the end. For instance, who knows 
anything of William B. Victor's ''Life and Events." published at 
Cincinnati in 1859? It seems rather plain that this book was 
unknown to General Wilson or to John Fiske around the year 
1883, and it very likely that Senator Lodge knew nothing of the 
book in 1893. The present writer bought a copy for a quarter of 
a deflation dollar at a beneficent store of old books not long ago. 
The book should be worth at least $3.50. 

William B. Victor has left no trace in the biographical dic- 
tionaries. Why he called his book "Life and Events" is some- 
thing of a guess. He might as well have called it "Pilgrims' 
Progress," or "A Western Comedy" (after the manner of Dante). 
The book is really a very interesting, if loosely constructed, ac- 
count of the Nicholas family of Kentucky, and its connections, 
in a political way. Joseph H. Hawkins married a daughter of 
Colonel George Nicholas , of Kentucky, and it is Joseph H. 
Hawkins that this memorandum is about. 

Mr. Hawkins was born in Powhatan County, Virginia. He 
studied law and went out to Lexington, Kentucky. When barely 
eligible he was elected to the legislature from Fayette County in 
1810. So he was born about 1786, when Powhatan County was 



22 Tylee's Quajbterly Magazine 

beginning to think fondly of its brief past. Were the facts ac- 
cessible, you could put together a large biographical dictionary 
touching the divers business of the old Buckingham road, from 
tidewater to the West through Powhatan. 

Mr. Hawkins took his part ably in the Kentucky legislature. 
He furthered the plans of the Madison administration in those 
two years, and was in 1813 elected speaker of the House. After 
the war, Henry Clay being appointed a peace commissioner, Mr. 
Hawkins was sent to Congress in the place of Mr. Clay. Mr, Clay, 
having finished his business abroad, naturally resumed his seat in 
Congress. Mr. Hawkins returned to the practice of the law at his 
home and in 1819 removed to New Orleans. As early as 1807 Mr. 
Hawkins had made the acquaintance of the Austins, father and 
son. Moses Austin, then living at Mine a Burton in Missouri, 
brought his son, Stephen, to school at Lexington, Kentucky, in 
1807. Stephen Austin lived for a while in Mr. Hawkins' house 
at Lexington. 

After his removal to New Orleans, Mr. Hawkins was ap- 
proached by Moses Austin on the subject of the colonization of 
Texas. The two came to an agreement. Mr, Hawkins, in con- 
sideration of capital supplied, was to have a half interest in the 
Austin grants. Moses Austin dying, his son, Stephen, confirmed 
these articles of agreement in November, 1821. William B, Victor 
makes plain statements to this effect, and cites the documents. 
We suppose that he knew. A great mass of Nicholas papers were 
in his hands. The account here given does not profess to be 
critical. 

Stephen Austin going to Mexico in 1821 on the business of 
his grants was detained there until August, 1823. Upon Mr. 
Hawkins at New Orleans fell the burden of sending down to Texas 
the three hundred families whose settlement was requisite to the 
grants. Mr. Hawkins attended to all the difficult business of the 
transportation and the provisioning of those first three hundred 
families for the Texas grants. He became involved financially, 
was worried, his health suffered, and he died at New Orleans 
early in October, 1823. His estate seems not to have been reim- 



Benjamin Harrison's Mission to Philadelphia 23 

bursed. It had been his plan to settle in Texas himself. One 
of his sons, Norborne B. Hawkins (named for Governor Bote- 
tourt) lost his life in a very honorable way in the Fannin expedi- 
tion, March, 1836. The boy was but sixteen years old. The 
Mexican officer who captured Colonel Fannin and his party was 
willing to connive at the escape of young Hawkins. "To this he 
answered that two cousins had joined the army with him, they were 
prisoners also, if they could be permitted to escape he would grate- 
fully accept the offer. This the officer refused. Young Hawkins 
replied, 'I will share the fate of my cousins.' They were marched 
out and shot with the others." 



BENJAMIN HAEEISON'S MISSION TO PHILADELPHIA. 

(From Papers Concerning the Army of the Revolution, Vol. 1, 
Va. State Archives.) 

Benjamin Harrison to the Governor of Virginia: 

Philadelphia, Feb. 12, 1781. 
Sir: 

I arrived at this place late in the evening of yesterday after 
a most disagreeable journey, which has been considerably length- 
ened by the great difficulty I found in exchanging State money 
for Continental, and with all my trouble I fear I have not pro- 
cured as much as will support me. I am just returned from the 
board of war who have given me an order for four ton of powder; 
as you were not particular in the kind that would be wanted, I 
have taken it one half in musket the other in cannon powder, 
which I suppose will be about the proportion that will be wanted 
for the service for which it is intended. I have no doubt of getting 
it on the way in a day or two, as the board are giving me every 
assistance in their power. I think you would do well to advise 
Col. Clarke as soon as possible of its being on the way, that he may 
send an escort to meet it, as the board informs me there is some 



24 Tylee's Quaeterly Magazine 

danger of its being destroyed on the way without it, there being 
a considerable body of disaffected people in that quarter. The 
expense of transportation I must pay out of the money you en- 
trusted me with, there being not a shilling in the Continental 
Treasury; the new congress money for this State and the Jerseys 
pass at seventy-five for one, whilst that of Virginia will only 
bring thirty-seven and a half, and will not do even that, but from 
the speculators, a set of men that nothing but necessity shall cause 
me to deal with, I shall endeavor if possible to exchange the money 
with the public and have some little expectations of succeeding. 
The Continental powder at Baltimore amounted only to 2500 wt. 
I therefore, thought it better to take the whole here. I must fear 
no great success will attend my Embassy, it appearing to me that 
Congress can not command men, and if they had them, have they 
any quantity of necessaries to furnish them for the field; there 
is great abundance of cloathing in this Town, but it cant be pro- 
cured without money or tobacco, nor will the latter do, unless the 
Enemy leave our country, yet would it not be well that Eoss 
should send an agent iiere if I cant procure tliem, to try the ex- 
periment. Of my success you shall have immediate notice. I am 
with great esteem and respect. 

Your most obedient and most humble servant, 

Benj* Harrison. 
[Endorsed on the back] 

Speaker Harrison's Letter 
Feb. 81. 
[Addressed] On Public Service, 

His Excellency, the Governor of Virginia 

Benjamin Harrison to General Washington. 

Philadelphia, February 16, 1781. 
My Dear Sir: 

I arrived at this place five days ago, sent by our assembly to 
make application to congress for immediate assistance in men, 
arms, ammunition and cloathing, and was also directed to wait on 
you on the same subjects; on Wednesday last I laid before a com- 



Benjamin Harrison's Mission to Philadelphia 25 

niittee of that body the businesses I had in charge, as fully as it 
was in my power to do, without answers to letters I had written 
to the Governor of N. Carolina and Gen. Green, requesting of the 
one the situation of his Government as to the necessaries for carry- 
ing on the war, and of the other his wants and a return of what 
regular troops he had fit for duty, & from whence they came; these 
letters were written in the most respectful terms, and with an as- 
surance that the only motives that actuated me were the General 
good, however as answers are witheld, I suppose the enquiry was 
looked on as improper, tho' I cannot yet by any means think so. 
Our Assembly on taking a full and accurate view of the Southern 
war, as of our own situation, on whom very much of its success 
depends, are justly alarmed; they find the Country greatly ex- 
hausted in the articles of provisions, arms, and military stores 
of all kinds, and that there is but little prospect of assistance in 
these particulars from the adjoining states, except as to provisions 
from N. Carolina, and even these we have but too much reason 
to fear will be furnished in but scanty proportion. The greatest 
part of the ammunition sent to the South went from Virginia, 
by which means we are left with about 47000 wt. of powder of aU 
kinds, and much of that must be worked over before it can be 
used; several thousand arms have also gone on, but very few of 
them have been returned and those in such wretched order that 
they are useless to us for want of artificers to repair them; from 
this summary state of the matters you may easily conclude, that 
our own safety forbids us to disfurnish ourselves any farther, 
as from the frequency of invasions of late we have abundant reason 
to conclude that the Enemy mean to overrun us whenever an op- 
portunity shall offer ; but our wants and distresses do not end here, 
we have still a greater which seems to be almost insuperable ; what 
men we have in the field are so naked, that they can render but 
little service, many of them have been ordered into Quarters, and 
the remainder must soon follow unless a supply can be had; every 
method has been tried by the Assembly and executive to furnish 
them, but with very little success, not more than 300 suits of 
cloaths and about as many blankets have been obtained, tho' we 



26 Tylee^s Quarterly Magazine 

have made use of impress where it was necessary. The assembly 
have passed a bill for raising 3000 men, I think we may expect 
at least 2500 from the law, but without cloaths, &c., they will 
also be useless; next to Congress we look up to you for assistance, 
not doubting but you will do every thing within your line to 
forward the service. 

Since the above, congress have taken into tlieir consideration 
the subject of the Southern defence, and have agreed on several 
resolutions which I understand have been forwarded to you; I 
hope they will not derange any plans that you may have formed, 
for you may depend on it less will not save the Southern states. 
If the supplies expected by congress should arrive to the East- 
ward, we hope you will devise ways to get the proportion assigned 
us sent on, for without your interposition, but little of them will 
probably fail to our share. I should most certainly have waited 
on you at Camp if your journey eastward had not prevented me, 
where I could have explained our wants and difficulties more fully, 
than I can by letter, but it being impossible for me to wait your 
return, I use the only method now left, that of enclosing to you 
the several papers I have with me whicli will throw some light on 
the subject. I wish you every felicity and success, and am with 
the 

Most perfect friendship, &c., 
B. H. 
To Gen. Washington. 

[Endorsed] Ben Harrison, 
Feb. 16, 1781. 

Benjamin Harrison to The President of Congress 

Philadelphia, Feb. 22, 1781. 
Sir: 

I had it in express charge from the State of Virginia to press 
your honorable Body in the strongest terms to give immediate 
orders for the removal of the Saratoga Prisoners out of the State. 
I took the liberty to lay before the Committee appointed to con- 
fer with me, the many cogent reasons that induced the Assembly 



Benjamin Hareison''s Mission to Philadelphia 27 

to give me such directions, and had my hopes that this business 
would have been done on the favorable report made, but I am this 
moment informed that this part of it is postponed. I hope I shall 
not be thought to intrude on Congress by requesting them to call 
the subject again into consideration: The members of the Com- 
mittee will I make no doubt give the many reasons I urged for 
the measure, from which I am induced to hope Congress will im- 
mediately order their removal. The great distress of our officers. 
Prisoners in New York, has been made known to our Assembly, 
they wish most earnestly to relieve them, but have it not in their 
power, without Congress will give a sanction to their sending 
some of the Commodities of the Country to be sold in New Yoik 
for that purpose. Specie is so scarce in the State that it is not 
to be obtained but at such an exhorbitant discount that no country 
on earth can bear it, add to this the certain tendancy that buying 
it will have in depreciating the new Continental money; I beg 
leave to request the favor of Congress to take the subject into con- 
sideration and enable me to lay their determination before oui 
Assembly which Avill be sitting when I return, 
I have the honor to be 

With, &c. 

B. Harrison. 



28 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine 



CORRESPONDEXCE OF COL. JAMES WOOD. 

These papers are selected from a number in the State Library, 
all formerly in the possession of Col. Wood, though all do not seem 
to be addressed to him. He was son of James Wood, founder of 
Winchester. He filled many important offices including that of 
Governor. In 1778 he was appointed to the command of Bur- 
goyne's imprisoned army, and held command at Charlottesville, 
and at Winchester, when they were removed to that place. In 
1782 he was appointed President of the Board of Arrangements 
of the Virginia Line, created by a resolution of Congress. For an 
excellent sketch of Col. Wood, see Hayden, Virginia Genealogies, 
pp. 4S8-437. 

Long Island, Sept. 12, 1779. 
Dear Sir: 

Your kind favour of the 26th. ultimo which came to hand yes- 
terday, was very consolatory to me at a time when in some measure 
I despaired of my Friends at camp retaining any remembrance of 
me. This despondency I think you will determine not to have 
been ill founded, when I inform that yours are the only lines I 
have been favoured with from my Virginia acquaintances in the 
Army since my arrival here the 19th. last March; except a short 
epistle from L. Smith Esq., received about three days past, and 
that T can but be the more sensible of the ol)ligation I am under to 
you, for restoring me to hopes that I am not yet quite forgotten. 

I return you my thanks for your pleasing information respect- 
ing my family, from whom I have received no letter since last 
May ; I shall be greatly obliged if you will be kind enough to con- 
tinue your inquiries about them and inform me on that head as 
often as you conveniently can. 

Letters from you to Mr. Thomas Towles will be speedily an- 
swered, my last to him and Mrs. Towles was by Col. Matthews, 
who set out on Parole for Virginia about eight days ago and prom- 
ised to touch at my house on his way to Williamsburg. Being 



COERESPONDENCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 29 

then very full it is unnecessary to write them now, if you please 
when opportunity offers you may inform them I am in such per- 
fect health, that it seems to me as if I had acquired a new leave 
to secure me a Terrene abode for a considerable number of years 
yet to come, (accidents excepted) for which I ought to be very 
Thankful when I reflect that once since my being a Captive, the 
old one appeared to be somewhat on the point of expiring. 

My finances being low at present occasioned in some measure 
by my having advanced, out of my little stock of solid coin, small 
sums to sundries which when added together make somthing con- 
siderable at least so to me in my present situation. I am induced 
from that motive as well as from my knowledge of your readiness 
to afford me your friendly aid, to take the advantage of your kind 
offer to serve me by troubling you with the collection of the in- 
closed amounts. General Woodford I am sure will pay at once. 
Capt. Kendall may have probably removed to the south, if so it 
is my desire that you will with paper endeavor to atchieve the 
debt due from him on the best terms you can, as it is not my 
wish to put him to a farthing of unnecessary expence, although 
if our destinies had been reversed in this particular, I think he 
should not have experienced the same neglect from me that I have 
found from him; with respect to Mr. Mills he has been exchanged 
near ten months and I was in hopes to have heard something from 
him ere now, but have not received so much as a scrip although I 
have frequently written him, he is a native of Connecticut, and 
when made a prisoner was brought to Philadelphia, badly wounded 
and appearing to be a worthy young man in distress for want of 
cash, I was induced to advance the sum of £10.17 Pens 
currency to him, not doubting his replacing it as soon as it might 
be in his power ; if you cant otherwise procure the debt, I must 
entreat your using the same method as directed for Capt. Kendall, 
which when they consider it as the only expedient I can use to 
have my own money replaced, and when without too great injus- 
tice to myself I have been as forbearing as was in my power, they 
can not with reason complain. You'l find enclosed an order for £320 



30 Tyler's Qu^ujterly Magazine 

to be used if necessary. Should the paymaster refuse it, apply to 
General Greene or Col. Eob H. Harrison, who I hope will second 
your endeavors to obtain it. 

Your brother is quite hearty, as also the officers here in general. 
Those of your acquaintance desire to be kindly remembered to you. 
I am now to request your tendering my most respectful compli- 
ments to the Virginia Officers ; I can't pretend to enumerate them 
if I should begin where should I end; say to (Major) John Pryor, 
and Capt. John Carter that our friend Capt. Willis is well, and 
that we are determined in future to tease them with long and fre- 
quent miscellaneous epistles, touching on every subject that the 
whirl of fancy may suggest (except those forbidden by our pres- 
ent situation) They probably may prove as tiresome for them 
to peruse as this may to you both to read and perform. 

Be pleased to forward mine to Capt. Smith and believe al- 
ways to find from me an equal return of unfeigned respect and 
esteem with that you express, & have always shown for 

Dear sir, 

Your affectionate hbl servt. 

0. Towles.* 
Major Clarke. 
[Endorsed on back] 

Major Jonathan Clark. 



♦Oliver Towles was son of John Towles of Middlesex Couny and 
Margaret Daniel his wife. Born Sept. 1, 1736, and died 1825. He was 
a lawyer, became at the opening of the war captain of the 6th Va. 
Reg., taken prisoner at Germantown and not exchanged till 1780. 
Commissioned Feb. 12, 1781, Lt. Col. 5th Va. Reg., to rank from 
Feb. 1, 1778, and retired January 1, 1783. After the war he settled in 
Lynchburg. He married Mary, widow of John Smith, of "Rickahock," 
and daughter of Larkin Chew, of Spotsylvania. Thomas Towles 
mentioned in the letter was first cousin, once removed, of Col. Oliver 
Towles. He married Mary Smith, daughter of Col. Towles' wife. At 
the beginning of the Revolution he was Quartermaster to the Caroline 
Militia. After the Revolution he was major of militia and repre- 
sented Spotsylvania Co. in the House of Delegates in 1783, 1784, 1785. 
See Towles Family, Va. Mag., VHI, 320, 428; IX, 198. 324. 433. 



COKRESPONDENCE OF COL. JaMES WoOD 31 

This letter was sent by post to Jonathan Clark, Esq., Com- 
missary Gen. Convention Troops by mistake, and by him forwarded 
to J. W. 

Berkeley, 26th. March, 1780. 
Dear Sir: 

I take the liberty to Eeeommend to you the bearer Capt. Wil- 
liam Cherry, a gentleman who entered the service in the spring 
of 1776, as second Lieut, in Capt. Isaac Beall's company & served 
with as much reputation as any officer of his rank, till the army 
was new modled when he became a supernumerary officer, a cap- 
tain. He is now called into the state service, in the western Regi- 
ment, which are to be embodyed at the post where you command, 
he expects to take his proper command in the Regiment & depends 
much on your seeing justice done him. you probably remember 
him as he served in the Grand Army at the same time you Did. 
I w'd have wrote to Col. Crocket, but have not the honour of being 
acquainted with that gentleman, he will request your interest so 
far as to obtain him proper justice. I can only say sir that he is 
an officer, from his former services which I think entitled to the 
strictest justice, and shall esteem it a particular favour if you'l 
have him placed in his proper rank in the Regiment. 

I have the honour to be sir, your most Obdt. 

Hble Servt. 

Moses Hunter.* 
[Addressed] 

Col. James Wood, Comdt. 
Fav^ by Capt. Cherry at the Barracks, Albermarle. 



♦Moses Hunter served as quartermaster during the Revolution 
and was in the House of Delegates for Berkeley County in 1779 and 
continuously till 1786. From 1785 to 1795 he was clerk of Berkeley 
County. He married Anne, daughter of Gen. Adam Stephen and 
widow of Capt. Alexander Spotswood Dandridge. His daughter, 
Anne Evelina, married Henry St. George Tucker, President of the 
Va. Supreme Court of Appeals. Moses Hunter was uncle of Gen. David 
Hunter, of the U. S. Army. For Hunter Family, see Kennedy, Scldens 
of Virginia and Allied Families, II, 131-153. 



32 Tylee's Quaeteely Magazine 

In the House of Delegates, 

the 9th. June, 1780. 

Resolved that the Governor and Council be requested to issue 
peremptory orders immediately to all the oflficers and soldiers be- 
longing to the Convention Troops who are now absent from the 
Barracks to reapir thither forthwith, and if the future move- 
ments of the Common Enemy indicate a design of rescueing, the 
said Convention Troops, that he also give orders for their re- 
moval to a place of greater security. 

Teste, 

John Beckley C. H. D. 
9 June, 1780, 
Agreed to by the Senate, 

Will Drew C S. 

A copy, John Beckley, C. H. D. 
[Endorsed on back] Resolu. of Assembly 9th. June, 1780. 

In Council, June 9, 1780. 
It liaving been reported tliat the enemy are advancing through 
the enterior Country of North Carolina, and a doul)t arising whether 
they may not mean to attempt a rescue of the Convention Troops, 
the Governor is advised to instruct Col. Wood immediately to call 
in all the said officers and & soldiers to the barracks ; that he have 
everything in readiness to move them over the blue ridge at a 
moments warning; that he post some of his light horses at proper 
intervals from the barracks to the neighborhood of the hostile 
army with orders to convey to him from time to time intelligence 
of their movements and particularly whether they advance towards 
his station ; that whensoever he shall find it necessary he embody 
such proportion of the militia of the county of Albemarle and of 
the counties adjacent thereto as he shall think necessary; that it 
be submitted to him whether it may not be immediately proper, 
without further intelligence to embody and draw to the barracks, 



COKRESPONDEXCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 33 

SO many of the militia of Albemarle as may suffice to guard the 
prisoners on their march, & embody & draw to Eockfish gap so 
many of those of Augusta as may secure that pass and that if it 
should become necessary to remove the said prisoners, the removal 
be in such direction as Col. Wood in his discretion shall think 
most likely to withdraw them from danger. 

A copy Arch. Blair, C. C. 
[Endorsed] Order of Council, 9th. June, 1780. 

Lancaster, July 8, 1781. 
Hon. Sir: 

I this day set out from this place to Connecticut with the 
British & German officers. I expect it will be the last of August 
before I return. I have bin to Alexandria since I left home, oa 
Board of a flag ship sent round from Newyork with money & otlier 
articles for the British Officers. I find it very expensive traveling 
nothing is going in this part of the world but hard money, it is 
so plenty that I have not seen one shilling of paper money since 
I left Virginia, pray endeavor to get me all the hard money you 
possible can, as I meane to continue in the service, & have bor- 
rowed about eight ginneys that I am obliged to pay when I return. 
I would advise you to procure all the hard money you possible 
can for you may depend their will be nothing else going in a short 
time. I think it would be adviseable for you to purchase & make 
all the heamp & tobaco you possible can. Bless God, I am in good 
health, hoping you and the family are hearty, my most particular 
love & comp'ts to you, Mama, brothers, sisters and all friends 
and beleave me, Dear Father & Mother, to be your ever dutiful son, 

John Eoberts.* 

Delkin, five miles of York, 
31th. May, 1777. 
Dear Sir : 

I got to this place in two days from Mr. Gibbs, then I was 
but seven miles Behind Presley. But alas I went to bed and 
never has been out of since, not even to get it made and this the 

♦John Roberts, Major, Culpeper Co. 



34 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

first time I have attempted to sit up with a Prop to my Back, 
I believe you never saw a man more Reduced in the time. From 
a late order of Genral Wasliington's it will be requisit for yr. 
Brother to proceed to camp, for not a Capt. nor any other officei 
can Draw a farthing of pay for his compy. nor pay them, the 
pay master is to pay every soldier and officer in the Regt. and our 
men has now 3 month's due. They will grumbel if not paid soon. 
I think it would not be amis to send of [f] tlie quarter master and 
adjutent. I am told by some officers from the camp they alwas 
march with the fir.^t division and it is wondered at that yours have 
not gone and you and myself likewise. 

Yr. Ilumb. Serv. 

John Xevill* 
[Endorsed on back] To Colin. James Wood. 

Since I wrote the within I heard a fine complement paid you. 
Ma jr. Lyne, Mr. Kinkeade & myself, some gentry that meet 
Presley & his company, was speaking of the Ohio Regiment as 
they call it, below, and what a fine one it was and what a Pittey 
Coll. Morgan & his field officers and Adjutant had not had that 
Regt. What service it might have been to the States; they were 
in the next room. I made no answer to it. I have at length got 
a Doctr. who tells me it is the Right Camp fever I have. 

New Castle, 
6th. August, 1781. 
Dr. Sir: 

Since my letter to you, through Wm. McHenry, enclosing 
Commodore Barron's report, the last spoken of entered York 
River and landed their Troops. They are fortifying on the Glo- 
cester Side, and have made a place of armes of York. Lord 
Cornwallis is present with his whole army. The Garrison of 
Portsmouth Excepted — It appears that a part of this fleet was 
originally intended for New York; but a dispatch arriving from 
General Clinton produced the present arrangement; It is very 
essential to vour safetv that we should be in force here, for this 



♦John Nevill, Colonel, Berkeley Co. 



COERESPONDEXCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 35 

purpose I have ordered on all the lines with the utmost expedition. 
But I would beg leave to observe that Maryland might make some 
disposition for her own defence. The enemy do not lose sight of 
Baltimore; and they may only wait for a more favorable moment. 
You are on the spot and acquainted with its strength, and of 
course know best what measures should be taken. In all cases, 
you will take care of the Publick Stores. 
I am, Dr. Sr, 

Your Obdt., 6>^SS04 

Layfayette. 
Brig. Genl. Gist. 
[Endorsed] Copy 

M. Layfayette, 6th. Aug. 1781. 

Feildenea (?), July 30th, 1783. 
Dear Sir: 

Since I parted with you last afternoon a matter has occurred to 
me whicli may not be amiss to mention ; If it be the design of those 
which have the direction of British prisoners, within this State to 
confine them, I will provide land for that purpose, within five 
miles of F. Town, paying me only for the timber necessary for stock- 
ade, &c, and deliver them cord word at 7/6 per cd. ; the value of 
building timber I will leave to yourself and make no charge for 
the land during the war. 

Soon after the prisoners now at Frederick arrived there, Dr. 
Thomas informed me that he received orders from our Governor 
to stockade the Barracks, but found a difficulty in providing tim- 
ber as he was not supplyed with money for that purpose; on my 
telling him that he might be supplyed from my land a number 
of wood cutters went to worke, untill their superintendent thought 
they had what was sufficient, some of which has been taken away 
and a considerabl part yet remains. 

At your return to Virginia I flatter myself with the pleasure of 
seeing you here. I wish you a good journey and remain, 
Your respectful hum. Sert. 

F. Gaunt. 
[Endorsed] 

Col. James Wood, F. Town. 



36 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine 

Orange, July 26, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

I am making my account for depreciation of pay while I served 
in the Regiment guarding the convention prisoners, and as it 
may be required by the Auditor of Public accounts to have it certi- 
fied by you when that service ended, I will thank you to certify the 
same & enclose to me which my brother Edmund Taylor will con- 
vey to me. 

On the 8 June, 1781, the Convention Prisoners arrived at Wat- 
kins's ferry, and the Officers of the Regiment Guards were per- 
mitted to return, but being on foot and living at great distances 
from that place, I told them to make their pay to the loth. The 
9th. June, I delivered the troops at Hagars Town in Maryland 
and waited on my return at Winchester for your arrival, which was 
the 15 of June, when you informed me I might depart & the next 
day I left Winchester. I have charged my pay to 15 June, 1781, 
to which date please certify my being in the Regiment. Please 
present my compliments to Mrs. Wood, and believe me to be, Dr, 
Sr, 

Your most Hble servant, 

Fra. Taylor. 
[Endorsed on Back] Col. James Wood, 

Frederick County. 
Favour of Mr. Taylor. 

Camp Ashley-hill, So. Carolina, 
Novem. 7th. 1782. 
Sir: 

Lest the gentlemen I have wrote to may not be at the arrange- 
ment, and you being commanding officer in Virginia, I have taken 
the Liberty to address a line to you. 

My secular affairs is such that with the wretched provision 
our country makes for us, I find that my continuing in service 



CORRESPOXDEXCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 37 

disables me from making that provision for my family, which 
duty requires, and would therefore wish to avail myself the privi- 
lege of retiring from service as of necessity many of my rank 
must, for want of commands. 

To enter into a detail of my circumstances would not be enter- 
taining to you, and must be painful to myself, — I wish therefore 
to bespeak your attention to this my request, & hope it will be in 
the power of you & the Board to grant me a respite that will put 
it in my power to endeavor to make some provision for the sup- 
port of myself & family. 

I also hope the officers in general will be actuated by princi- 
ples more generous than that of the thirst of the Junior officers for 
promotion should oblige those whose circumstances makes it neces- 
sary, they should embrace the opportunity of retiring either td 
ressign or serve to their utter ruin, and that the consideration of 
an officer persevering to continue in the army, from the commence- 
ment of the war to this date, will also have its due weight. 

I flatter myself you will not think this letter an intrusion. 
And that all the attention consistant with the good of the ser- 
vice will be paid to my requisition. 

With perfect respect, esteem & regard, I am Dear General, 
your most Hum. Servt. 

Ro. Gamble, Capt. 8 Va. R. 
Genl. Muhlenberg. 

[Addressed] The Hon. Brigadier Genl. Muhlenberg, Virginia. 
[Endorsed on back] 
Fav'd by Capt. Shelton. 

Capt. Gamble's letter. 

Dear Coll: 

I received your letter with the Governor's Warrant the 23rd. 
of last month, since which time I have done every thing in my 
power to answer the trust you was pleased to repose in me. I 
have collected a good quantity of hay, corn in plenty, flour in 
abundance. Beef & Pork scarce. I have got about 30 head of 
cattle and have about 6,000 wt. of beef yet. Shall provide as 
much more as possible, but I had sent a small drove to the com- 



38 Tyxee^s Quarterly Magazine 

missary general just before I reed, your letter. The expectation 
of the Convention Troops staying here prevented us from send- 
ing down the flour we had on hand. Pray let me know if you 
please, whether I am to expect any troops stationed here this 
winter, or whether I had better send what flour is on hand to 
Alexandria. I have stabling & forrage for 20 or 30 horses, (turn) 
I will be exceeding glad to see you here, and if you can make 
it convenient should be glad to hear by a letter before, that I 
might be at home; but should it not be in your way, be so kind 
as write on the above to 

Dear Coll. 

Your most obedt. and most hum'l Servt, 
James McCalister. 

Martinsburg, 

the 15 Deem. 1780; 
Coll. "Wood at Frederick Town. 

X. B. Please to let me know how much I am to give the 
wagons pr day that is in the service. 

J. Mc. 
[Addressed] Col. James Wood, 
Commanding at 

Frederick Town. 

Gentlemen : 

I concieve myself much injured in Rank by the arrangements 
that have formerly been made in the Virginia Line, but have not 
hitherto had it in my power to represent the claim I am entitled 
to. For I was ordered on command to Tarry-Town the day the 
Board of Field Officers began to arrange the line in 1778 at White 
Plains, and was not relieved until the Army marched from thence ; 
which excluded me the opportunity other officers had to state their 
claim. A Board I have been informed sat at Middle-Brook the 
winter following. Then it was my fate to be in Virginia. 

At Chesterfield in Feb. 1781, I was in command with the 
Militia near Portsmouth and was unavoidably detained so long, 



COREESPONDENCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 39 

that before I got back, a preliminary article was made to govern 
that arrangement — That the Board would hear no claim respect- 
ing rank, but that the former arrangements would be their guide, 
to that purpose. 

The opportunity which now offers of having justice done gives 
me pleasure, and wish it were in my power to wait on you person- 
ally, as perhaps some explanations may be necessary, that being 
impracticable, I beg the Honbl. Gentlemen will bear with me 
whilst I give them the following representations. 

The assembly of Virginia in the fall session of 1776, when 
the six additional Regiments were ordered to be raised, Resolved 
that the five companies then in service on the Western waters, 
should compose part of the twelfth regiment, viz : Captn. Wag- 
goners, Ashby's, M. Bowyers, Arbuckles & McKee's companies, and 
that five more Captains should be appointed to compleat the Eegi- 
ment, which was done, viz, Capt. Mitchell, Vause, Langdon, Mad- 
dison and Thos. Bowyer. Wallace, Zane, Casey & myself were 
the senior Lieutenants. Capt. Arbuckle & McKee, refused to join 
the army, this of course made two vacancies for promotion of 
Lieuts. And Lieut. Wallace who joined the army in Octo. 1777, 
with a detachment of men that he & the officers with him, pro- 
vailed on to go with them, got his commission, I have understood 
dated in the Month of March, on the day the two mentioned cap- 
tains refused marching; this was filling up one vacancy. From 
the same principle, Lieut. Zane ought to have succeeded to the 
other, but he resigned about the first of August, 1777, which is the 
date Lieut. Casey's commission ought to have been, hut he had 
been sent on command to Virginia in June 1778, and did not re- 
turn till the winter. And during the stay of the Army at Middle- 
Brook, he died. As he and myself were the persons principally 
concerned, and neither being at the first Arrangement to state 
these circumstances. The Board for want of information, or in- 
attention (I must suppose), promoted Casey to the rank of Gap- 
tain only, at the resignation of Mitchell on the first day of Sep- 
tember, 1777, which most undoubtedly is the date that my com- 
mission ought to be of. 



40 Tylee^s Quakterly Magazine 

Thus I have endeavored to state facts, which I presume will 
give you Gentlemen, such information, (with what can be learned 
from the officers of that Eegiment) as will enable you to judge 
clearly. 

I have the firmest reliance on the justice & candour which 
influences the Board and believe the gentlemen will give the 
feelings of a soldier injured in rank its proper weight, as they 
are susceptible of those delicate sensations. And if they think 
with me that my commission ought to be dated the Ist day of 
September, 1777. The argument that this matter will introduce 
other claims that may give them trouble, will not have weight 
enough to prevent them doing justice, but I believe there is not a 
a case samiliar to mine, all vacancies in other Regiments having 
been duly attended to. 

Neither can the plea that Capt. Casey would have had no com- 
mand be admitted. As the Regiment was the nearest being com- 
plete in numbers of any of the Six, and Captain Waggoners Com- 
pany alone consisted of a number nearly sufficient for two com- 
panies. 

I have the honor to be Gentlemen with the highest sentiment 
of esteem & respect. 

Your most humb. Servt. 

Eo. Gamble, Capt. 8th. Virg Reg. 

Camp Ashly-Hill, S. Carolina, 

7th. Novemr. 1782. 
[Endorsed on back] 

Captain Gamble's letter. 
[Addressed] The Honbl. The President, and Board of Officers, 

for Arrangeing the Virginia Line. 

Dr. General : 

I have the pleasure to inform you, that your friends in Phila- 
delphia were all well a few days ago. I called on your brother 
but he was out, and had not the pleasure of seeing him to get his 
comands to you. Constable desired me to give his particular re- 
spects to you and begs you'l write him. General Weedon shewed 
me your orders directing all the officers of the Va. line to api)ear 



Correspondence of Col. James Wood 41 

at Winchester; as I have publick business to settle, for the trans- 
action as Q master to the marquis' Army, it will not be in my 
power to attend, therefore must entreat your friendship to act 
for me as you think most advisable. My claim is from the resolu- 
tion of congress when they determined that every regiment com- 
manded by Lieut. Col. commandant should have two majors; as 
being the eldest captain of Dragoons belonging to the State Vir- 
ginia, I claimed a majority which the Baron Steuben gave me the 
command as such in the First Regt. Dragoon, which I believe you 
were made acquainted with, some dispute arose respecting the 
rank of officers of the Cavalry, which has never been settled to 
this day ; as the matter was unsettled & Col. Washington in- 
sisted on my joining his regt. as Capt., or to relinquish my claimT 
as such in his regiment; being sensible of the propriety of my 
claim as Major, I gave him from under my hand, that unless I had 
the rank of a Major which I knew myself to be entitled to, given 
me, that I would no longer claim the rank of an officer in his 
regt., and that he might conceive it as a resignation from that 
date, which was some time in March/81. Just before I joined the 
Marquis, who drew me into the scrape of Q. Master, which I have 
been eternally pestered with ever since, by application to the Com- 
mander in chief, and congress, who at last have determined that 
I should deliver the whole transaction over to Col. Carrington. 
I must beg your pardon for pestering you with a detail of my af- 
fairs, but as I have so often experienced your friendship, it has 
induced me to take this liberty. I shall remain at Petersburg 
for some time in order to get all my publick accounts adjusted, 
should you have any comands in that quarter, I shall be very happy 
to execute them, pray write me by the first oppty. 

I am dear sir. 

Yours affecty.. 

Cad Jones. 

Fredivsburg, December 9, 1782. 

P. S. My appointment by the Baron was in Dec. 80 and I believe 
the resolution of congress which entitled me to a Majority was in 
October or Xovember/80. 



42 Tylek^s Quarterly Magazine 

[Endorsed on back] Capt. Cad Jones' letter. 
[Addressed] The Hon. General Muhlenberg, 
To the care Genl. Weedon. 

Winchester. 

Rockey Mills, 8th. Jan. 1783. 
Dear Sir: 

I have been advised by many gents, & partly by Doctor Walker, 
to apply to you for two Hessian Stone masons, and which I now do 
by Mr. Paul Woolfolk, & have sent by him One Hundred & eighty 
dollars, the price as I am informed of two. However, should it 
not be quite sufficient, if he wishes to take another tradesman, or 
two, I will confirm it, & pay any further moneys into the treasury 
immediately, or in any manner you chuse. I Doubt not your 
shewing Mr. Woolfolk all the countenances you can, & being of 
any assistance consistent with your office ; being with much 
Esteem, 

Dear Sir, 

Your Mo. obedt. Servt. 
J. Syme.* 



[Addressed] Col. James Wood at 

By Mr. P. Woolfolk ; Winchester. 

Dear Cousin : 

I am sorry I did not know that you were at the Springs before 
Mr. Blackburn went up, if I had you certainly would have had 
a scroll from me. I heard that you could not go on account of 
Mrs. Kincades illness at your house. I heard she had lost a little 
one and was very ill, pray let me know [how] she does by this 



*This was Col. John Syme, half brother of Patrick Henry. He 
served for many years in the House of Delegates and the Senate. He 
married Mildred Meriwether, dau. Nicholas Meriwether, Jr. He had 
issue John Syme, Jr., Nicholas Syme and Sarah Syme, who married 
Col. Samuel Jordan Cabell. For Syme Family, see Wm. and Mary 
Coll. Quarterly, XI, 77, 78. 



CORRESPONDEXCE OF CoL. JaMES WoOD 43 

opportunity. I write this by the hession doctor whom I recom- 
mend to you as a good physician, and a sensible man, he has 
practiced in our family with great success. I'm sorry to hear 
that you and your poor little girl stand so much in need of a 
Doctor, but hope to hear of Cols, safe return, which I am sure 
will cure you. The sattin I told you of was sold before I got down 
but sould (should) there any thing else in this part of the 
world that I could lay the money out in for you, please let me 
know, if not I will send the money up by the first safe hand, let 
me know how you liked Mrs. Redeout and the rest of the strangers 
at the springs this season. Please remember me affly to Mrs. 
Wood and ^Yhite and Mrs. Kincade, Mr. Brent goes up with the 
hession, write by him and believe me your ever afft. cousin and 

Humble Servant, 

C. Blackburne.* 



[Addressed] Mrs. Woode, AYinchester. 

Winchester, Decembr. 29th, 1782'. 
Gentn. 

As my rank is not settled as I think is my right, or at least 
as it was settled by the board of warr at Philadelphia, I shall be 
glad to retire. I have served my country under this hardship this 
three years past and I believe it is well known as faithfully as 
any officer in the line to this day. Circumstances being so, never 
could have a hearing before now, indeed I thought my right so 
just that it would have bore no dispute, however if this reason is 
not sufficient for my retirement I shall expect all the older of- 
ficers of our line. I mean the Capts., will not be at liberty to retire 



*C. Blackburn was, before her marrlnge with Lt. Col. Thomas 
Blackburn, Christian Scott, daughter of Rev. James Scott. Mrs. Wood 
was Jean Moncure, daughter of Rev. John Moncure and wife of Col. 
James "Wood. For notice of these interesting ladies, see Hayden, 
Virginia Genealogies. 



44 Tyi.ek's Quaktekly Magazine 

as very few of them who are of a senior rank to me have done 
but very little duty for a long time past. 

I am gentn. your obed't. Hble Servt. 
Thos. Bowyer, Capt. 
Colo. Wood, presid't. of the Board of 
arangement. 
[Endorsed] 
Capt. Bowyer's letter. 

Capt. Jas. Wood, Presidt. of the Board of Arangement. 



BERKELEY COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA. 

\ 

By an act of the Virginia Legislature, February, 1772, the 
counties of Berkeley and Dunmore were separated from Frederick 
County, and given a separate organization. In 1777 Dunmore 
County received the name of Shenandoah. 

Berkeley County bordered on the Potomac River in the most 
beautiful part of the Valley of Virginia. 

The first court was held May 19, 1772, at the house of Edward 
Beeson, and the justices commissioned by his excellency Lord 
Dunmore, were Ralph Wormeley, Jacob Hite, Van Swearingen, 
Thomas Rutherford, Adam Stephen, John Xeavill, Thomas Swear- 
ingen, Samuel Washington, James Nourse, William Little, Robert 
Stephen, John Briscoe, Hugh Lyle, James Strode, William Mor- 
gan, Robert Stogden, James Seaton, Robert Carter Willis and 
Thomas Robinson. 

Ralph Wormeley, John Xevill, Samuel Washington, James 
Nourse, William Little, John Briscoe, James Strode, James Seaton, 
Robert Carter Willis, and perhaps Thomas Robinson, came from 
the country east of the Blue Ridge mountains, and if they are to 
be taken as an index they show the presence in the Valley of a 
large emigration from the eastward. 

In 1801 the County of Jefferson was formed from Berkeley. 



Berkeley County, West Virginia 45 

It contained three towns well know to history, Sheph.erdstown, 
Charlestown and Harpers Ferry. 

At this first court held for Berkeley County, William Drew, 
having produced a commission from Thomas Xelson, Esq., the 
Secretary of State, was sworn clerk. Adam Stephen was sworn 
sheriff and Samuel Oldham under sheriff. James Keith, John 
Magill, George Brent, George Johnston, Philip Pendleton and 
Alexander White produced licenses to practise law. 

Alexander White, having produced a commission, was sworn 
King's deputy attorney, he having first taken the usual oaths to 
his majesty's person, the abjuration oath and repeated and sub- 
scribed the test. 

In the clerk's office of Berkeley County, at Martinsburg, are 
recorded the wills and deeds of many distinguished persons, who 
at different times resided in the county. 

1. Will of James Bumsey, Inventor of the Steamboat. 

Being in sound health, boath of body and mind, I make and or- 
dain this my last will and testament. Item, it is my will that all 
my estate, both real and personal, shall be devised as followeth, towit: 
One third to my affectionate wife and the remainder to be divided into 
equal shares, two of which to be given to my son James, as soon as 
he shall be of the age of Twenty-one years, one Do to be given to 
my daughter Susanna, as soon as she arrives at the age of eighteen, 
or gets married, to the satisfaction and with the approbation of Mary 
Rumsey, Edward Rumsey, Mary Morrow and Joseph Barnes; one 
other share to be given to my daughter Clarissa, at the same age, and 
under the same restrictions of Susannah, and the last share or fourth 
to come to Edward Rumsey, Junr, at my death. I also ordain him my 
executor of this my will. The children to be Educated in as ample a 
manner as the income of their estates will allow. In Testimony of 
this my will I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal this fif- 
teenth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty eight. 

James Rumsey. 

Witnessed in the presents of 

Benjamin Wynkoop 

Joseph Wynkoop. 

Proved and recorded in the office of George Campbell, Esq., 
Register of the probate of wills in the City and County of Philadelphia 



46 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

26 March, 1793. Isaac Wampole D. Regr. Letters of adm. issued to 
Edward Rumsey, Jr. 

This will duly authenticated by the Register of the City of Phila- 
delphia was presented to the Court of Berkeley Co. "by Edward Rum- 
sey, the exor therein named, who made oath thereto, according to law, 
and ordered to be recorded; certificate is granted him for obtaining a 
probate thereof in due form. Given security with Nicholas Orcutt and 
Smith Slaughter, who entered into and acknowledged bond in the 
penalty of 2000 pounds, conditioned for his true and faithful admn. 
of said Decedent's Estate." 

2. Will of Major General Charles Lee: 

I, Major-General Charles Lee, of the County of Berkeley, in the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, being in perfect health and of sound mind 
considering the certainty of death and the uncertainty of time it may 
happen, have determined to make this my last will and testament in 
manner following, that is to say, I give and bequeath to Alexander 
White, Esq. one hundred guineas, in consideration of the zeal and 
integrity he has displayed in the administration of my affairs; also 
the choice of any two of my colts or fillies under four years of age. 

Item — I give and bequeath to Charles M. Thruston Esq., fifty guin- 
eas in consideration of his good qualities and the friendship he has 
manifested for me; and to Buckner Tliruston, his son I leave all my 
books as I know he will make good use of them. To my friend John 
Mercer Esq., of Marlborough, in Virginia, I give and bequeath the 
choice of two brood mares, of all my swords and pistols and ten guineas 
to buy a ring. I would give him more, but, as he has a good estate and 
a better genius, he has sufficient, if he knows how to make good use 
of them. 

I give and bequeath to my former Aid-de-Camp, Otway Bird, 
the choice of another brood mare and ten guineas for the same pur- 
pose of a remembrance ring. I give and bequeath to my worthy 
friend, Colonel William Grayson, of Dumfries, the second choice of 
two colts and to my excellent friend Wm. Steptoe, of Va., I would 
leave a gread deal, but as he is so rich, it would be no less than rob- 
bing my other friends who are poor. I, therefore, entreat that he 
will accept of five guineas which I bequeath to him to purchase a 
ring of affection. 

I bequeath to my old and faithful servant, or rather humble 
friend, Guiseppi Minghini, three hundred guineas, with all my horses, 
mares and colts of every kind, those above mentioned excepted. Like- 
wise, all my wearing apparel and plate, my wagons and tools of agri- 
culture, and his choice of four milch cows. 

I bequeath to Elizabeth Dunn, my housekeeper, one hundred 



Bekkeley Cou>'Ty, West Virgixia 47 

guineas and my whole stock of cattle, the lour milch cows above 
mentioned only excepted. I had almost forgot my old friends (and 
I ought to be ashamed of It) Mrs. Shippen, her son Thomas Shippen, 
and Ttomas Lee, Esq., of Bellview, I beg they will except ten guineas 
each to buy rings of affection. 

My Landed Estate of Berkeley I devise may be divided into three 
equal parts acording to quality and quantity. One-third part I devise 
to my dear friend Jacob Morres of Philadelphia, one-third part to 
Evan Edwards, both my former Aids-de-camp, and to their heirs 
and assigns; and the other thirt part I devise to Eleazor Oswald, at 
present at Philadelphia, and William Goddard, of Baltimore, to whom 
I am under obligations, and to their heirs or assigns, to be equally 
divided between them. But these devises are not to enter until they 
have paid off the several legacies above mentioned, with interest 
from the time of my death, and all taxes which may be due on my 
estate. 

In case I should sell my said landed estate, I bequeath the price 
thereof, after paying the above said legacies, to the said Jacob 
Morres, Evan Edwards. Eleazor Oswald and William Goddard, in the 
proportion above mentioned. 

All the slaves, which I may be possessed of at the time of my 
decease, I bequeath to Guiseppi Minghini, and Dunn, to be equally 
divided between them. 

All my other property of every kind and in every part of the 
world after my decease, (funeral charges and necessary expenses of 
administration are paid) I give, devise and bequeath to my sister 
Sidney Lee, her heirs and assigns forever. 

I desire most earnestly that I may not be buried in any church or 
churchyard, or within a mile of any Presbyterian or any Baptist 
Meeting house. For since I have resided in this country I have 
kept so much bad company wben living that I do not choose to con- 
tinue it when dead. I recommend my soul to the Creator of all 
worlds and of all creatures, who must from his visible attributes be in- 
different to their modes of worship or creeds, whether Christians, Mo- 
hammedans or Jews, whether justified by education or taken up by 
reflection, whether more or less absurd; as a weak mortal can no more 
be answerable for his persuasions or notions or even skepticism in 
re-igion than for the color of his skin. 

And I do appoint the above mentioned Alexander White and 
Charles Minn Thruston, executors of my last will and testament, and 
do revoke all other wills by me heretofore made. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 



48 Tylek^s Quarterly Magazi]s:e 

day of in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven 



hundred and eighty-two (1782) 

CHAS. LEE (SEAL) 

Signed, sealed, published and declared by the said Major-General 
Chas. Lee as for his last will and testament, in the presence of Jas. 
Smith, Samuel Swearington, Wm. Goddard. 

At a Court held for Berkeley County this 15th day of April 1783. 
This last will and testament of Charles Lee, deceased was presented 
in Court by Alexander White one of the Executors herein named who 
made oath thereto according to law and the same being proved to be 
executed on the fourth day of September 1782 by the oath of James 
Smith and Samuel Swearington, two of the witnesses thereto, and 
ordered to be recorded. And on the motion of the said Executor who 
entered into Bond with Adam Stephen, Esquire, his security, in the 
Penalty of twenty Thousand pounds conditioned for his true and 
faithful administration of the said Estate, certificate is granted him 
for obtaining a probate thereof, in due form of law. 

Teste: — 

Will Drew, Clk. 

I, Paul H. Martin, Clerk of the County Court of Berkeley County, 
W. Va., do certify that the above is a true, correct and accurate copy 
of the will of Major-General Charles Lee, as it appears in Will Book 
No. 1, page 308, a record Book of my office. 

Given under my hand and seal his 3rd day of Feb. 1921. 

Paul H. Martin. 

3. Deeds of Major General Horatio Gates. 

General Gates lived at "Travellers Rest," purchased from Joseph 
Crabb and Mary his wife by deeds of lease and release dated the 15th 
and 16th March 1773. The estate lays in that part of Berkeley County 
which was later Jefferson County. It contained about 720 acres, and 
was sold on his leaving the county for New York to John Mark of 
Shepherdstown, Sept. 14, 1790. On August 26 of that year he sold to 
Mark, for 800 pds current money, six negroes to be free March 1, 
1795, 11 negroes to serve until 28 years of age, and a mulatto named 
Titura, to be free at 21, and also six horses and four colts, one bull, 
77 cows and calves. 45 hogs, 16 shoats and a number of pigs, 19 sheep, 
and ten lambs, besides sundry household and farming utensils. Gates 
was a great friend of John Mark, who came from Ulster in Ireland 
to the Valley, first taught school, and later prospered as a merchant. 
They were in the habit of familiar correspondence, and several of 
Gates' letters to Mark, on domestic and general subjects were pub- 
lished many years ago in early issues of the New York Home Journal. 



Berkeley County^ West Vieginia 49 

About 1800 John Mark moved to Fredericksburg, and there took the 
leading part in the establishment of the first Presbyterian Church in 
that Cit>;. Chiefly through him Samuel B. Wilson, a native of Ulster, 
like himself, was induced to come from North Carolina in 1806 to 
be the minister. In a letter, dated January 18, 1812, Mark speaks of 
our just getting into our "New Church," which was "well finished 
and situated." John Mark's daughter Anne married Hon. John 
Baker, a distinguished lawyer of Shepheidstown, and a Federalist 
member of Congress from 1811 to 1813. In 1786, Anne Baker was a 
passenger with Gen Horatio Gates, and others on James Rumsey's 
boat, when he demonstrated the possibility on the Potomac River of 
propelling a vessel against a current by steam. Her daughter Anne 
married Gov. Thomas Walker Gillmer and there is a pretty little 
silver pitcher preserved by one of Anne Mark's descendants, and it 
has A. M. engraven upon it.] 

OTHER WILLS— AND RECORDS— ABSTRACTS.* 

John Hite, datpa 25 Oct. 1776, proved 18 Mch., 1777. To wife 
Sarah half of the plantation on which he now lives, the other half 
to son Jacob O'Bannon, who shall also have all lands in West 
Augusta. "Inasmuch as my father has been killed by the hand of 
Violence, & it is probable he left no will behind him, whereby the 
inheritance of his lands will descend to me, but as brotherly affection 
will not permit me &c, if my brothers and sisters will be at equal 
expence in securing the right & title to that tract of land in So. 
Carolina, lying in the Indian Country within the State of South 
Carolina, Part whereof being an undivided tract held by my father 
under a deed granted by the Cherokee Nation to Richard Pearis, the 
said Pearis" son, and my father, and part whereof being a purchase 
from John Neville &c;" children Jacob O'Bannon, Mary Catherine 
and the infant unbaptized; sisters Mary and Elizabeth. Executors: 
Rev. Daniel Sturgis, Tavana Beale, Thomas Rutherford, William Gibbs, 
and James Keith. 

. . Thomas Hite, dated 22 Sept., 1776, proved 17 Augt., 1779, names 
wife Frances, and mentions children without naming them. Execu- 
tors: Wife, James Ruth, James Nourse and Dolphin Drew. The ap- 
praisement shows the following books: Dictionary of the Arts and 
Sciences £32; Bailey's Dictionary £8; Ainsworth's Dictionary 
£15; Cole's Dictionary £6; Josephus, 4 vols. £12; Elements of Navi- 
gation, 2 vols., £6; Davidson's Virgil. 2 vols., £5; Smart's Horace 2 



*Where it is not otherwise stated, a will is intended. 



50 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

vols., £4; Pamela, 4 vols., £4; Rambler, 6 vols, £6; Guardian, 2 
vols., £3; Pennington's Letters, 2 vols. £1.10; Shenstone's works, 2 
vols. £2; Amelia and Sophia, 2 vols. £2; Adventures of a Guinea, 2 
vols. £2; Nature Displayed, 7 vols. £10; Browne's works, 4 vols. £4; 
Beauties of the Spectator, 2 vols. £3; Country Maid, 2 vols. £1.10; 
Lydia, 2 vols. £1; Hbi. Quality, 3 vols. £1.10; Eaton's Book of Rates, 

3 vols. £3; Generous Britain, 10s.; Country Cousins, 10s.; History of 
Elija, 10s.; Bondes Principal, £1.10. Seneca's Morals, £2; The Art 
of Speaking, £1.10; Brown on Liberty, 10s.; Farmers Forms of Rent, 
lOs. ; Virtuous Widow, 10s.; The Adopted Daughter, £1.10; Long's 
Word, 10s.; Correct Junr, 10s.; Extract of the History of England, 
£1; Intriguing Coxcomb, 10s.; Young Man's Best Companion, £1; 
Pardan's Arithmetick, £1; Religious Courtship, 10s.; An Introduction 
for Making Latin, £1; Book of Interest, 10s.; The Words of the Wise, 
£5; Bible, £2; Church Catechism Explained, 5s.; Flask's Justice bound, 
£3; Ditto unbound, £2; Sundres Single Plays, £2; Cook on Arith- 
metick, 10s.; Common Prayer Book, 10s.; Desk and Book Case, £120. 

George Tabb. dated Augt. 23, 1820, proved 9 Nov., 1829. Names 

4 elder children, Edward, John, Anne Patterson, wife of George Pat- 
terson, wife Anne Tabb and six young children Bailey, Seaton E, 
Mary, Elizabeth, Mildred and Hariot Ann: Exos., Wife Anne and 
son Bailey. 

Robert Tnbb's Account Current. 1775-1780; Tabbs mentioned: — 
Susannah Tabb, Elizabeth Tabb, Bailey Tabb, Seaton Tabb, Thomas 
Tabb, Robert Tabb and Edward Tabb. 

Thomas Rutherford, jr., dated 6 July, 1780, proved 25 July, 1790. 
Names wife Mary, to whom 2 lots in Charlestown &c, one where I 
now dwell, purchased of Dr. Tiffen, and the other purchased of Rich- 
ard Montzall; to wife all household furniture; all other estate to be 
sold and placed at interest till daughter Sarah comes of age; men- 
tions partnership with brother Van Rutherford, and purchase made 
from John Griffith, eldest son of Robert Griffith, deceased; wife Mary; 
father Thomas Rutherford & worthy friend William Darke. 

Henry Van Mater. Sen., dated March 3, 1790, proved 17 Deer., 
1793. Names son Nathaniel, to whom all landed estate in Berkeley 
County, as well as the plantation on which I now live; other sons, 
Henry and John, daughter Alice, wife Elizabeth, sons Joseph and 
Nathaniel; Executors, son Nathaniel and William Garrett. A tract 
of land, west side of Ohio river in Indian Country, & devolved to me 
by the death of my son Joseph bequeathed to son Joshua, & another 
tract in Suffering(?) Valley that also belonged to my son Joseph 
bequeathed to grandson Joseph, son of son Nathaniel 

Accounts current of the estate of Robert Rutherford, dec. by his 



Berkeley County, West Virginia 51 

widow Elizabeth, examined and reported by Joseph Swearingen. 
Feb 16, 1795. 

John Baker, dated 3d Sept, 1795, proved 26 June 1798. Witnessed 
by William Brooks, George S. Washington and Nathaniel Craghill. 
Names son John, and seven daus. Ann, Gary, Sucka, Polly, Peggy, 
Elce and Juliet. [This was John Baker, Sr., who married Judith 
Wood, and was father of Hon. John Baker. See Baker Family in 
WiUiayn and Mary College Quarterly, Vol. VI., pp. 94-97.] 

Johti Gerrnrd, dated August 19, 1787, proved 18 Sept., 1787. Names 
wife Mary, and children Daniel, John, Josiah, Nathaniel, William, 
Jonathan, Isaac, Phebe, Nancy, Sarah Buckner, daughter Mehitabel's 
children William and Mehitabel, Jr.; Phebe and Nancy under age. 

Robert Carter V^miis. proved 21 Oct. 1783. Directs his land to be 
equally divided between his sons Lewis Burwell Willis & Robert Gar- 
ter Willis, who are under age, wife Martha Willis; if both sons 
should die without heirs, then his estate to go to John McKain, my 
sister Elizabeth, John McKain's son, and his sons forever. Execu- 
trix Martha Willis my wife (For Willis Family, see William and Mary 
College Quarterly, VI., 27-29, 206-214.) 

Susanna Washington, dated December 15, 1782, proved May 20, 
1783. Names son John Perrin Washington; first husband George Hold- 
ing, daus Nancy Holding and Susannah Holding, friend Francis 
Willis, of Gloucester county, to "breed" him (her son) and educate 
him at his discretion; sister Willis to take and educate my daughter 
Susannah Holding and sister Lewis, of Gloucester, to take and edu- 
cate my daughter Nancy. Exors Friends Francis Willis, & William 
Reynolds, of York. [Susanna Washington was Susanna Perrin, of 
Gloucester, daughter of John Perrin. She married (1) George Holden 
(2) Samuel Washington, brother of George Washington. He, Sam- 
uel, married 5 times. William and Mary Quarterly, V., 174, 176.] 

Samuel Washington, dated Sept. 9, 1781, proved 18 December, 
1781: To wife the land on which I now live containing 230 acres, 
also a tract called Rutherfords, son Thornton, dau. Harriet, sons 
Lawrence Augu=tine, Ferdinand, George Steptoe, and John Perrin 
Washington. Exors.: Brothers John Augustine Washington, George 
Washington, and Charles Washington. [Col. Samuel Washington, of 
"Harewood," Berkeley County, 2nd son of Augustine and Mary (Ball) 
Washington, of "Wakefield," Westmoreland Co., was a colonel in the 
Continental Army. He married 1, Jane Champe. d. of Col. John 
Champe; 2d, Mildred Thornton, daughter of Col. John Thornton; 3d 
Lucy Chapman, daughter of Nathaniel and Constantia (Pearson) 
Chapman; 4th, Anne (Steptoe) Allerton, widow of Willoughby Aller- 
ton, and daughter of Col. James and Hannah (Ashton) Steptoe, of 



52 Tylep/s Quarterly Magazine 

"Hominy Hall," Westmoreland County, Va.; and, 5th, Susannah Perrin, 
daughter of John Perrin, of Gloucester County, and widow of George 
Holden.l 

Estate of Francis Whitiu(j. deceased, recorded 15 Sept., 1778. 

Charles Washington, dated 25 July, 1799, proved Sept 23, 1799. 
To wife Mildred certain slaves, and after her death to Samuel Wash- 
ington. [Charles Washington, brother of Gen. George Washington 
lived in Charlestown, and was born May 2, 1738. He married Mil- 
dred Thornton, daughter of Col. Francis and Mildred (Gregory) 
Thornton, of "Fall Hill," Spotsylvania County. TTiey had an only 
child, Mildred, who died an infant. See Stella Pickett Hardy's 
Colonial Families in the Southern States of America.] 

Estate of Francis Whiting, deceased, recorded 15 Sept., 1778. 

Account Current of Matthew Whiting, 1796. 

Inventory of Robert Rutherford, jr.. taken this 14 June 1785. 

Morgan Morgan, dated 11 Oct., 1797, proved 25 Dec, 1797. Names 
wife Mary, Brother Evan Morgan, eldest son Morgan Morgan, and 
sons Zackewell, and David Morgan, daughters Phebe and Rebecca. 
Executors, sons Morgan and Zackwell. Refers to Father's deed re- 
corded in Frederick County. 

Thomas Swearingcn. jr.. dated 18 Feb. 1780, proved 21 March, 
1780. Names wife Hanah, and Sarah Bennett, my sisters daughter. 
Exors., Col. Van Swearingen, Capt. Josiah Swearingen, Hezekiah 
Swearingen, and Thomas Rutherford. Witnessed by Thomas Ruther- 
ford, Robert Rutherford, Jr., Benjamin Rutherford, and James Suth- 
erlin. 

Thornton Washington, dated 26 July, 1787, pioved 16 Oct., 1787. 
Names wife Frances Townshend and her son Samuel; other two sons 
by my former wife Mildred; my three half brothers and sisters; Wil- 
liam Berryman, of Frederick County to be guardian of my two sons 
by my former wife; friends Lawrence Washington, jun., of Chotank, 
and Warner Washington, of Frederick Co. [Thornton Washington 
married 1. Mildred Berryman (?) 2. Frances Townshend Washing- 
ton.] 

Eduord Tabb. dated 9 Sept. 1795, proved 11 January, 1819. Names 
Brother William Tabb's sons John and William and Brother George 
Tabb's son Edward. Executor, Brother George Tabb. 

At a court held for Berkeley County the 20th day of August, 
1776. Present: 

Samuel Washington Godwin Swift 
Robert Carter Willis William Patterson 
John Coke Morgan Morgan 

Gent. Justices. 



Berkeley Couxty, West Virgixia 53 

An Ordinance of the Honorable Convention of this Common- 
wealth that the the different members named in the former commis- 
sion of the Peace should continue to act in the said ofBce upon their 
taking the oaths presented in the said Convention: Whereupon the 
said Ordinance being Read Robert Carter Willis and John Coke ad- 
ministered the said oath to Samuel Washington, who administered 
the same to the said Godwin Swift, Morgan Morgan and William 
Patterson, who severally took the same and were sworn Justices of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia accordingly. 

The old Episcopal Church and graveyard at Shepherdstown in 
Jefferson County, formerly part of Berkeley are deserted, but some 
tombstones in the graveyard still remain. The following inscriptions 
appear on two of these: 

Sacred to the Remains of 

Judith Baker, 

Who departed this Life 

the 19th day December, 1805, 

Aged 71 years. 

Sacred to the memory of 

Ma.jor Hexry Bedinger,* 

Who was born on the 16t.h day of 

October, 1753, and died the 14th day 

of May, 1843, aged 89 years, 

six months and 28 days. 

He served his country on the tented field from the 

day of the beginning, until the close of the Revolution, 

which gave his country a place amongst the nations of 

the Earth, was wounded and taken prisoner at Fort 

Washington, New York, and continued a short time on 

board of the Jersey Prison ship, belonging to the British 

Government, was a prisoner four years. He was an 

upright magistrate, a kind friend, and an affectionate 

relative, who discharged the duties of Life(?) He died, 

as he lived, a firm believer in the divinity and religion 

of Jesus Christ. 



♦According to Heitman, he was Captain of the 3d Virginia Regi- 
ment — the heroic Third, commanded successively by Weedon, Mercer 
and Marshall. 



54 Tyler's Quarteely Magazine 



EGBERT BAILEY. 

Perhaps the most all around sport that ever lived in Virginia 
was Robert Bailey. He was undoubtedly possessed of talents, 
which, had they been properly directed, might have ensured him 
high position. He wrote a biography, which was printed in Rich- 
mond by J. & S. Cochran, 1823, in which he gave an account of 
himself that is as perhaps as near the truth as a man of his loose 
character could make it. According to this he was born in Chester, 
Pennsylvania, April 29, 1773. His father was an Irishman, and 
in the American Revolution was a major of artillery. He was 
killed at the battle of the Cowpens. His mother was Margaret 
Hite, a rich Quakeress. 

The family lost their money by the Revolution, and after the 
death of his father they removed to Culpeper Co., Virginia, which 
he always afterwards claimed as the place of his birth, though it 
was not. 

The incidents of his early youth — his struggles to support his 
mother and get an education — were much to his credit, and despite 
every handicap he became a successful merchant of Staunton, and 
was made captain of the best uniformed infantry company in tliat 
city. 

Then began his career of a gambler, into which he was seduced 
by falling into bad company on a visit to Philadelphia. He went 
the limit witli women and cards, travelled all over the United 
States, and was a constant attendant at the races and faro banks. 
Sometim.es he had thousands of dollars in his possession, and at 
other times was in absolute penury. At one time, in 1803 he was 
indicted at Staunton for keeping a faro bank, was convicted and 
ordered to be hired out under the vagrancy law, a penalty which he 
managed to evade. 

But as he apparently never cheated or resorted to the low 
tricks of gamblers, he contrived to retain a certain respect, and at 
one time came within three votes of an election to Congress, in 
the District represented by the Counties of Rockbridge, Bote- 
tourt. Monroe, Greenbrier. Kanahwav and Mason. He was owner 



Robert Bailey 55 

of the Sweet Springs, and at another time kept a Boarding house 
in Washington frequented by members of Congress and other 
public men. 

The value of his book, if it has any at all, consists 
in the side lights it throws on life in the United States in 
the early part of the 19th century. It is evident that standards 
of morality were not high. The spirit of betting was universal, 
and raged in England and France as well. Charles James Fox 
was a notorious gambler in England and Henry Clay in America 
is said to have loved cards passionately. Men would wake up in 
the morning, and the first thing they thought about was to get 
up a bet on something, no matter how trivial. Fox bet with a 
friend on the holes in a cullender and Fox won by taking the pre- 
caution quietly beforehand to bore an extra hole. 

Some idea of the boldness and resources of Bailey is afforded 
in the following extract from his extraordinary confessions. 

He went to England to sell mountain lands at one dollar an 
acre, but he did not find the English as easy as he expected and 
managed to dispose of only a thousand acres. The money thus 
secured he soon got rid of and this adventure then occurred : 

"After loseing and spending the whole of my last thousand dol- 
lars, for which I sold the land, I did not know how to raise a new 
fund, I walked incessantly, trying to sell more land, not a cent 
in my pocket. I will here introduce the anecdote on myself, which 
I preceedingly promised, it is one that I have often told in this 
country, I walked and got all the information I could, I at 
length discovered where the noblemen played dice; after dining 
together, they passed about sixty yards, to a house kept for that 
purpose; they would have a porter at each door, and the house 
afforded attendants and every refreshment, 

"I must confess, I studied on this project; on a very dark 
night I placed myself at this house, and waited until about twenty 
of the nobility came rushing out, full of wine; and as they passed 
me I caught one by the arm, in as familiar a way as if I had been 
one of the party, as he supposed; we kept locked arms, and we 
walked these sixty yards ; he says to me, my lord, I feel very much 
like winning tonight, I cant say so, I replied, I am rather dejected; 



56 Tylee^s Quarterly Magazine 

why so my lord? damn it, you want another glass of Burgundy or 
Champaign, we mush replenish when we get in; I will, sir, said 
I ; as we entered the first door I lay a little back, let several pass 
me, and let my companion go in; my heart palpitated as much as 
when I fought Wigg;* I summoned all by resolution and ven- 
tured up; all busily engaged; I seated myself with these nobility. 

"My companion addressed himself to this lord, whom he sup- 
posed he had been walking with, and said, will you drink Cham- 
paign or Burgundy; as your spirits are low, I would recommend 
Champaign. Why, so, do you suppose my spirits low? Because, 
you observed, as we came along, that you felt dejected. I, sir, 
you are mistaken; very well sir, any way, take a glass of Burgundy 
or Champaign, I want to make ten thousand out of you tonight; 
they took their wine together. 

"I mixed in the crowd, and drank two glasses of Champaign; 
this encouraged me very much, I felt as if I was socially asso- 
ciated with ohl friends and pot fcHows ; they commenced the 
game most, eagerly, I among tiie rest ; no person appeared to no- 
tice me ; an Irish nojjleman, a very liberal gentleman, proposed 
betting fifty thousand pounds sterling that he was in, when the 
box came to him. 

"Some one observed, that it was too extravagant a bet, with- 
out it was guaranteed by some real estate; the Irish nobleman, 
pulling out his pocket book, and putting down the roll bills on 
the bank, replied, by Jesus, gentlemen, I will shew you the roll 
maps themselves to guarantee the bet; and the bet was made, and 
the Irish nobleman won it. 

"The box was coming near me, and by this time they had 
sipped of the nectar copiously, and those who did notice me sup- 
posed I had dined with them ; this Irish nobleman who had won 
the fifty thousand pounds looked at me stedfastly, and observed, 
sir, dont you bet? Yes sir, said I. but you bet too low for me; 
this gentleman observed, what do you wish to bet? I observed I 
would bet fifty thousand pounds, this gentleman to my right 



•He refers to a duel he had with a man of this name, in which he 
broke Wigg's arm with his pistol fire. 



Robert Bailey 57 

throws out, and one hundred thousand pounds I throw in; and 
laid down an elegant pocket book, without one cent in it. Luck- 
ily for me, the gentleman threw out; I let my pocket book re- 
main, and the fifty thousand pounds that I had won; and lifted 
the dice box and shook them well, to throw for the hundred tiious- 
and pounds. I was well acquainted with the game, having played 
before for thousands. I dashed away, as bold as any of the party, 
but fortune frowned, and I threw out. 

"I was instantly seized with a sensation that disqualified every 
faculty; I arose from the table in silence; upon reflection I ob- 
served, gentlemen, you must act with me as you please, I am an 
unfortunate young man, I have not one cent, I have imposed my- 
self upon you; I passed the porters without notice, I came in 
wuth you all, thinking by good fortune, I might raise some money 
to take me home; I am from America, bred and born in the State 
of Virginia; I have lost and spent all I had, and now I have no 
way to get home; I am honest; seeing and knowing as I did, 
where you played, and this being a dark night, on your return 
from your place of dining I took this gentleman by the arm and 
walked with him as a companion, and ventured in among your 
lordships to try my fortune ; I never was guilty of such impudence 
before, and I do hope to be treated with lenity by your lordships. 

"This Irish gentleman, who had won the fifty thousand pounds, 
first spoke, saying, he had won fifty thousand pounds, and had 
lost it with me; and added, young gentleman you stand perfectly 
excused, and I think you ought to have won, for the large dash 
you made at us; pray sir, what is your name? and where did your 
father go from? I told him my name was Robert Bailey, and 
my father was an Irishman, from the county of Derry, my mother 
was born and raised in America ; he observed, that he knew all 
my father's family, that they were respectable good people, linnen 
drapers, and for the respect he had for the name and country, 
and my bold dash, if I would accept of twenty guineas, it would 
afford him pleasure to give it to me; and several others contri- 
buted, to the amount of fifty guineas ; I took two glasses of Cham- 
paign, made them a bow and left the room, much elated with 



58 TyLER^'s Qu.AJtTERLY MaCtAZI>:E 

my fortunate escape; but had dame fortune smiled upon me, by 
bestowing one hundred and fifty thousand, then indeed would my 
heart have been exulted, and I should have stood excused by my 
own judgment, for so bold and hazardous an adventure. I have 
often thought since, that if I had wone the one hundred and fiity 
thousand, I would have relinquished the practice of gaming, but 
my nature is such, that a sum like that might have plunged me 
into other excesses, than those to which I had been addicted, upon 
a larger scale." 



REGISTER OF MARRIAGE BONDS OF GREENSVILLE 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1781-1808. 

(Continued from Vol. II, p. 256.) 

Compiled by Mrs. Dora Hedges Goodwyn, Emporia, Va. 

Francis, Cordall & Letitia Hayley, 10 March, 1796. Henry 
Hayley, father, consents. Willie Clark, Sec. 

Freeman, Allan & Tempy Smelly, 24 Oct., 1798. Rhoda 
Smelly, mother, consents. Isham Edwards, Sec. 

Freeman, Edward & Molly Vaughan, 2-4 Oct., 1798. Isham 
Edwards, Sec. 

Freeman, Miles & Margaret Hudson, 12 March, 1804. Wm. 
Atkinson, Sec. 

Freeman, Peter & Sarah Jackson, 25 Feb., 1795. William 
Edwards, Sec. 

Gowing, Benjamin & Catherine Harris, 29 March, 1806. 
Frances Hill, Sec. 

Gowing, James & Rebecca Adams, 24 Nov., 1785. William 
Brewer, Sec. 

Gowing, Mark & Sarah Jones, 29 Sept., 1794. Thomas Jones, 
father, consents. Robert Brooks Corn, Sec. 

Gowing, Thomas & Sarah Jones, 24 July, 1794. William W. 
Dungell, Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 59 

Goodrich, John & Ehoda Goodrich, 9 May, 1798. Benjamin 
Goodrich, father, consents. Howell Harris, Sec. 

Goodrich, Washington & Frances B. Batte, 21 Feb., 1T99. 
Sarah Batte, mother, consents, & is Sec. 

Goodrum, John & Abigail Harwell, 25 Oct., 1799. Parten 
Bass, Sec. 

Grant, Drewry & Nancy Hines, 30 Dec, 1795. Barham Hines, 
father, consents. Wm. Andrews certifies that the groom is 23 
years of age & the bride 22. Joshua Mayes, Sec. 

Graham, George & Sarah Stark, 9 Oct., 1786, Mark Sexton, 
Sec. 

Graves, William & Susanna Randolph, 12 Xov., 1808, William- 
son Graves, See. 

Green, Benjamin & Polly Mabry, 12 Xov., 1798. Edmund 
Lucas, guardian, consents. John Camp Sec. 

Green, Jesse & Polly Chambliss, 8 June, 1790. Henry Cham- 
bliss, Sec. 

Green, John & Judith Mabry, 21 Dec, 1796. Abner Hill, 
Sec. 

Green, Miles & Elizabeth Hunt, 15 Oct., 1789. Judkins Hunt, 
Sec. 

Green, Willie & Agnes Chambliss, 29 Jan., 1789. Henry 
Chambliss, Sec. 

Griffin, Richard & Elizabeth Wrenn, 11 Sept., 1807. Abner 
Lanier, Sec. 

Griffin, William & Nancy Sykes, 8 Feb., 1804. Matthews 
Davis, Sec. 

Grigg, Carrol & Martha Blanks, 11 Feb., 1786. Ingram Blanks, 
Sec 

Grigg, Edmund & Elizabeth Gregory, 23 Aug., 1802. Ingram 
Blanks, Sec. 

Grigg, Jesse & Rebecca Thweatt, 27 May, 1783. Lewis Grigg, 
Jr., Sec. 

Grigg, Lewis & Edith Watson, widow, 22 Xov., 1785. Jones 
A¥renn, Sec. 



60 Tyler's QfJARXERLY Magazine 

Grizzard, John & Elizabeth Massey, 28 Feb., 1788. Eichard 
Massey, father, consents. Avent Massey, Sec. 

Gwathmey, Isaac & Mary Cotton, 21 May, 1787. William An- 
drews, Sec. 

Hall, Hugh & Amy G. Tyus, 13 April, 1707. Joshua Lunday, 
guardian, consents & is Sec. 

Hall, John & Elizabeth Dupree, 15 Oct., 1794. Jacob Dupree, 
father, consents. John Brown, Sec. 

Hall, John & Elizabeth Jordan, 1 Oct., 1802. Wylie Peeblees, 
Sec. 

Hall, Eichard & Martha House, 4 May, 1799. Lucy House, 
mother, consents. Eobert Hall, Sec. 

Hall, Willis & Mary Camp, 2 Oct., 1790. Sally Camp, mother, 
consents. Edmond Delbridge, Sec. 

Hammonds, William & Susanna Eawlings, 5 April, 1805. 
Elizabeth Eawlings, mother, consents. James Adams, Sec. 

Hargrove, Dudley & Polly Coalman, 19 Jan., 1791. Capt. 
Howell Harris, guardian, consents and is Sec. 

Harris, Absalom & Clara Jeter, 14 Dec, 1785. John Jeter, 
Sr., consents. John Jeter, Jr., Sec. 

Harris, Charles & Dolly McKendree, 27 July, 1797. William 
Walker, Sec. 

Harris, Eeuben & Mary Eawlings, 19 Oct., 1785. Thomas 
Newsom, Sec. 

Harris, Eobert & Ann Lancaster, 7 Dec, 1789. Joseph Harris, 
Sec. 

Harris, Simon & Eebecca Davis, 22 March, 1796. Samuel 
Davis, father, consents. Charles Harris, Sec. 

Harris, Sterling & Patsy Woodroof, 8 April, 1790. Samuel 
Avent, Sec 

Harris, William &: Frances Branscomb, 4 Feb., 1793. Tliomas 
Branscomb, Sec. 

Harris, William & Amy Going, 19 Dec, 1805. James Gowing, 
Sec. 

Harrison, Charles & Annie Brown, 10 Nov., 1806. John 
Brown, Jr., Sec 



Register of Marriage Bonds 61 

Harrison, Edward & Frances Wilburn, 10 July, 1787. Wil- 
li um Wilburn, Sec. 

Harrison, James & Susanna Jones, 4 Dec, 1801. Benjamin 
Jones, Sec. 

Harrison, John & Eebecca Dillehay, 21 Sept., 1793. Charles 
Dillehay, Sec. 

Harrison, Joseph & Elizabeth Ferguson, 31 Aug., 1786. Win. 
Allen, Sec. 

Harrison, Eiehard & Phoebe Harrison, 13 Dec, 1808. Har- 
mon Harrison, father, consents. William Eichardson, Sec. 

Hart, Jesse & Lucy Cato, 17 Dec, 1787. John Cato, father, 
consents. Eobert Harris, Sec 

Harwell, John, Jr., & Ann Spencer, 24 July, 1794. Eobert 
Spencer, father, consents. Peyton Harwell, Sec. 

Harwell, John & Elizabeth Vaughan, 18 Sept., 1804. William 
Adams, Sec 

Harwell, Peyton & Sarah Parham, 5 Feb., 1790. William 
Batte, guardian, consents. James Batte, Sec 

Harwell, Hansom & Eebecca Smith, 13 Jan., 1806. Lewis 
Dupree, Sec. 

Harwell, Eobert & Polly W. Eppes, 19 Oct., 1804. Ingram 
Blanks, guardian, consents. Burwell, Jr., Sec. 

Harwell, William & Amy Smith, 20 Feb., 1786. Drewry 
Adams, Sec 

Hay, Archer & Mary Simmons, 21 July, 1806, Abner Lanier, 
Sec. 

Hayley, James & Anne Person, 22 March, 1798. Mary Per- 
son, mother, consents. Henry Person, Sec. 

Hayley, James & Elizabeth Eppes, 16 April, 1804. N'ancy 
Eppes, mother, consents. Turner Williamson, Sec. 

Heath, Nathan & Sarah Collier, 12 March, 1782. Daniel 
Collier, Sec. 

Heath, John & Lucy Vaughan, 13 Feb., 1787. William Griffin, 
Sec 

Heath, John & Wilmuth Eichards, 27 Dec, 1800. Tarpley 
Young, Sec. 



62 Tylek's Quarteely Magazine 

Heathcock, Charles & Lavinia Hicks, 13 Dec, 1794, Clias. 
Williams, Sec. 

Heathcock, Colley & Grief Jeffries, 24 July, 1794. Andrew 
Jeffries, father, consents. Shadrach Jeffries, Sec. 

Heathcock, Howell & Mary Woodall, 30 Jan., 1788. Alley 
Woodall, father consents. George Collier, Sec. 

Heathcock, Joel & Xancy Heathcock, 24 Dec. 1795. Bannis- 
ter Mitchell, Sec. 

Heathcock, Meshach & Elizabeth Jones, 26 Dec, 1789. Ed- 
ward Jones, Sec. 

Heathcock, Reuben & Mary Jones. 6 Aug., 1793. Braxton 
Eobinson, Sec. 

Hinton, James & Winny Eives, 6 Dec, 1786. Balaam Berry- 
man, Sec. 

Hol)bs, Gilliam & Eebecca Sammons, 24 Dec, 1803. Mat- 
thew Hobbs, See. 

Hobbs, John & Jane Mabry, 3 ]\Iarch, 1787. Daniel Mabry, 
Sec 

Hobbs, John, Jr., & Keziah Fennell, 10 Sept., 1804. Ishara 
Fennel 1. father, consents. James Fennell, Sec 

Hobbs, John H. & Sarah C. Smith, 3 March, 1807. James 
Smith, father, consents. Jesse Butts, Sec. 

Holly, Ezekiel & Anna Jones, 15 March, 1801. Robert Wat- 
kins, Sec. 

Holt, William & Frances Mabry, 26 July, 1786. William 
Pettway, Sec. 

Howard, Edwin & Xancy Gowyn, 26 Dec, 1794. Benjamin 
Young, Sec 

Hues, Jacob & Mason Hearin, 12 March, 1804. Freeman 
Hearin, Sec. 

Huldane. James & Rebecca Maclin, 24 Dec, 1799. Eliza- 
beth Maclin. mother, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec 

Hunt, John & Agnes Sills, 18 Xov., 1790. Agnes Sills, 
mother, consents. Jesse Atkins, Sec. 

Ingram, Gaskins & Xancy Branscomb, 8 Aug., 1799. Sally 
Branscomb, mother, consents. Robert Branscomb, Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 63 

Ingram, Isaac & Martha Ferguson, 6 Aug., 1804. William 
Ferguson, father, consents. Stephen Jackson, Sec. 

Inman, Matthew & Nancy Nichols, 4 Jan., 1804. Henry 
Evans, Sec. 

Israel, Abel & Sarah Whitehorn, 3 March, 1786. John White- 
horn, Sec. 

Jackson, Stephen & Polly Ferguson, 2'5 Dec, 1794. William 
Ferguson, father, consents. Isaac Branscomb, Sec. 

Jarratt, John & Levina Whittington, 8 Jan., 1787. Frederick 
Whittington, father, consents. Carrol Grigg, Sec. 

Jefferson, Lewis & Polly Hill, 10 Jan., 1799. Littleton Jef- 
ferson, Sec. 

Jeffries, Achilles & Mary Wall, widow, 5 March, 1783. Tim- 
othy Eives, Sec. 

Jeffries, Drewry & Sylvia Scott, 28 Jan., 1790. Andrew Jef- 
fries, Sec. 

Jeffries, Henry & Sarah Shehorn, 18 Feb., 1808. Uriah Cook, 
Sec. 

Jeffries, Nathan & Clf.ra Norton, 23 June, 1791. Eefts Ste- 
wart, Sec. 

Jenkins, Thomas & Sally Lucas, 25 Jan., 1783. John Lucas, 
Sec. 

Jeter, John, Jr., & Mary Eives, 3 Jan., 1786. Miel Ezell, 
Sec. 

Jeter, Edmund & Pebecca Pives, 13 Jan. 1791. Sarah Pives, 
mother, consents. James McKendree, Sec. 

Johnson, Benj., W. & Polly Foster, 16 March, 1802. Thomas 
Pelham, Sec. 

Johnson, David & Winny Sledge, 10 Feb., 1789. Sterling 
Sledge. Sec. 

Johnson, Edward & Elizabeth Burnett, 11 May, 1807, John 
Burwell, Sec. 

Joluison, James & Lucy Sandiford, 11 July, 1793. John Good- 
wyn. Sec. 

Johnson, John & Lucy Sissoms, 30 Dec, 1790. Sterling 
Sledge, Sec. 



64 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Johnson, Moses & Sarah Seward, 27 Dec, 1787. William 
Garner, Sec. 

Jones, Benjamin & Martha Eivers, 1 Oct., 1783. Eobert 
Rivers, father, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Jones, Edmund & Martha Batte, 24 Jan., 1793. John Batte, 
father, consents. Thomas Eivers, See. 

Jones, Henry & Sally Saunders, 15 Feb., 1797. Anselm Ivey, 
Sec. 

Jones, Henry & Elizabeth Hardy, 19 Dec, 1801. John Jones, 
Sec 

Jones, Howell & Priscilla Vaughan, 13 Feb., 1789. Thomas 
Vaughan, Sec. 

Jones, John & Ann Young, 20 Feb., 1804. Edmunds Mason, 
Sec. 

Jones, John & Patsy Dean, 12 Feb., 1801. William Jones, Sec 

Jones, Lattana & Lucretia M. Night, 19 Nov., 1788. Micajah 
Proctor, Sec. 

Jones, William & Nancy Dean, 27 Dec, 1791. Henry Jones, 
Sec. 

Jones, William & Martin Loftin, 11 March, 1797. Martha 
Ix)ftin, mother, consents. William Sturdivant, Sec. 

Jones, Willie & Tempe Ivey, 21 Dec, 1805. Benjamin Jones, 
Sec 

Jordan, Benjamin & Elizabeth Clark, 27 Aug., 1801. Eichard 
Eeese, Sec. 

Jordan, Drewry & Sally Cato, 13 Feb., 1804. Jolin Jordan, 
Sec. 

Jordan, James & Sally Young, 3 March, 1808. Nathaniel Pee- 
bles, Sec. 

Jordan, Upshur & Patsey Eivers, 23 Jan., 1800. William 
Hinton, Sec. 

Jordan, Warren & Sally Vincent, 4 Dec, 1805. Allen Bass, 
Sec 

Jordan. Willie & Elizabeth Goodrich, 30 Dec, 1799. Eoland 
Cato, Sec. 



Eegister of Marriage Bonds 65 

Justice, John & Mary Dupree, 30 Nov., 1787. Lewis Diipree, 
Jr., father, consents and is Sec. 

Kerwin, John & Lucretia Gait, 30 Jan., 1804. Burwell Grigg, 
Jr., Sec. 

Lane, John & Sally Jones, 17 Aug., 1799. Henry Jones, father, 
consents and is Sec. 

Lane, Simon & Nelly Jones. '*^7 May, 1790. Henry Mangum, 
Sec. 

Lanier, Abner & Mary Grigg, 27 Dec, 1808. Burwell Grigg, 
Sec. 

Lanier, Edward & Amy W. Goodrich, 27 Oct., 1800. Ben- 
jamin Goodrich consents. John Goodrich, Sec. 

Lanier, William &: Rebecca Robinson, 9 Xov., 1785. W. M. 
Robinson, father, consents. William Andrews, Sec. 

Lawrence, Edmund &: Sarah Lanier, 5 Feb., 1794. Devereux 
Lawrence, Sec. 

Lawrence, James & Martha Woodford, 25 Feb., 1805. Wil- 
liam B. Collier, Sec. 

Lawrence, Jonathan & Mary Hazlewood, 10 May, 1802. In- 
gram Blanks, Sec. 

Lee, James & Mary Collier, 27 April, 1786. Thomas Collier, 
father, consents. Hubbard Sykes, Sec. 

Lee, Littleberry & Lucy Cook, 19 Jan., 1792. Susanna Cook, 
mother, consents. John Burnett, Sec. 

Llwellin, Edmund & Priscilla Grizzard, 18 March, 1790. Fred- 
erick Emmery, guardian, consents & is Sec. 

Llwellin, Edward & Polly Fielding, 27 Dec, 1806. Edward 
Moor, Sec. 

Llwellin, Tyson & Sally Hart, 27 May, 1790. Frederick Em- 
mory, Sec. 

Lewis, Edward & Elizabeth Porch, 12 Nov., 1807. Ingram 
Porch, father, consents. Lewis Chambliss, Sec. 

Lock. Charles & Mary Batte, 15 July, 1790. John Batte, Sec. 

Lockhart, James & Clara Morris. 2 Sept., 1807. James Jeter, 
Sec. 



66 Tylers Quartekly Magazine 

Love, Alexander & Eebecca Vincent. 28 June, 1787. John Yin- 
cent, father, consents. Henry Gowing, Sec. 

Love, Thomas & Lucy Allen, widow, 14 April, 1808. John F. 
Walker, Sec. 

Long, Joseph & Annis Lawrence, 8 Sept., 1786. Carrol Grigg, 
Sec. 

Lucas, Edmund & Betsy Hobbs, 11 Dec, 1784. John Hobbs, 
Sec. 

Lucas, Nathaniel & Sarah Elvers, 16 April, 1783. Robert 
Rivers, father, consents. -John Lucas, Sec. 
(To be continued.) 



MUMFORD AXD MUXFORD FAMILIES. 

It is not positively known whether these two families, were 
distinct or not, but a Munford and a Mumford family lived side 
by side in Amelia Countv. The clerks, however, spelt the names 
of the early members of the Munford family "Mumford." 

There was a Thomas Mumford, who went to Virginia in the 
First Supply, and was in two voyages with John Smith that year. 
He returned to England most probably, where he was one of the 
adventurers of the second Virginia Company of London in 1609. 

February 18, 1664 Thomas Mumpford patented 300 acres of 
land in Xansemond County. (Land Book, V, p. 58.) 

April 20, 1685, Edward Mumford patented 148 acres at the 
head of Poquosin dams in Warwick Co. (Land Book, VIII, p. 
461.) He married Mary Watkins, daughter of Joseph Watkins, 
son of Richard Watkins. This is shown by a land grant to Joseph 
Mumford, "son and heir apparent of Mary Mumford, widdow, 
late wife of Edward Mumford." This grant is dated 21 April, 
1690. (Land Book, VIII, p. 33. 

Edward and Mary Mumford, besides Joseph Mumford men- 
tioned in the land grant, had the following children named in the 
register at Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., where they appear to 



MuMFOED AND MuNFORD FAMILIES 67 

have lived after removing from Warwick Co. ; Edward, bapt. July 
lo, 1685, and Daniel, baptized Oct. 22, 1687. 

It was probably Joseph Mumford named above, who had a son 
Thomas, of Abingdon Parish, born January 13, 1719-20, who on 
December 22, 17-14, in the same parish, married Sarah Booker, 
daughter of George Booker, of Gloucester Co. 

This Thomas Mumford lived some years in King and Queen 
County, and later moved to Amelia. The date of this change was 
doubtless about 1757, for in that year Eichard Anderson and Hans- 
ford Anderson of the Co. of King and Queen sold to Thomas Mum- 
ford, "of the aforesaid County," 520 acres in Ealeigh Parish, 
Amelia County, part of a grant of 1037 acres to Matthew Talbot 
June 10, 1737. 

On November 28, 1760, Thomas Tabb and John Tabb of the 
Parish of Eawleigh, Amelia Co., for 50£, paid by Thomas Mum- 
ford, one of the parties to these presents, made a release to "Eachel 
Booker, Edward Booker, Eichard Marot Booker, exors. of Eichard 
Booker dec'd, Ann Booker and Edward Booker, exors. of Edward 
Booker, dec'd., George Booker, Thomas Mumford, aforegtid and 
Sarah his wife, Edward Booker and Hannah, his wife, James 
Clarke and Samuel Tarry, all of the parish and county aforesaid." 
George Booker, of Gloucester County, father of Sarali Mumford, 
was one of eight children of Capt Eichard Booker, of Gloucester, 
Edmund, Judith, Edward, Anne, Eichard, John, Frances and 
George, all of whom but George moved to Amelia Co.. (See 
Bool'er Family, Va, Mag., VII, 94, et seq.; Willmm and Mary 
Quarterly, ^^I, 50.) 

Thomas Mumford made his will in Amelia March 5, 1785, 
and in it names his children 1 Anne, 2 Thomas, 3 Martha Booker, 
wife of Samuel Booker, 4 Edward, 5 Sarah Wiley. Witnessed by 
George Booker, John Pride, Eicheson Booker. 

Thomas Mumford, jr., son of Thomas Mumford and Sarah 
Booker his wife, made his will in Amelia 4th January, 1786, and 
it was proved 25 January, 1787. Issue named, Mary Mumford, 
to whom he gave his whole estate. 

Edward Mumford, 2d son of Thomas Mumford was probably 
the person of that name who served in the Eevolution. He ap- 



68 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

pears to have left a son Marsliall Booker Mumford named as 
"nephew" in Thomas Mumford, jr's, will, and who married Mary 
Brown in 1808. (Wm. & Mary Quarterly, XVI, p. 274). Ed- 
ward Mumford had probably also a son Thomas Mumford who 
married Rebecca Hill. 

(To be continued.) 



SAMUEL SWANN'S MARRIAGE TO ELIZABETH 
FENDALL. 

From the Records of Perquimons Co., N. C. 

This Indenture made eighteenth day of May Anno Domi 1698 
between Samuel Swann of the precinct of Perquimons, of the 
one part, and Henderson Walker, of the precinct of Choan of the 
other part. Witnezseth that whereas there is a marriage shortly, 
by God's grace to be had and solemonized between the said Sam- 
uel Swann and Elizabeth Fendall wid; and in consideration that 
the said marriage takes effect &c &c. 

In Witness whereof the parties above said to these Indentures. 
Interchangably have set their hand and Seals, the day and year 
first above written. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
Mary Lillington. Samuel Swann. 

Robert R. Harmon, Inr Robert Fendall. 

Acknowledged in Court the 10th day 
of October 1698. Registered the 
14th day of October 1698. 

John Stepney, Cler. 



Tombstones 59 

TOMBSTONES. 

Communicated by Rev. S. 0. Socthall, Dinwiddle, Va._. 
New Castle, Hanover County 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Mr. Isaac Brown. He was 

a Native of Derby in the 

Island of Great Britain 

But settled a merchant 

in this place. 

In the prime of Life, 

* * * in the very moment of anxious 

expectation, 

* * * arrival of a beloved 

* * * an infant family, 

* * * pleased the Almighty 
*.* * take him to himself 

* * * the Augt, 1785 

* * * and Disconsolate widow 

* * * token of her affection 

On the old Smith Place half a mile east of Dinwiddie C. H. 

Capt John Hill, 

Son of Col. Larkin Smith 

Born May 14, 1783, 

Died March 2S, 1843 

"Old Church," Hanover Co., 

Here lies the corpse of Alexander 

Mathy, son of Gabriel Mathy 

Mercht in Greenoch who died 

of his age. 

30 of July, 1752, in the 20th year 



70 Tylee's Qtarterly Magazine 



JAMES MADISO:Nr, SB. 

James Madison, Sr., father of the President, was born March 
27, 1723. He resided in Orange County and was Lieutenant 
Colonel of the Orange Militia. He died February 29, 1801. Here 
are copies of two papers in his handwriting now in possession of 
W. W. Scott, the Law Librarian of the State. 

1779 Majr Thomas Barbour to James Madison in Paper Cur- 
rency Dr 

Novr 26. To 41/2 Sheet at 760 Dollars j) £ S. D. 

sheet is 3420 $ equal to 1026. 0.0. 

To 6 Do at Do 4560 f Do 1368.0.0 

To Continental Certificate for 709 " Do 212.14.0 

1780, Octr, 28 Certificate from Henry Fry, Commissioner of 

Culper for Beef 650. 0.0. 

To Do from Johnny Scott, " 

of Orange for Beef 785. 0.0. 

To Do from Ditto Do 

for Bacon 628.16.0. 

To Do from Do Do 

for Brandy 1000.10.0. 

1800 April 12. Received at sundry times previous to this the value 
of thirty-four Pounds two shillings and seven pence towards dis- 
charging Augustine Webb his ace. to me: the balance appears now 
to be due to me is one Pound seventeen shillings and ten pence %d 
paid to the Sheriff for Taxes & Levies, 

James Madison. 



HISTORICAL A^^D GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 

Armistead. — Northampton County Eecords, May 1, 1798: 
"Account of the sales of the Estate of Capt. Ellyson Armistead, 
deced. To cash paid Susannah Armistead, widow of the decedent, 
and guardian of Elizabeth and Frances Armistead, his orphans, as 
per receipt." On Dec. 20, 1806, a division was made of his slaves 
between Mrs. Armistead and Miss Frances Armistead. Capt. 
Armistead was son of Capt. Ellyson Armistead of York County and 
Jane, daughter of Rev. Charles Anderson, of Charles City Co., 



Historical and Gexealogical Notes 71 

and Frances, his wife. He married Susannah Christian, of North- 
ampton County. See Vol. I, 193. 

Appomattox Cpiurch in Westmoreland County was later 
called Pope's Creek Church, but nothing of the original building 
remains. It is said that the register of baptisms, marriages and 
burials of this church was extant about 1900, and a parishioner 
had it in his home, where his children cut it up for paper dolls. 
The will of Dorothy Baldridge, "of Appomattox, widow," dated 
Nov. 2; 1663, and proved March 11, 1663-63, (recorded at Mon- 
tross in "Deeds and Wills," No. 1, pages 188-89) contains this 
provision : "It is my will and minde that a Bowie & Challace be 
sent for out of England this shipping, & that my executor here- 
after named shall pay two thousand pound of Tobacco & Caske 
for them. Item, I give the said Cup or Bowie & Challace to the 
Parish Church of Appomattox, to celebrate the Communion for- 
ever. Item, It is my will that my name be engraved on the said 
Bowie & Challace." Lamb's Creek Church, made of brick, ap- 
pears to be the only one now standing within a few miles of Pope's 
Creek. — C. A. Hoppin, 103 Waverly Place, New York. 

King George Co. Will Book. — During the "War between the 
States" many of the Record Books of the different counties of 
Virginia were carried North by the Federal soldiers. Many have 
been restored, either by purchase or by gift. Many doubtless still 
remain somewhere in the North. Eecently there has been re- 
turned one of the will books of King George County, which it is 
believed completes the colonial records of that historic county. 

Queries. 

Wimbish-Hendebsox. — Two brothers, both physicians, of Salis- 
bury, N. C., were married to two sisters of Halifax Co., Va., in 1851 — 
Pleasant Henderson to Fanny Rebecca Wimbish and Alexander Martin 
Henderson to Melinda Wimbish. I desire information regarding the 
Wimbish family to which these ladies belonged. Address me: Archi- 
bald Henderson, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

PoYNOR-DiGGEs. — John Poynor, of French extraction, said to be of 

Dinwiddle Co., Va., married Digges (Eliza) probably between 

1775-1800. Who were their parents and from what Co.? Three of 
their children (girls) married and lived in Mecklenburg Co., Va. ; 



72 Tyler's Quarterly Magazi^te 

one son, Digges Poynor, lived in Brunswick Co., Va. Wm. Poynor, 
Capt. in Va. Troops, Cont. Line. Who was he? — M. W. J. 

Finch. — "Whose daughter was the wife of Wm. Finch (will 1773) 
of Charles City Co., Va.? She was probably a Wilson, They had a 
grandson, Maj. Wilson Walker. — M. W. J. 

Palmer. — Who were Capt. Martin Palmer's (York Co.) wife and 
children?— M. W. J. 

Wanted. — Will pay any reasonable sum for No. 2, Vol. XIV (Octo- 
ber, 1905) of William and Mary College Quarterly. — Benjamin L. 
Ancell, Mahan School, Yangchow, China. 

BOOK NOTICE. 

The Mortons and Their Kin. A genealogy and a source book. By 
Daniel Morton, M. D., F. A. C. S., St. Joseph, Missouri. 1920. 

Compiled between the years 1880 and 1920 and assembled in two 
typewritten volumes, Volumes One being The Mortons, and Volume 
Two being The Morton Kin. 

A collection of genealogical material from original sources relat- 
ing to the Morton family of Virginia and especially to John Morton 
and his descendants, together with a great amount of data concerning 
the following families kin to the Mortons: 1 Ashton, 2 Banks, 3 
Batchellor, 4 Barner, 5 Beale, 6 Beckwith, 7 Bellfield, 8 Blanchan, 9 
Botomley, 10 Bos, 11 Caldwell, 12 Cocke, 13 Cooke, 14 Calhoun, 15 
Colston, 16 Davis, 17 Dinwiddle, 18 DuBois, 19 Edwards, 20 Eltinge, 
21 Gregory, 22 Haden, 23 Hawkins, 24 Hite, 25 Johnson, 26 Jorrissen, 
27 Lane, 28 Means, 29 Meriwether, 30 Motherhead, 31 Mountjoy, 32 
Pannill, 33 Payne, 34 Perrin, 35 Pryor, 36 Royall, 37 Slecht, 38 Smith, 
39 Tarpley, 40 Terrell, 41 Thornton, 42 Van Meter, 43 Wood. There 
are hundreds of other surnames of interest to persons studying family 
history connected with Virginia, New York, Pennsylvania and Ken- 
tucky. All of which has been assembled from court records, county 
records, legal papers, Bible records, family records, historical papers, 
letters, biographical sketches, funeral orations and other sources. A 
family tree sets out the ancestry of the author and, of course, serves 
the same purpose for all descendants of this line of Mortons and their 
kin. There are eight hundred typewritten letter size pages bound in 
two volumes of four hundred pages each. Only three copies of the 
work have been made, each copy being a set of two volumes. One 
set has been placed in the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
One set in the Newberry Library at Chicago, Illinois, and at the death 
of the author one set will be placed in the Public Library at Kansas 
City. It is hoped that these records may be thus preserved against 
destruction, and as far as possible, made available for every one in- 
terested in the family histories herein set forth. 



Vol. III. No. 2. 



OCTOBER, 1921 



anti 




^enealosical iHaga^me 



F.ditor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office in Richmond, Va., according 
to act of Congress. 



Wvkfi ©uarterlp ^iitoxital anb 
(^enealostcal jUagajine 

Vol. III. OCTOBER, 1921. No. 2. 

NOTICE 



Annual subscription, S4.00. Single numbers, S1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary Quarterly, of which I was 
proprietor, have become very scarce, single copies, as far as had, may be ob- 
tained from me at S2.00 apiece. 

LYOX G. TYLER, Editor 
711 Travelers Building, . - _ Richmond, Va. 



CONTENTS 



Ideals of America 73 

Virginia, Founder of the World's Navies 84 

Correspondence Relating to Lord Botetourt 106 

The Lanier Family 126 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 142 

Book Keviews 147 



Zvltfs (JSuarterIp ?|iStorital anb 
(genealogical JHagajine 

Vol. III. OCTOBER, 1921 No. 2 

IDEALS OF AMERICA. 

The celebration of the settlement at Plymouth has given oc- 
casion for a joy ride which has borne along all the writers for news- 
papers and popular magazines. Like a company of boys and girls 
in a fast going automobile they fill the air with rapturous squeaks 
and shrieks. The Mayflower compact is the starting point for 
this maddening historic revel, and even as sedate a paper as the 
New York Evening Post, in its issue of August 2, has given its 
great influence to tlie claim that Plymouth was ''the birthplace of 
democracy." 

If all tills was only a joy ride of a day, a revel of a night, its 
violation of historic truth might be passed by without serious 
questioning. But this is not the case. Hundreds of pens this 
moment are busy at work trying to make the words which are 
shouted out on the palpitating air accepted matters of history, 
and this sort of thing does not exactly go down with those who 
regard history as a serious matter, and not exactly the thing to be 
made subject to exploitation and propaganda. 

Beginning with democracy, it is not true in any sense that 
the Mayflower compact warrants the claim that Plymouth was 
the birthplace of democracy. The Mayflower compact was merely 
an agreement of the 41 signers to associate together, make laws, 
and obey the laws when made. In this they did nothing more 
than other societies had done. The persons interested in the 
London Company must have first assembled, associated together 
and agreed to abide by the will of the majority. Had the com- 
pany (certainly under the charters of 1609 and 1613) come to 
America, the political authority which they wielded over the Col- 



74 TyLEE's QuABTERf V Magazine. 

onists sent over would have come into effect over themselves in- 
dividually as well. The embodiment of their plans in a formal 
paper voiced by the King did not alter the fundamental facts one 
way or another. And so as has been well said by a recent writer, 
the action of the Pilgrim fathers rose from the exigencies of their 
situation and not from "any preconceived philosophical notions" 
of any kind. (Adams, The Founding of New England, 98.) 

To show that they intended nothing out of the ordinary they 
made haste the very next year to seek and obtain from the PI3'- 
mouth Company under whose dominion they found themselves a 
patent exactly of the same governmental nature as the Compact, 
and in 1630 they obtained another. During tliis time they tried 
their best to get a charter from the King. 

It is sometimes said that because these patents did not receive 
the sanction of the King, the Plymouth Colony existed from the 
beginning to the end on the Mayflower Compact. But this reason- 
ing is not at all satisfactory. The Plymouth Company had, under 
their charter of 1620 full powers of government, and until the 
King signified liis dissent to their orders they had actual valid 
authority. Even if they were illegal, so was the Mayflower Com- 
pact, but the Plymouth Company's grants, while giving the same 
basis for a civil compact between the inliabitants of Plymouth, had 
tlie advantage of being the last in time and were asked for and 
acce])tcd by them, despite the Mayflower Compact. 

But what was the society formed by the 41 signers? New 
England writers represent it as a democracy, but it was no such 
thing. It was an aristocracy pure and simple. The 41 signers 
acted from the start as an exclusive body and only cautiously ad- 
mitted new comers into partnership in power. In 1643 the num- 
ber of males at Plymouth of military age was 627, but only 230 
exercised the suffrage {Plymouth Records VIII, 173-177). As 
the years rolled by the franchise became more and more restricted, 
until it finally resembled the system which prevailed in the neigh- 
boring colony of Massachusetts Bay (Channing, History of the 
United States, 1, 316). All power was vested in a few favored 
individuals called "Freemen," in contrast to the poor "inhabi- 
tants," who constituted by far the greater part of the population. 



Ideals of America. 7S 

While church membership was apparently not required for citizen- 
sliip at Plymouth and its associated towns, every freeman had in 
1671 to be "orthodox in the fundamentals of religion." And 
Palfrey in his New England admits that this law, which was very 
probably only a legislative recognition of tlie practice of much 
earlier times, amounted practically to a requirement of Church 
membership. (Palfrey, New England, II, 8.) In 1691 the Ply- 
mouth Colony was incorporated by the King witli Massachusetts. 
In his Fathers of New England, Dr. Charles M. Andrews of Yale 
University, declares that with the single exception of giving to 
New England the Congregational Church, the Plymouth settlers 
were "without importance in the world of thought, literature or 
education." Now it seems that Massachusetts Bay extended its 
ideals to Plymouth rather than Plymouth to Massachusetts Bay. 

And what were these ideals of Massachusetts? Autocracy, 
persecution and a system of education, directed, as in Germany be- 
fore the World War, to autocratic ends. Not a suggestion of 
democracy, freedom of religion, or education, contemplating a real 
generous purpose or culture of a modern example. 

As the charter of this colony vested authority only in those 
named in it and such as they chose to elect to share the authority, 
it appears that out of the hundreds that came with Endicott in 
1628 and Winthrop in 1630 only about eleven had any voice in 
the government. These, according to the use of the term, were 
the only "freemen," and though the number of freemen was 
shortly increased by the favor of these first, citizenship was con- 
strued as a privilege and not a right and made to depend upon 
membership in the Congregational Church, so that during nearly 
all the 17th century five-sixths of the people of Massachusetts 
were deprived of the ballot and taxed without any real representa- 
tion. 

It accordingly follows tliat as the very limited number of 
freemen were the only persons permitted to vote in the towns, 
the towns were oligarchies and not democracies. And this oligarchi- 
cal character was intensified by the authority of religion, which 
made a select clique consisting of the minister and deacons and a 
few favored laymen of highly orthodox godliness the real rulers 



76 Tyler's Quauteri.y Magazine. 

of every town. When a stranger asked Parson Phillips of the 
South Church at Andover "if he were the parson who serves 
here/' he received this reply, "I am, sir, the parson who rules here." 
(Charles M. Andrews in Colonial Folk Ways, p. 166). This same 
clique dictated who should represent the towns in the General 
Court, which made the laws of the Colony. And the Councillors 
or assistants, constituting the upper branch of the General Court, 
were secured a permanent official tenure by reason of the law af- 
fording to them "precedency of all others in nomination on the 
election day." So the Kev. Mr. Stone aptly described Massachu- 
setts in the 17th century as "a speaking aristocracy in face of 
a silent democracy." 

Though the charter of King William in 1691 introduced vari- 
ous salutary political reforms in Massachusetts, chief among which 
was the abolition of church membership for citizenship, the essen- 
tial principles of the Massachusetts Government remained the same 
till long after the American Revolution. The same little cliques 
maintained their hold on the towns and the ballot continued to be 
very limited. Dr. J. F. Jameson shows* that Just before the 
American Revolution only half as many people voted in Massachu- 
setts as did in Virginia. f Distinctions in society were as promi- 
nent a feature in the life of the Commonwealth as it had been in 
that of the Colony. To the very end of the colonial days dis- 
tinctions were observed with such punctilious nicety that the 
students at Harvard College were arranged according to the 
dignity of their birth and rank. 

The political ideas of Massachusetts were accepted in all the 
other New England Colonies. The basis of rule in each was a 
select body of "freemen," vested with the powers of government. 
This proved true even of Rhode Island, whose towns began their 
existence as a protest to the tyranny of Massachusetts by the estab- 
lishment temporarily of real democratic governments. The first 
authentic form of government established within the present ter- 
ritorial jurisdiction of Rhode Island was tlie charter obtained 



*Dr. Jameson in 2\^ew York Nation for April 27, 1893. 
tWilllam and Mary Quarterly, VI, 7-11. 



Ideals op America. 77 

from Parliament in 1644, which recognized the rule of a majority 
of the inhabitants. But this government had only a troubled and 
barely recognized existence, and in 1663 a charter was granted to 
William Brenton, Roger Williams, and others, investing them with 
the powers of a close corporation. Only such persons as they se- 
lected had any concern in the government. "In short, it abro- 
gated the democratic government established by the charter of 
1644 and created an oligarchy in its stead."* The ballot in Rhode 
Island became very restricted, and it took a rebellion in 1842 to 
overturn the aristocratic establishment. 

The governments of Connecticut, New Haven, New Hampshire 
and Maine were in the same lines of exclusiveness. Church mem- 
bership was not expressly required in Connecticut, but as the ap- 
plicant for the franchise had to be a man of "peaceable and honest 
conversation," this was very apt to mean church membership in 
practice. No one but a church member could be elected governor 
and in choosing the Assistants or Councillors, the same rule of 
"preference" prevailed here as in Massachusetts. In none of the 
colonies was the tenure of office more constant or persevering. 

In New Haven the aristocratic model was adopted by Rev. 
John Davenport and his followers, and a strictly church State was 
erected. The body of free burgesses was very cautiously enlarged 
from Court to Court. 

"By no stretch of the imagination," says Dr. Charles M. An- 
drews, Professor of History at Yale University, "can the political 
conditions in any of the New England Colonies be called popular 
or democratic. Government was in the hands of a very few men." 

Neither was there much change with the American Revolution. 
The towns still continued in the grasp of the autocratic cliques. 
As late as 1793 a newspaper writer complained that in Connecti- 
cut the chief magistrates were often chosen by one-twentietli of 
the legal voters. And in 1798 a writer from Norfolk County, 
Massachusetts, declared that "tlie country people this way in gen- 
eral never prepare their minds previous to a town meeting, and 



♦"Memorial of the Democratic Members of the Rhode Island 
Legislature," in Report of Mr. Burke, 28th Congress, 1st Session. 



78 TyLEB's QuABTEBLY jSkiAO-\/rNE. 

'( 

were therefore under the influence of their most influential and 
learned men, particularly the moderator." (Robinson, Jeffer- 
sonian Democracy in New England.) This explains why New 
England became the headquarters of the Federalist party, which 
had a fear of and contempt for popular rule. 

It was not till 1804 that a real democratic spirit began for 
the first time to exert itself upon the Puritan States. It came 
with the second election of Jefferson who carried all New Eng- 
land, except Connecticut. And the democratic influence in 1804 
did not come from Plymouth, but from Virginia. A brief re- 
view of the facts will make this clear. 

During the Colonial times in Virginia tlie chief power was 
vested in the House of Burgesses, and the basis of this house was 
remarkably free. Two years before the Pilgrims came to America 
the London Company, granted to Virginia a charter which auth- 
orized "the inhabitants" to elect burgesses to share in the govern- 
ment. By virtue of this authority the first Assembly met at James- 
town July 30, 1619. This was more than a year before the Ply- 
mouth Compact. 

After the revocation of the charter the right of suffrage was 
restricted to tlie "freemen," but this did not mean a selected num- 
ber as in Massachusetts, but all persons not servants or slaves. It 
included even free negroes. In 1671 the suffrage was limited to 
^^householders" and "freeholders," but as the act did not designate 
the amount of the freehold, the status of the suffrage was not 
materially changed by this law. (Spottswood's Letters, II, p. 1.) 
It was not till 1736, after the House of Burgesses had existed 117 
years, that a real limitation ensued. In that year the require- 
ment of a definite amount of land was for the first time declared. 
But even after that time many more people voted in Virginia 
than in Massachusetts. (Dr. J. F. Jameson in New York Nation 
April 27, 1893.) Notice too that suffrage rested on a general law, 
not on selection. 

It is not denied that there was a strong aristocratic influence 
in Colonial Virginia. But it was largely spectacular, and con- 
Btantly lost power. Negro slaves took the place of the menial 
whites of New EnD:land, and color, and not class, became the real 



Ideaxs of America. 79 

distinction in society ; and as time went on every white man in the 
18th century had to be treated as an equal and be accosted in public 
as "Mister" — a term of respect. Writing of the times immediately 
anterior to the Revolution, St. George Tucker said that there was 
no such tiling as "dependence of classes" in Virginia, and that 
"the aristocracy of Virginia was as harmless a set of men as ever 
existed." 

Edmund Randolph, who was one of the aristocrats, referred to 
the influence of the aristocracy at the beginning of the Revolution, 
as "little and feeble and incapable of daring to resist any privilege 
clashing with the rights of the people at large." (Henry's Henry, 
1, 209.) Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to John Adams as late as 
1814, derided the power of the Virginia aristocracy both before 
and after the Revolution and referred, in contrast, to the "tradi- 
tionary reverence" paid to "certain families in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, which had rendered the offices of those governments 
nearly hereditary in those families." (William and Mary College 
Quarterly, XXIII, 227; XXVI, 279.) 

Nor were there any rules regarding quality at William and 
Mary College, nor any election laws affecting the precedence of 
applicants for office, as in Xew England. 

The ultimate consequences of the social forces in Virginia and 
New England made themselves felt when for the first time after 
the American Revolution the two communities had the opportunity 
of directing, without foreign restraint, the government of their own 
country. Virginia became the headquarters of the Democratic 
Republican party — the party of popular ideas — and New Eng- 
land the headquarters, as we have observed, of the Federalist party 
— the party of aristocratic ideas. 

In the literature of the first twenty-five years after Inde- 
pendence nothing is more conspicuous than the hatred displayed 
by the oligarchies of New England against Jefferson and Virginia. 
He expounded a doctrine that was particularly hateful to them, and 
he soon felt the government shake under him by their frantic efforts 
in the town meetings. But in 1804 came his re-election as Presi- 
dent and glorious victory, when he carried all New England ex- 
cept Connecticut. Twelve years later the Federalist party — the 



80 ~ Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

pet of New England — had ceased to exist — and the Jeffersonian 
principle of the equality of men was adopted by all parties and 
carried by New England to an excess. 

The second principle characteristic of New England was per- 
secution. Massachusetts led in this, as in the autocratic prin- 
ciple, and Episcopalians, Baptists and Quakers successively felt 
the weight of her iron hand. Plymouth was never as great a 
sinner as Massachusetts, but as we have seen the basis of its politi- 
cal life was the Congregational Church, and there as elsewhere 
the other sects were outside the pale. In Plymouth very severe 
proceedings were adopted against the Quakers, with warm protests 
from those who sympathized with them, but Connecticut pun- 
ished any town for permitting them to remain within its jurisdic- 
tion, and any ship captain who landed them had to take them out 
again under heavy penalties. In New Haven a much sharper 
treatment still was visited upon them. Even in Ehode Island 
founded on the Puritan persecutions of Massachusetts, and where 
liberty of conscience was first preached in America, the ideals of 
Massachusetts blackened the record. Among the first laws enacted 
in Khode Island after the charter of 1663 was one denying to Ro- 
man Catholics the right to vote or hold office. 

Again Dr. Andrews ma}' be quoted conceniing religious con- 
ditions in Colonial New England, "Of toleration in New England 
excei)t in Rhode Island there was none." (Andrews, The Fathers 
of New England, 74.) 

Virginia had been by no means free from the persecuting spirit 
in colonial times, but tlie courts seldom inflicted severe punish- 
ments, and in the Declaration of Fights in 1776 freedom of con- 
science was put for the first time upon a philosophic footing. The 
paper of George Mason has this distinctive characteristic and no 
other paper previous to it has. After the Revolution the con- 
stitution of Massachusetts still gave the Congregational Church 
the preference and New England as a whole was priest ridden. 
The labors of the Methodist apostle. Jesse Lee, of Virginia (from 
1789 to 1797), and the Baptist missionary, John Leland (from 
1799-1824), who though born in Massachusetts, was by long 
residence a Virginian in heart and principle, prepared the way for 



Ideai.8 of America. 81 

the statesman Jefferson, whose success in 1804 was as much one for 
religious freedom as for political liberty. 

We are told in the Memoirs of Rev. Jesse Lee that the old 
spirit of persecution in Xew England was still so rampant at the 
time of his visit that he received much harsh treatment, and was 
often denied the use of the meeting houses and had to preach on 
tlie streets. The spiritual desolation of large parts of the country 
through which Mr. Lee passed was as surprising as it was pain- 
ful. There were hundreds of families and neighborhoods where 
a minister never came. He sometimes found "lewd fellows" in 
the congregations disposed to insult the minister and bring his 
services into contempt. In Provincetown, where the Pilgrims 
first put foot to land, he and his fellow Methodists were refused 
by the town authorities the right to put up a church, and when 
the Methodists nevertheless collected materials to proceed with 
the work a company of men assembled at night and burned the 
lumber. 

Mr. Lee visited the melancholy scene in the morning and said 
sadly: "I feel astonished at the conduct of the people, consider- 
ing we live in a free country and no such conduct can be justified." 

Jefferson's re-election in 1804 put the stamp of success upon 
the work of Lee and Leland ; and the doctrine of religious free- 
dom, which they all three taught, went to leaven the whole mass 
of society in New England. Never again was the church the same 
in that section of the country. 

Through the great influences of the light brought from Vir- 
ginia, laws were gradually passed disestablishing religion, and the 
authority of the autocrats declined. The Calvinistic doctrine of 
Predestination upon which the preachers based their political in- 
fluence became an obsolete dogma. 

We now come to the third ideal of Massachusetts, which has 
been greatly exploited — its school system. No nation laid greater 
stress on its school system than Germany before the late World 
War, and yet there were no greater sinners against humanity and 
the international law than the German professors. It all de- 
pends upon the object to which a school system is directed 
whether it is a good thing or not. In Germany the whole pur- 



82 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

pose was to strengthen the hands of the autocrats, and in Massa- 
chusetts the schools served a similar purpose. The maintenance 
of the theocracy was the real thing, which is proved hy the fact 
that the law forbade all but members of the Congregational Church 
from teaching school. "Every grammar master had to be ap- 
proved by the minister of the town and the ministers of the two 
next adjoining towns, or any two of them, by certificate under their 
hands." 

When we come to consider the operation of the system, it was 
singularly defective. The selectmen had to appoint the teachers 
but the parents had to pay them, so the schools were never free 
schools in our sense. Nor was there any regularity in the schools. 
The statutes complain from time to time of the "shameless neglect" 
of the towns in observing the laws. Many towns preferred to pay 
the fines than have a school, and in the records there is frequent 
mention of gross ignorance of the children, which required them 
to be bound out. The few schools that existed were taught two 
months in winter and two months in summer, and the education 
imparted was a bare ability to read and write. Most of the people 
could do neither. 

The autocratic ideal of education, of which Massachusetts was 
the champion, entered into the life of all the other Colonies of 
New England. Wbatever real output there was went to the main- 
tenance of the churcli. Sometimes, out of the dense mass of igno- 
rance, there arose a learned minister, who had been through the 
Harvard Grammar School, but very seldom a learned lawyer or 
learned anybody else. The people, especially of Rhode Island and 
Plymouth, were singularly illiterate, and records written by town 
officers and letters written by even prominent persons in New 
England are full of bad spelling. Of Plymouth, W. Root Bliss writes 
in his Old Colony Toivn : "There were no free schools. 'Every 
scholler that comes to wright or syfer or to lern Latin shall pay 
3 pence per weeke, if to Reade Only then to pay three half pence 
per weeke,' says the town Record of July 31, 1699." As late as 
1793 a project to establish a school for girls at Plymouth was op- 
posed because it might teach wives how to correct their husbands 
errors in spelling. 



Ideals op America. 83 

The true ideal of Public Education came from a native and 
resident of Virginia, not from the Massachusetts School System. 
This colony had many more educated people than New England, 
and the single County of York (including Williamsburg and York- 
town) had more private libraries than perhaps all New England 
put together. In making the education of the poor and the estab- 
lishment and support of William and Mary College a matter of 
public legislation, it recognized that education was a matter of 
public concern. Now while it cannot be claimed that this recogni- 
tion extended to the present educational ideal, it was a Virginian, 
Thomas Jefferson (taught at William and Mary) that gave to the 
world the true plan of the public education. The principles of his 
great bill of 1779 afforded, for the first time, the real basis of the 
public school system as it exists in the United States to-day. No 
other person had so complete a grasp of the situation, and his 
measure was the most luminous conception ever presented to a 
legislative body. Under his system education was to be free and 
it was to be a State matter, not a town matter, a unit and not 
a plurality. More important still its object was to enable the citi- 
zen to know his rights and duties as such, which was something 
totally different from the Massachusetts idea of strengthening and 
maintaining a theocratic oligarchy. 

To what is to be attributed the origination by Virginia or at 
least by Virginians, of the ideals which now dominate the Ameri- 
can people? The answer is to be found in the spread of the free 
thought and scientific enquiry that characterized the middle of 
the eighteenth century. The writings of Voltaire, Rousseau and 
Montesquieu, repudiating the dogmatism of the churches and the 
authority of rulers, were reinforced by the researchers of tlie natural 
philosophers, and found a generous welcome in Virginia. In 1758 
Francis Fauquier, a devotee of the sciences and Fellow of the 
Eoyal Society, arrived as governor and the same year Dr. Wil- 
liam Small, the associate of Erasmus Darwin and James Watt, 
eame to Williamsburg as professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy in the College of William and Mary. At Williams- 
burg speculation on all kinds of questions became rife. Fauquier 
and Small delighted in the societv' of young men, and at Fau- 



84 Tylee's Quabterly jMagazine 

quier's table, where Small was a constant attendant, the youth of 
Virginia learned their lessons in the civil and religious rights of 
man. Among the students on whom profound impression was 
made was Thomas Jefferson. 

He absorbed the spirit that floated about him and became its 
noblest expression. And with his marvelous power of impressing 
others, he created the Americanism of today and is incomparably 
the greatest vital force in American history. 



VIRGINIA, FOUNDER OF THE WORLD'S NAVIES. 

Virginians at Jamestown in 1607 laid the Foundation of this 
great Republic, and in 1619 they laid broad and wide the Founda- 
Tiox of its democracy, at the Assembly that year, elected by tlie 
free vote of all the "inhabitants" of Virginia. By Virginians 
driving away the French in 1613 and 1614 from the New Eng- 
land Coast, and saving the Plymouth Colony from starvation in 
162'?. as the good Bradford himself narrates, they enabled the 
Pilgrim Fathers to make their stand on this continent, and thus 
Virginia was the Founder of New England. 

More than any other of the colonies, Virginia, under the leader- 
ship of Patrick Henry and George Washington, Founded the Union 
and secured tlie independence of the Country. And under the 
leadership of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, 
John Marshall and Edmund Randolph they had a chief part in 
Founding for that Union the government under which we live. 

Democracy, whose foundation a century and a half before, 
had been laid at Jamestown, had admittedly, at the time of the 
American Revolution and afterwards, its best expression in the 
Statesman Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the immortal Declara- 
tion of Independence; and the Democratic-Republican party, of 
which he was the head and inspiration, had its headquarters in Vir- 
ginia, during all the early days of the Republic. The Federalists, 
who had their headquarters in New England, had little confidence 
in a strictly popular rule. 



Virginia, Founder of the World's Navy. 85 

Through its Presidents, Washington, Jefferson, Monroe and 
Tyler, the Republic was expanded till, in the place of a fledgling 
nation stretching along the Atlantic coast about 400 miles inland, 
there was Founded a Continental power reaching 3,000 miles 
from one ocean to the other. 

No State or Nation, of either the old or new world, has fur- 
nished to history such a host of ideal men as Virginia, and we 
can challenge any of them to show two such noble characters as 
George Washington and Eobert Edward Lee. And there were 
also such men as Jefferson, Madison, Marshall, Monroe, Joseph E. 
Johnston, Stonewall Jackson, &c. — masterful men — pure of speech, 
chaste of action and sublime of character. 

The North, on the other hand, though it has produced many 
able men, masterful men, has produced no ideals. We can admire 
the intellectual power of Benjamin Franklin and Alexander 
Hamilton, I)ut their private lives were highly immoral and not fit 
to be cited for the imitation of the youth of the land. We can 
admire some of the writings of Abraham Lincoln, a distinctly in- 
ferior man intellectually to 1^'ranklin or Hamilton, but, if there 
were no other objections to him, and there are not a few, we would 
hardly care to teach our children to imitate his example of telling 
filthy stories. 

And so in regard to Webster, John Adams, John Quincy 
Adams, Ulysses S. Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Henry Ward 
Beecher, &c. In them we recognize plenty of intellectuality but 
often traits so unlovely as forever to prevent them from being 
ideals. The best of these morally were the two Adamses, but the 
childish vanity of the one and the fierce malignity of the other, 
as shown by his Diary, can not justly give either of them a place 
among America's ideal heroes. 

The simple truth has been that the North, in laying stress 
upon the commercial values of men, has not been able in any age 
to produce that ideality which is a combination of supreme pa- 
triotism, complete disinterestedness and perfect purity of speech 
and conduct. The society of Virginia and the South, with all its 
imperfections, resulted in inspiring a high and scrupulous sense 



86 Tyler's Qtjaetebly Magazine. 

of honor,* and the Southern citizen, however faulty himself, de- 
manded perfection in his heroes. 

This sentimental value attaching to men in the South explaina 
why the favorite songs of the nation have been songs redolent of 
tlie South. Each state of the South has its songs, and "Dixie" is 
the song of a section which never fails, whenever heard, to arouse 
enthusiasm. The "Sewanee River," "My Old Kentucky Home," 
"Carry Me Back to Old Virginia," and countless other songs, by 
authors wherever born, were inspired by the spirit of the South. 
Indeed, the euphonious names of the Southern States — Virginia, 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, &c., lend themselves to song, but it 
is well-nigh impossible to associate song with such raucous names 
as Massachusetts, Ehode Island, Connecticut, and New York. 
There is no song like "Dixie" marking off the North as a distinct 
section. Indeed, history shows that the State and locality ap- 
pealed more to the Soutliern man than to the Northern. 

There is, in truth, a kind of all embracing meaning attaching to 
the name of Virginia, which is very suggestive. A'^irginia was the 
name given to the whole of North America by the Virgin Queen 
Elizabeth of England, and Plymouth and New England and New 
York were only part* of North Virginia. "United States of 
America" are not a name but mere words of description. The 
real historic name for the Republic is Virginia, and there could 
be no sweeter, cleaner or purer designation. 

Call this talk "heroics" if you choose, but it is at least satis- 
factory to the writer, and wil suit very well as an introduction to 
his article. So many Foundings were accomplished through the 
agency of Virginia, that it is not surprising that, in addition to 
what has been mentioned, Virginia may claim to be Founder of 
the World's Navies. 

The publication in this magazine, for the first time, it is be- 
lieved, of the official report of John L. Worden, captain of the 
Ericsson Battery, the Monitor, revives the memory of an affair 



♦Hence the "honor system" which prevailed at William and Mary 
College, the University of Virginia, the University of North Carolina 
and other Southern schools and colleges. 



ViKGINIA, FoUiSDEE OF THE WoELD^S N^AVY. 87 

which justifies the claim, and it may be set forth briefly as follows : 
During the night of April 20, 1861, the United States forces 
abandoned the Xorfolk Xavy Yard, after a partial destruction of 
the ships, stores and cannon at that depot. Among the vessels 
then at the Xavy Yard, out of commission, was the United States 
frigate Merrimac. She belonged to the new class of fifty gun 
frigates of 3,500 tons, with auxiliary steam power. She was built 
at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1855, and had made several 
cruises, and upon returning from her last cruise was put out of 
commission at the Xorfolk Xavy Yard and was moored alongside of 
the dock. In her best days, her speed, under steam power, had not 
exceeded seven miles, and it had run down, at the close of her last 
service, to four or five miles per hour. At the evacuation of Xor- 
folk, she was set on fire and burnt to the water's edge, and her 
machinery and boilers were still further damaged. 

The Confederate Government did not lose much time, but raised 
the hull of the Merrimac, which was about 275 feet in length, and 
put her in the dry dock. Then under the management of those two 
masterful engineers and constructors, John Mercer Brooke, of 
Virginia, and John L. Porter, of Virginia, who may be considered 
as the Fathers of the modern naval warfare, they covered the 
central part of the hull, about 160 feet long, with a roof of oak and 
pine wood, 22 inches in thickness, inclined at an angle of 35 de- 
grees. 

Upon this structure of wood they caused to be placed 4 inches 
of iron, consisting of plates about eight inches wide and two inches 
thick. There were two courses of these plates — one longitudinal 
and the outer course up and down. The forward and after ends 
of the roof were rounded, and the apex of the roof was flat, al- 
most eight feet wide, and covered over with permanent gratings 
of two inch square iron. The gratings were pierced by four hatch- 
ways to permit egress from the gun decks to the grating or outside 
of the ship. That part of the ship's bow and stern not enclosed in 
the casemate, about 58 feet at each end, was covered with decking 
plank and was under water. The vessel, when in fighting trim, 
had much the appearance of the roof of a house afloat. Her prow 
was of cast iron, projected four feet from the stem, was under 



88 T-XLEll's QUARTEELY MaGAZINE. 

water two feet, and weighed one thousand five hundred pounds. 
Her engines and boilers were the old ones still further impaired 
by the action of fire and sea wat-er. 

Her battery consisted of 4 Brooke rifle guns and six nine-inch 
Dahlgren shell guns. She was capable of a speed not exceeding 
3% miles an hour. 

On the 8th of March, 1862, this strange craft, now christened 
"The Virginia," with Captain Franklin Buclianan in command, 
Lt. Ro. D. Minor as eecond in command and Lt. Catesby ap B. 
Jones as third in command, cut loose from the Navy Yard, and, 
attended by two small wooden vessels, the Beaufort and Raleigh, 
mounting one gun each, moved slowly down the Elizabeth River. 

As no one aboard knew what her capabilities were, tlie men 
of the crew were subjected to some mental anxiety. The boat 
under its new conditions, being utterly untried, the prevailing 
doubt, both on the shore and on board, was that, at tlie first broad- 
side from the enemy, she might experience some sudden disaster, 
and go headlong to the bottom of the water. She had a crew on 
board of 320 men, most of whom had never been on a ship before, 
"land-lubbers" that had little but tlieir courage to recommend 
them as sailors. Without a trial trip, with workmen on the ship 
up to the last minute, with a crew and officers strangers to each 
other and to the ship, with no opportunity to get things into shape 
or to drill the men at the guns or instruct them in their various 
duties, the Virginia, went forth to challenge the power of the 
great Federal Government. 

On this day the United States had at anchor in Hampton 
Roads, off Newport News, the steam frigate Congress (50 guns) 
and the steam sloop Cumberland (24 guns), and near Fort Monroe 
were the frigates Minnesota (48 guns), the Roanoke (40 guns), 
St. Lawrence (50 guns) and Brandywine (50 guns), and there 
were in addition, twelve gunboats carrying 33 guns, making in all 
295 guns afloat. On these ships there were considerably over 3,000 
men. In a position to assist this formidable fleet were the batteries 
at Fort Monroe, the Ripraps and Newport News, which mounted 
more than an equal number of guns, and were manned by several 
thousand soldiers. 



Virginia, Fouxder of the World's Navy. 89 

A formidable collection of fighting materials truly ! The sailors 
on tlie Federal battleships were trained seamen, brave men, proud 
of their ships and flag and used to their duties. The men on shore 
were trained soldiers, officered by experienced superiors. They 
were confident of their powers and they could not believe that 
the proud array of which they were a part had anything to fear 
from one slow-moving iron-clad vessel of ten guns supported by 
five small wooden steamboats of eleven guns, for, as the Virginia 
reached the Roads, she was joined from James Eiver by tlie steam- 
boats, Patricl- Henry, YorMown and Teazer. 

The complete victory won by the Virginia on that day is so 
imiversally admitted that it is not necessary to go into details. 
She sank the Cumherland, burnt the Congress, silenced tlie forta 
at Xewport Xews, badly crippled the Minnesota, drove the Boanol'e„ 
St. Lawrence and Brandyirine to the protection of the guns of 
Fort Monroe, and scared off the gunboats constituting the rest of 
the fleet like a flock of small birds. 

In the course of the fight the Confederate fleet had some 45 
meii killed and wounded, most of them being on the wooden 
auxiliaries. The total loss on the Virginia were two men killed 
and eighteen wounded. Capt. Buchanan and Lieut. Minor were 
tadly wounded, and the command of the Virginia devolved on 
Lieutenant Catesby ap R Jones. The Federals lost 30 men in 
prisoners, and had about 400 officers and men on the ships killed 
and wounded. Gen. Mansfield, who commanded at Newport Xews, 
and had part in the fight, wrote : "Our ships were perfectly help- 
less against the Merrimac, as our broadsides produced no material 
effect upon her." The BeheUion Records show that the govern- 
ment fell into a perfect panic, and at a cabinet meeting Secretary 
Stanton said, "the Merrimac will change the whole character of 
the war.'' 

In this remark of Stanton is read the significance of the vic- 
tory. It was not a mere defeat of the Federal fleet, but a demon- 
stration that scrapped the navies of the world. By her prowess 
that day the Virginia changed the character of naval warfare 
everywhere by showing that a wooden vessel, no matter how gal- 
lantly served and manned, had little chance in combat with an 



90 Tyler's Quaetebly Magazine. 

iron clad one, even when of very imperfect make and manned with 
raw militia. 

Then and there Virginia Founded tlie present navies of the 
world. 

But in the same spirit that places the cart before the horse, 
makes 1620 an earlier date than 1607, snubs Jamestown out of 
existence and celebrates the landing of the Pilgrims as the first 
colony, most N'orthern writers turn the whole world-wide signifi- 
cance on the 3ubse(iuent battle of March 9th. The Monitor, which 
had no share in the battle of the 8th, is lugged in to share with 
the Virginia, the glory of tlie new departure in naval construction 
and warfare, or even to monopolize the glory. And so great adepts 
at propaganda have been the N'orthern people as a rule that they 
have actually persuaded some Southern writers to accept their 
views in this matter, as they have done in many other unreasonable 
things. 

As a matter of fact, however, the battle of March 9th had no 
real significance of a worldwide nature. It was a contest be- 
tween ironclads, and the most that could be decided in such a fight 
was a question of superior courage or one of superiority of type 
in the iron ships. f 

We have no wish to cast any doubt upon the excuse given by 
Capt. Worden for his long delay in making his official report,* 
as in relating the details of the figlit, his report is more candid 
than that of Lieutenant S. Dana Greene, who succeeded him in 
command. There is overwhelming evidence from both Federal 
and Confederate sources that the Monitor first retired from the 
engagement and this was later admitted by Lieutenant Greene, but, 
in his official report of March 12th, 1862, Greene says nothing 
about it. Captain Worden, in his official report., is honest enough 
to state the fact without concealment. After a shell from the 
Virginia exploded on the outside of the pilot house, damaging it, 



tThe modern battleship is apparently a combination of the Vir- 
ginia and Monitor — retaining the shape of the first and the revolving 
turret of the other. 

•Captain Franklin Buchanan, who was also badly wounded, made 
his report, eighteen days after March 9th, 1862. 



ViEGiisriA, Founder of the Woeld's !N'avy. 91 

and seriously injuring Capt. Worden's eyes, he, thinking that his 
ship had received some serious injury, gave the order "to sheer 
off." The only really objectionable thing about the report is that, 
after this admission, he should say that the Virginia was driven 
off "crippled and discomfited." A vessel that had "sheered off" 
from the fight was in no position to claim that it had driven its 
antagonist away, because that antagonist did not choose to await 
the pleasure of its return. 

How long, indeed, did the Monitor remain away from the fight? 
In the official report of Lt. Greene there is, as stated, no mention 
of this retirement, but in his article later on he admits that after 
\Yorden was wounded there was great confusion on the Monitor, 
which "moved without direction" (whatever that means) for at 
least 20 minutes. (S. Dana Greene in Century Magazine for 
March, 1885). Capt. Worden in this report seems to say that the 
Monitor under Greene only returned to the scene of battle after 
the Virginia had left for Xorfolk. Lt. Jones, who commanded the 
Virginia in the fight, says that "the Monitor did not leave the 
shoal to which she had retreated, until we had crossed the bar on 
the way to Xorfolk." And Midshipman Virginius Newton, later 
one of the most prominent citizens of Richmond, goes further and 
declares that the Virginia waited for the Monitor to return three- 
quarters of an hour, and that "he had a distinct recollection that 
at this time when the Virginia had crossed the bar and was well 
on her way to Norfolk," the Monitor "while she fired a gun, made 
no motion to come out into deep water." {Southern Historical 
Society Papers, XX, pp. 1-26. See also account of Dinwiddle 
Brazier Phillips, surgeon on the Virginia, in Va. Historical So- 
ciety Collections, Vol. VI.) 

In strong confirmation of Mr. Newton's statement is the of- 
ficial report of C. J. Van Brunt, captain of the Minnesota, which 
had been stranded, and was the veiy ship the Monitor had come 
out expressly to protect. 

In relating the withdrawal of the Monitor after the injury to 
the pilot house, and the wounding of Captain Worden, Van Brunt 
says the Monitor "stood down for Fortress Monroe and we thought 
it probable that she had exhausted her supply of ammunition, or 



92 Tyler^s Quarterly Magazine. 

sustained some injury," that, when "soon after the Merrimac 
headed for his ship," he then "felt to the fullest extent his con- 
dition," and characterizing it "as an extreme dilemma" ordered, 
on consultation with his officers, "every preparation to be made 
to destroy the ship after all hope was gone of saving her." 

Certainly, then, Capt. Van Brunt was far from regarding 
the action of the Monitor as that of a victorious vessel chasing off 
a "discomfited" adversary, or even that of a temporaiy retirement. 
In these words and all that follow in his report, there is not a 
syllable about the Monitor's returning to his assistance or any 
hint that he owed his salvation to her. On the contrary, if his re- 
port of things means anything, it gives positive evidence that the 
Monitor retreated to Fort Monroe three miles distant, leaving 
the Virginia in possession of the field, and the Minnesota, which 
had fought vigorously, unprotected and at her mercy. 

Capt. Van Brunt gives a pitiful accoimt of the condition of 
his ship. He was hard and immovably aground. During the 
time the Virginia fought the Monitor she had also fought the 
Minneiiota, and put several shells into her which had done much 
damage. A shell had blown up the tug boat Oregon which lay 
alongside, producing much consternation. And now there was no 
friend around to help him, not even a tug boat. 

But it seems the Virginia did not drive Capt. Van Brunt to 
his last desperate resolves, for he says that when he ascended to 
the poop deck, after the council with his officers, he saw that "the 
enemy's vessel had changed its course and was heading for Craney 
Island." 

Then how was his ship saved? Why, by the great draught of 
the Virginia which Avas 2'3 feet. While engaged with the Monitor 
slie had fired repeatedly at the Minnesota, which was assisting the 
Monitor with her powerful broadsides, but she could not come 
close enough to do the work of destruction effectively. This is the 
reason that Capt. Van Brunt gives why he was not destroyed the 
day before. '"Very fortunately the iron battery drew too much 
ivater to come within a mile of us." So that the same reason which 
saved him when the Monitor was not around, saved him when she 
•was. 



ViKGixiA, Founder of the World's J^avy. 93 

The inability to reach the Minnesota, while it proved the sole 
reason that she was saved, was not the sole reason that induced the 
return of the Virginia to ISTorfolk. She had not come oft' alto- 
gether without injury, in the fight of the previous day. The fact 
is that so long as the great wooden battleships remained afloat 
they had proved far more dangerous than the Monitor. When the 
Cumherland, the Congress and the Minnesota discharged their 
broadsides, there was something doing. So while the Virginia 
had received no injury from the Monitor and not one of her of- 
ficers or men had been hurt by any of the shots from tliat vessel, 
she had, according to the report of Lt. Jones, {Naval War Records, 
7, p. 42), incurred considerable damage in the fight of the first 
day (March 8). Slie had lost her prow in ramming the Cumber- 
land, and two of the ten guns had their muzzles knocked off. The 
anchors and all flagstaffs were shot away and the smoke stack and 
steam pipe were riddled, which made it difficult to keep the fires 
going in the furnaces. The pilot of the Virginia having assured 
Lt. Jones that he would inevitably run aground, if he attempted to 
proceed much nearer to the Minnesota, the Monitor itself being 
out of reach, the ship needing repairs and the men worn down 
with two days consecutive fighting, the officers of the Virginia 
determined to avail themselves of the remaining two and a half 
hours of flood tide and return to her base at Norfolk. There was 
no more reason to attribute retreat to her for doing tliis now, than 
if she had returned to her base for repairs on the day before, as 
ordinary prudence should have suggested to Lieutenant Jones. 

All the honor of the battle, therefore, remains with the Vir- 
ginia. She had won two great victories in two successive days. 
A similar performance was unknown to Naval Annals. Called 
upon to fight two battles without hardly an intermission, her un- 
trained crew were necessarily under great mental strain and phy- 
sical fatigue. There can be little doubt that if the Virginia had 
met the Monitor the day before, when the men were fresh and the 
boat intact, she would have sent the Monitor to the bottom of the 
Roads. And this, despite the fact that the Monitor was far more 
heavily armored than the Virginia, scarcely presented any surface 
above the water, and was exceedingly nimble by the lightness of 



94 Tyler's Quaetebly Maoaztjjb. 

her draft which was only eleven fleet. The crew of the Monitor, 
imlike that of the Virginia were picked seamen and the boat too, 
according to Capt. Worden, himself, was fully tested before sail- 
ing, in nearly every particular. 

Without underestimating the competency and courage of the 
Monitors crew, or its own remarkable adaptedness to warfare, 
I am sure that the prow and great weight of the Virginia would 
have done the business for her, if employed under favorable condi- 
tions. Dr. Charles Martin, Surgeon of the Cumberland, was dis- 
tinctly of this view. (Virgitim Historical Collections, Vol. VI. 
^'Career of the Virginia," by Dinwiddie B. Phillips). 

That this is not a far-fetched conclusion is shown by the at- 
titude assumed by the respective governments. After the Virginia 
had been repaired and her formidable prow restored, the Con- 
federate Government and the officers of the Virginia tried very 
earnestly to force a new engagement in Hampton Roads, but the 
Federal Government laid the Monitor under strict injunctions not 
to risk herself in another battle without ample support and oppor- 
tunity of taking the Virginia at disadvantage. 

Twice the Virginia returned to the Roads and challenged the 
Monitor, April 11, 18G2, and May 8, 1862, but in each case the 
Monitor declined a new encounter. 

In the first of these visits, on April 11th, the Virginia cruised 
around the Roads undisturbed the whole day. The Monitor lay 
under the guns of Fort Monroe, and though the Virginia by way 
of challenge, fired three shots at her, (Naval War Records, Vol. 
7, p. 222), she never left her station or even made a return fire. 
One of the wooden gun boats, the Jamestown, that accompanied 
the Virginia, steamed up under the guns of the Monitor, and at 
the mouth of Hampton River captured three federal vessels — a 
schooner and two brigs ladened with supplies. The Monitor did 
nothing to prevent this insult. For this daring act, the Con- 
federates were cheered by the men of the English corvette Rinaldo, 
commanded by Captain W. N. Hewitt, later an admiral. 

This inertness on the part of the Monitor greatly mortified the 
Monitor's crew, who on April 25th, addressed a letter to their 
wounded captain, then off duty, in which, after reciting that the 



ViEGiNiA^ Founder of the World's Navy. 95 

Mmitor, on April lltli, "fired not one shot/' they said: "The 
Norfolk papers say we are cowards in the Monitor and all we want 
is a chance to show them where it lies with you as our Captain 
we can teach them who is cowards." {Naval War Records, Vol. 
7, p. 40). The New York Herald, of April 15, commenting on 
this affair said, "The public are very justly indignant at the con- 
duct of our Navy in Hampton Eoads on Friday last." 

The Virginia subsequently stationed herself near Craney Is- 
land, occasionally going back to Norfolk, for more repairs. Ee- 
turning from such a trip on May 8th, she found tlie Monitor, and 
the Federal fleet, shelling the Confederate batteries at Scwell's 
Point. The Virginia made straight for them, but the enemy 
ceased firing and retired with all speed to Fort Monroe. 

This kind of conduct was very unlike that of a conqueror con- 
fident of his prowess, and its explanation was still less so. It was 
a desperate manoeuvre, as confessed by Commander Goldsborough, 
of the United States Navy, to entice the Virginia single-handed 
to engage Fort Monroe and the Monitor, while the immense wooden 
steamer Vanderhilt, the Baltimore, San Jacinto, and other mer- 
chant vessels, should simultaneously hurl themselves upon her re- 
gardless of their own safety. (Naval War Records, Vol. 7, p. 330. 
See also report of D. C. Constable, Lieut. Commanding U. S. 
Steamer, E. A. Stevens, otherwise called, "The Naugatuck," ibid. 
332.) When in 1884 application was made to congress for $200,- 
000 to be distributed to the men of the Monitor for defeating the 
Virginia, the committee on Naval Affairs made a strong adverse 
report: "We assume that the proof shows that the only serious 
damage sustained by the Merrimac was inflicted by the Cumber- 
land and that the Merrimac went back to Norfolk when her adver- 
saries (the Monitor and the Minnesota) were out of reach, and 
they being in shoal water and she on account of the great depth 
of water which she drew unable to attack them, went into dock 
for repairs and again came out and offered battle which was re- 
fused." 

Hardly less disingenuous, from an historical standpoint, was 
the wholly extravagant estimate placed for a long time upon the 
capabilities of the Virginia by northern writers. The fears of tlie 



96 Tyler's Quarterly Magazik^e. 

Federal government were taken as the measure, not for her own 
sake but for praising tlie Monitor, which was credited with prevent- 
ing the destruction of not only the Minnesota but of all the Nortli- 
em coastal cities. As a matter of fact, it is very doubtful whether 
the Virginia could have successfully run by the powerful guns of 
Fort Monroe and escaped destruction from the Vanderhilt and its 
fleet of suicidal assistant vessels. And if it had accomplished this 
feat, she was so crudely constructed that she would have probably 
foundered at sea in a short time. 

The real truth is that the Monitor did not afEect the situation 
to any great degree, if at all. According to Lt. Greene himself, 
she did not, with her much heavier guns, in her four hours' com- 
bat do any damage to the Virginia.. She did not save the Minne- 
sota nor any of the other Federal vessels. Their salvation was 
due to the shoal water and to Fort Monroe, to which they all 
finally retired. 

The result would have been probably the same, if the Monitor 
had never appeared in the field of action. Fort Monroe was the 
great factor on the Federal side. Had the Virginia been capable 
of passing Fort Monroe and riding the ocean successfully, there 
was no reason why she could not have calmly left the Monitor alone 
and gone on her mission of destruction. But a perusal of the 
Confederate documents, published in the Naval War Records, 
makes it very clear that tlie danger of what seemed practically 
suicide was duly appreciated by the Confederates, and her depar- 
ture would have left Norfolk open to attack of any Federal vessel. 

The Virginia effected in her sliort cruise all that could be 
reasonably expected of her. Her victories were none the less com- 
plete because she did not destroy the Monitor or the Minnesota. 
She went out to do all the damage she could, and she did it. 

After the ineffectual efforts on ^lay 8, made to provoke the 
Monitor to fight, the Virginia took her station two miles north 
of the mouth of the Elizabeth river, where it was easy for the 
enemy's vessels to engage her if they so desired. But the Monitor 
and all the other Federal ships kept clear of the formidable iron- 
clad. 

Two days later, Xorfolk was evacuated by Gen. Johnston's army 



ViEGiNiA, Founder of the Wokld's Navy. 97 

and Commodore Josiah Tatnall, the Virginia's new commander, 
announced his determination to force his way past Fort Monroe, 
if possible, and ascend the York Eiver. From this he was deterred 
by the pilots who assured him that, if he could reduce the ship's 
drauglit four feet tliey could take him up to Richmond. 

The Commodore consented to attempt this, and lightened ihe 
ship considerably by throwing everything but the ammunition 
overboard. Then the pilots came to him and declared that, owing 
to the unfavoral)le wind which had been blowing for some time, 
it would be impossible to cross the bar with even 18 feet of w-aLer. 

The ship was now in a condition that was perfectly defenseless. 
The rudder and propeller were entirely unprotected and the wooden 
hull was everywhere exposed. The fresh water was all gone and 
not enough provisions had been preserved to last another 24 hours. 

The commodore, recognizing the helplessness of the situation, 
stranded the vessel at Craney Island, disembarked the crew and 
blew up the ship. This was on May 11, 1862. 

Catesby Jones was the last officer to leave the Virginia. Tie 
and the rest were hurried to Drewry's Bluff up James River, seven 
miles from Richmond, and there on May 15, they took part in 
driving off the Monitor which, with the ironclad Galena and sev- 
eral other vessels, attempted to force a passage to the Confederate 
Capital. 

The hopes of the Southern people concerning the Virginia had 
been as exaggerated as the fears of the Federal Government. Com- 
modore Tatnall was assailed very severely for his destruction of 
a vessel in which all the pride and glory of the South were cen- 
tered. He demanded a court martial, and, after a full hearing, 
was acquitted on every point. 

But there is, nevertheless, something distinctly disappointing, 
even to a Southern man at this day, about the end of the Virginia. 
There can be no question of the courage of Tatnall. lie is the 
man who in 1857 had aroused great enthusiasm in this country 
when, in command of a Unitxid States vessel, he had interfered 
to protect the English at Peiho from the barbarous Chinese, with 
the declaration: "That blood is thicker than water." But the 
heroic element makes an appeal to Americans everywhere. It 



98 Tylee's Quabterly Magazine. 

might, in a practical sense, have been a very unwise thing to at- 
tempt, but one cannot but regret that Tatnall did not adhere to 
his resolve to defy the guns at Fort Monroe and the Ripraps and 
sail up the York. Had he succeeded in his purpose, he would 
have added immensely to the discomfiture of the North, and to the 
prestige of the South. Had his ship gone down in single combat 
with the Forts, the Monitor and the host of assistant vessels, her 
career would have closed in a blaze of glory, fit ending for such a 
ship. 

In this connection, one thinks of Sir Kichard Grenville, a hero 
who stands on the threshold of American colonization. He com- 
manded the expedition which Sir Walter Raleigh sent to Roanoke 
Island in 1585. He was later in 1588 one of the Admirals who 
helped to defeat the Spanish Armada. He performed other great 
services, but nothing in naval warfare is more memorable than 
his death. In an expedition led by Lord Charles Howard in 1591 
against the Spanish plate fleet, Grenville was Vice-Admiral, and 
he opposed his ship single-handed against five great Spanish gal- 
leons, supported at intervals by ten others, and he fought them 
during nearly fifteen hours. Then Grenville's vessel was so bat- 
tered that it resembled a skeleton rather than a ship, and of the 
crew few were to be seen but the dead and the dying. Grenville liini- 
Belf was captured mortally wounded, and died uttering these 
words: "Here die I, Richard Grenville, with a joyful and quiet 
mind, for that I have ended my life, as a true soldier ought to do, 
fighting for his country, queen, religion and honor." 

OFFICE OF 

NAVAL RECORDS AND LIBRARY 
NAVY DEPARTMENT 

Wabhxngton, D. C, 28 June, 1921 
Mr. Lyon G. Tyler, Editor, 
Tyler's Quarterly Historical 
and Genealogical Magazine, 
711 Travelers Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Dear Sir: 

In reply to your letter of May 26th addressed to the Secretary of 
th« Navy in which you requested information concerning the report 



VlBGINIA^ FOUNDES OF THE WoELd's NaVY. 99 

made by Captain John L. Worden of the Monitor in 1868 regarding 
the action with the Merrimac fought at Hampton Roads on March 
9, 1862. 

There is enclosed herewith a copy of the report made by Captain 
Worden. There have been other inquiries concerning this report, but 
whether or not it has been published in the sense of being printed is 
not known here. 

The officer who succeeded to the command, Lieutenant S. D. 
Greene, and was consequently the commanding officer, at the end of 
the engagement, made the official report to the Secretary of the Navy 
as Is customary, — as you have doubtless noted on page 25 of the "Of- 
ficial Records" (volume 7). His very brief account was somewhat 
amplified by him in "Battles & Leaders of the Civil War." 

Trusting that this information may be of some service to you, 
Very truly yours, 

W. D. MacDougall, Captain, U. S. N., 
Officer in Charge, Office 
of Naval Records and Library. 
Enclosure. 

OFFICE OF 

NAVAL RECORDS AND LIBRARY 
NAVY DEPARTMENT 

Washington, D. C, 28 June, 1921. 

MEMORANDUM. 

To accompany copy of Report by Captain John L. Worden U. S. N., 
dated January 5, 1868, concerning the Fight between the U. S. S. 
Monitor and the Merrimac, which occurred 9 March, 1862 at Hampton 
Roads. 

The original manuscript of Captain J. L. Worden, 4th paragraph, 
leaves the date of commission blank. It would appear that he did 
not remember the date and intended to fill It In later but did not do 
so. 

The Monitor was launched In New York January 20, 1862, com- 
missioned in February, 25th, and sailed March 6, 1862 from New 
York. 

While it is true that Captain Worden of the Monitor did not 
make a report immediately subsequent to the fight, It Is obvious that 
this was due to his being disabled by wounds. Lieutenant S. D. 
Greene, as officer succeeding to the command, made the official report 
of the action to the Secretary of the Navy, as is the Navy custom. 



100 Tyler's Quabtekly Magazine, 

and this report is found on page 25, volume 7 of "Official Records 
of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion." 
Reports and letters of other officers on the same subject follow Lieu- 
tenant Greene's official report. 

Captain Worden's report, while it includes an account of the 
action, explains in the first paragraph that it is written for the pur- 
pose of doing justice to Lt. Greene who "has been annoyed by un- 
generous allusions to the fact that no official record existed at the 
Department in relation to my (Captain Worden's) opinion of his 
conduct on that occasion." 

Captain Worden's letter or report written in 1868 was not in- 
cluded in the "Official Records" as printed for the reason that the 
compilers of these volumes from the beginning decided to print only 
contemporary accounts of action. 

W. D. MacDougaix, Captain, U. S. N. 

Officer in Charge, Office of 

Naval Records and Library, and 

Historical Section. 

Report of Captain John L, Worden, U. S. Navy, to the Secretary 
of the Navy, concerning the services of Lieutenant S. D. Greene, U. S. 
Navy, on the U. S. S. Monitor, March 9, 1862. 

Bbooklyx, N. Y., January 5, 1868. 

Sir: Recently learning that Lieutenant-Commander S. D. Greene 
the executive officer of the Monitor in her conflict with the Merrimack 
In Hampton Roads, on the 9th of March 1862, has been annoyed by 
ungenerous allusions to the fact that no official record existed at the 
Department, in relation to my opinion of his conduct on that occa- 
sion, I desire now to remedy a wrong, which I regret should so long 
have existed, and to do justice to that gallant and excellent officer, as 
well as to all the officers and crew of the Monitor, who, without ex- 
ception, did their duty so nobly in that remarkable encounter, by 
placing on the files of the Department the following report. 

In order to do full justice to him and to the others under my 
command, I beg leave to state narratively the prominent points in 
the history of that vessel from the date of my orders to her, until 
the encounter with the Merrimack. 

I was ordered to her on the 13th of January 1862, when she was 
still on stocks. Prior to that date, Lieutenant S. D. Greene had In- 
terested himself in her and thoroughly examined her construction and 
design, and informed himself as to her qualities, and notwithstanding 
the many gloomy predictions of naval officers and of officers of the 



Tylek^s Quarterly Magazine. 101 

against wind and sea. Between 7 and 8 o'clock however, we got into 
smoother water and were enabled to so far clear the engine room of 
gas as to permit the blower bands to be repaired and the blowers to 
be gotten in motion, and by 8 o'clock were on our course again, with 
the engines going slowly and a comparatively smooth sea. This lasted 
until shortly after midnight, when in crossing a shoal the sea sud- 
denly became rough again, broke violently over the deck, causing fears- 
of another disaster to the blowers. The wheel ropes too, became en- 
tangled and jammed and for half an hour, until it was cleared, the 
vessel yewed unmanageably and seriously endangered the towing 
hawser, which fortunately held and in a short time we were clear 
of the shoal and in smooth water again. From this time no further 
serious mishap occurred, and about 4 o'clock p. m. of Saturday, March 
8th, we passed Cape Henry light and soon after heard heavy firing in 
the direction of Fortress Monroe, indicating an engagement, which I 
rightly concluded to be with the Merrimack. I immediately ordered 
the vessel stripped of her sea rig, turret keyed up and in every 
way to be prepared for action. About midway between Cape Henry 
and Fortress Monroe, a pilot boat came alongside and gave us a pilot, 
from whom we learned of the advent of the Merrimack, the disaster 
to the Congress and Cumberland, and the generally gloomy condition 
of affairs in Hampton Roads. 

About 9 o'clock p. m. we anchored near the frigate Roanoke, Cap- 
tain Marston, the senior officer present, to whom I reported, and who 
suggested that I should go to the assistance of the frigate Minnesota, 
then aground off Newport News. Finding difficulty in getting a pilot, 
I accepted the services of Acting Master Saml. Howard, who earn- 
estly volunteered for that service, and under w^hose pilotage we reached 
the Minnesota about 11:30 o'clock p. m., when I reported to Captain 
Van Brunt, her commanding officer, and anchored near him at about 
1 o'clock a. m. of Sunday March 9th. He hoped to get his ship afloat 
at high water, about 2 o'clock, but failed to do so. At daylight the 
Merrimack, with several consorts, was discovered at anchor under 
Sewell's Point. I went at once to see Captain Van Brunt, whose vessel 
was still aground, a good deal damaged from the attack of the day 
before and in a helpless condition. After a few minutes conversation 
with him in relation to the situation of affairs, I left, telling him 
that I would develop all the qualities, offensive and defensive, pos- 
sessed by the "Battery" under my command to protect his vessel 
from the attack of the Merrimack, should she come out again, and 
that I had great faith in her capabilities. Soon after reaching my 
vessel and at about 7:30 o'clock a. m. the Merrimack was observed 
to be underway, accompanied by her consorts, steaming slowly. I 



102 ViBGiNiA, Founder of the World's Navy. 

mercantile marine as to the great probability of her sinking at sea, 
volunteered to go in her, and at my request was ordered. From the 
date of his orders, he applied himself unremittingly and intelligently 
to the study of her peculiar qualities and to her fitting and equipment. 
When she was nearly ready for putting in commission, I was author- 
ized by the Department to select a crew from the receiving ship North 
Carolina, or any other vessel of war in the harbor of New York. 
Under that authority I asked for volunteers from the North Carolina 
and the frigate Sabine; and after stating fully to' the crews of those 
vessels the probable dangers of the passage to Hampton Roads, and 
the certainty of having important service to perform after arriving 
there had many more men to volunteer than was required. From 
them I selected a crew, and a better one no naval commander ever 
had the honor to command. 

She was put in commission on the day of February 1862, 

and from that time until her day of sailing. Lieutenant Greene and all 
the officers and crew displayed untiring energy and zeal in her fitting 
and equipment, and in the conduct of the several trials of her engines, 
turret machinery, etc. 

She left the lower bay of New York on the afternoor of the 6th 
of March, with a moderate wind from the westward and smooth sea, 
in tow of a small tugboat, and accompanied by the U. S. steamers 
Currituck and Sachem. About midday of the 7th, tne wind had 
freshened to a strong breeze, causing in our then position off the 
capes of the Delaware, a rough sea, which broke constantly and vio- 
lently over her deck and forcing the water in considerable quantities 
into the vessel through the hawse pipes, under the turret and in vari- 
ous other places. About 4 o'clock p. m. the wind and sea still in- 
creasing, the water broke over the smoke and blower pipes, (the 
former 6 feet and the latter 4 feet high) which wetting the blower 
bands caused them to slip and finally to break. The blowers being 
thus stopped, there was no draft for the furnaces and the engine and 
fire rooms became immediately filled with gas. The senior engineer, 
Mr. Isaac Newton, and his assistants met the emergency with great 
determination, but were unable to fight against the gas, which in a 
very short time prostrated them, apparently lifeless, upon the floor 
of the engine room, from which they were rescued and carried to the 
top of the turret, where they finally revived. With motive power 
thus useless for propulsion or pumping, the water which was enter- 
ing the vessel in many places, was increasing rapidly. The hand 
pump was used and men set to work bailing, but with little effect. 
The tugboat, having us In tow, was ordered to head directly inshore, 
but being light and of moderate power, she could move us but slowly 



Virginia, Founder of the World's Kavy. 103 

got underway as soon as possible and stood directly for her, with 
crew at quarters, in order to meet and engage her as far away from 
the Minnesota as possible. As I approached the enemy, her wooden 
consorts turned and stood back in the direction from which they had 
come, and she turned her head up stream, against the tide, remain- 
ing nearly stationary, and commenced firing. At this time, about 
8 o'clock a. m. I was approaching her on her starboard bow, on a 
course nearly at right angles with her line of keel, reserving my fire 
until near enough that every shot might take effect. I continued to 
so approach until within very short range, when I altered my course 
parallel with hers, but with bows in opposite directions, stopped the 
engine and commenced firing. In this way I passed slowly by her, 
within a few yards, delivering fire as rapidly as possible, and re- 
ceiving from her a rapid fire in return, both from her great guns and 
musketry, the latter aimed at the pilot house, hoping undoubtedly to 
penetrate it through the lookout holes and to disable the command- 
ing oflBcer and helmsman. At this period I felt some anxiety about 
the turret machinery, it having been predicted by many persons, that 
a heavy shot with great initial velocity striking the turret, would 
so derange it as to stop its working, but finding that it had been 
twice struck and still revolved as freely as ever, I turned back with 
renewed confidence and hope and continued the engagement at close 
quarters, every shot from our guns taking effect upon the huge sides 
of our adversary, stripping off the iron freely. Once, during the en- 
gagement, I ran across and close to her stern, hoping to disable her 
screw, which I could not have missed by more than 2 feet. Once, 
after having passed upon her port side, in crossing her bow to get 
between her and the Minnesota again, she steamed up quickly and 
finding that she could strike my vessel with her prow or ram, I put 
the helm "hard a port" giving a broad sheer, with our bow towards 
the enemy's stern, thus avoiding a direct blow and receiving it at a 
sharp angle on the starboard quarter, which caused it to glance with- 
out inflicting any injury. The contest so continued except for an 
interval of about fifteen minutes when I hauled off to remedy some 
deficiency in the supply of shot in the turret, until near noon, when 
being within 10 yards of the enemy a shell from her struck the pilot 
house near the lookout hole, through which I was looking, and ex- 
ploded, fracturing one of the "logs" of Iron of which it was com- 
posed, filling my face and eyes with powder utterly blinding and in 
a degree stunning me. The top of the pilot house too, was partially 
lifted off by the force of the concussion which let in a flood of light, 
so strong as to be apparent to me, blind as I was, and caused me 
to believe that the pilot house was seriously disabled. I therefore 



104 TyLEk's QuAKTEBLY MAGAZINr. 

gave orders to put tlie helm to starboard and sheer off and sent for 
Lieutenant Greene and directed him to take ocmmand. I was then 
taken to my quarters and had been there but a short time when it 
was reported to me that the Merrimack was retiring in the direction 
of Norfolk. In the meantime Lieutenant Greene, after taking his 
place in the pilot house and finding the injuries there less serious than 
I supposed, had turned the vessel's head again in the direction of 
the enemy, to continue the engagement, but before he could get at 
close quarters with her, she retired. He therefore very properly re- 
turned to the Minnesota and lay by her until she floated. 

The Merrimack having been thus checked in her career of de- 
struction, and driven back crippled and discomfitted, the question 
arises should she have been followed in her retreat to Norfolk? That 
such course would commend itself very temptingly to the gallantry 
of an officer and be difficult to resist, is undeniable, yet I am con- 
vinced that under the conditions of affairs then existing at Hampton 
Roads, and the great interests at stake there, all of which were en- 
tirely dependent upon the Monitor, good judgment and sound discre- 
tion forbade it. It must be remembered that the pilot house of the 
Monitor was situated well forward in her bows and that it was quite 
considerably damaged. In following in the wake of the enemy, it would 
have been necessary, in order to fire clear of the pilot house, to have 
made broad "yaws" to starboard or port, involving in the excitement 
of such a chase, the very serious danger of grounding in the nar- 
rower portions of the channel and near some of the enemy's bat- 
teries, whence it would have been very difl[icult to extricate her, pos- 
sibly involving her loss. Such a danger her commanding officer would 
not, in my judgment, have been justified in encountering, for her 
loss would have left the vital interests in all the waters of the Chesa- 
peake at the mercy of future attacks from the Merrimack. Had there 
been another ironclad in reserve at that point, to guard those inter- 
ests, the question would have presented a different aspect, which could 
not only have justified him in following, but perhaps made it his im- 
perative duty to do so. 

The fact that the battle with the Merrimack was not more de- 
cided and prompt was due to the want of knowledge of the endurance 
of the Xl-inch Dahlgren guns with which the Monitor was armed, 
and which had not been fully tested. Just before leaving New York, 
I received a peremptory order from the Bureau of Ordnance to use 
only the prescribed service charge, viz. 15 pounds, and I did not feel 
justified in violating those instructions, at the risk of bur.sting one of 
the guns, which placed as they were in turret, v/ould almost entirely 
have disabled the vessel. Had I been able to have used the 30-pound 



Virginia, Founder of the World's Navy. 105 

charges which experience has since shown the guns capable of en- 
during, there is little doubt in my mind, that the contest would have 
been shorter and the result more decided. Further the crew had 
been but a few days on board, the weather bad, mechanics at work 
on her up to the moment of sailing and sufficient opportunity had not 
been afforded to practice them properly at the guns, the mode of 
manipulating which was entirely novel. A few days at Hampton Roads 
to have drilled them and gotten the gun and turret gear in smooth 
working order (which from having been constantly wet on the pas- 
sage was somewhat rusted) would have enabled the guns to have been 
handled more quickly and effectively and with better results. 

And now sir, I desire to express my high appreciation of the zeal, 
energy and courage displayed by every officer and man under my 
command during this remarkable combat, as well as during the try- 
ing scenes of the passage from New York. I commend one and all 
most heartily to the favorable consideration of the Department and! 
of the country. 

Lieutenant Greene, the executive officer, had charge in the turret, 
and handled the guns with great courage, coolness and skill and 
throughout the engagement as in the equipment of the vessel, and 
on her passage to Hampton Roads, exhibited an earnest devotion 
to duty, unsurpassed in my experience, and for which I had the honor 
in person to recommend him to the Department and to the board of 
admirals (some three years since) for advancement, in accordance 
with the precedent established in the case of Lieutenant-Commander 
Thornton, the executive officer of the Kearsarge. I beg ieave now, 
most respectfully and earnestly to reiterate that recommendation. 

Acting Master Saml. Howard, who volunteered as pilot, stood by 
me in the pilot house during the engagement and behaved with cour- 
age and coolness. He has since been promoted to acting volunteer 
lieutenant for his services on that occasion. 

Chief Engineer A. C. Stimers, U. S. N. made the passage in the 
vessel to report upon the performance of the machinery, etc., and 
performed useful service during the engagement in manipulating the 
turret 

First Assistant Engineer Isaac Newton, the chief engineer of 
the vessel and his assistants, managed the machinery with attention 
and skill and gave prompt and correct attention to all the signals 
from the pilot house. 

Acting Assistant Paymaster W. F. Keeler and Captain's clerk 
Danl. Toffey, made their services very useful in transmitting my orders 
to the turret. 

Peter Williams, quartermaster, was at the helm by my side and 



106 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine. 

merited my admiration by hia cool and steady handling of the wheel. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John L. Worden, 
Captain. 
Hon. Gideon Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy, 
Washington, D. C. 



CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO LORD BOTETOURT. 

There have recently come into the possession of the State 
Library some interesting letters and papers relating to the death 
and estate of Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, who waa 
the most beloved and popular of all Virginia's colonial governors. 
They constituted at one time a part of the papers of Robert Carter 
Nicholas, the celebrated treasurer of Virginia, who enjoyed his 
Lordship's particular confidence and friendship, and was his execu- 
tor in Virginia. Lord Botetourt was the son of John Syrnes 
Berkeley, Esq., of Stoke GifTord, County Gloucester, England, by 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Walter Norborne 
of Caline, County Wilts. He was bom in 1718, and served as 
colonel of the North Gloucestershire militia and member of i'arlia- 
ment, and afterward in 1767 became constable of the Tower of 
London. 

Since the recall of Sir Edmund Andros in 1698, no governor- 
in-chief had resided in Virginia, but the emoluments of the office 
had been shared between a governor-in-chief, who resided in Eng- 
land and a Lt. Governor, who resided in Virginia. Now to appease 
the growing discontent over the revenue law, the home authorities 
sent Botetourt over with the full title and authority of Governor 
Oeneral. He was appointed in July, 1768, and arrived in the 
Colony October 28, 1768. 

His reception was enthusiastic, and his affable deportment made 
him immediately very popular, which was increased shortly after 
his arrival when he joined \nth his council in declaring writs of 



Correspondence Relating to Lord Botetourt. 107 

assistance illegal. The enforcement of these writs in Massa^ 
chusetts had stirred up a protest from James Otis in 1761, but 
his words had had no effect on the Massachusetts Governor, and 
the writs were enforced in that colony down to the Eevolution. 

On another question Botetourt was not in harmony with the 
people of Virginia. Massachusetts had passed some very mild 
resolutions condemning the Revenue Act, and Parliament had 
gotten angry and sent over to have the offending parties arrested 
and brought to England for trial. Massachusetts denied any in- 
tention to resist, and allowed British troops to quarter in Boston. 
All the rest of the colonies were silent. But when the Virginia 
Assembly convened in May, 1769, not long after Botetourfs ar- 
rival, the Burgesses passed stirring resolutions condemning Parlia- 
ment. They reasserted the ancient right of taxation, maintained 
the lawfulness of a concert of the colonies and particularly de- 
nounced the flagrant tyranny of carrying persons beyond the sea 
for trial. 

The effect of this action was immense and Bancroft says, "Vir- 
ginia set the example for the continent." Everywhere there was 
a rhapsody of praise, and soon the Virginia resolves were adopted 
by every colony on the continent, in many of them, including 
Massachusetts, word for word as they passed the Virginia As'sem- 
bly. Parliament felt the pressure and abolished all the taxes except 
a small one on tea. 

Botetourt did not approve the action of the British Govern- 
ment, but he was too loyal to his superiors to countenance the 
Virginia resolutions, and so he dissolved the Assembly. But he 
counted upon a speedy repeal of the Revenue Act, and, when only a 
partial repeal was made, it is said that he contemplated a resigna- 
tion of his office, and was only prevented from sending it on by 
his sickness and death, which occurred Oct. 15, 1770. 

There are various contemporary notices of his social acts, his 
dinner companies at the palace, the distinction of his manners 
and the urbanity of his address. Through his munificence two 
gold medals were established in the College of "William and Mary, 
to be given annually, one for excellence in classical learning and 
the other for excellence in philosophy. Eight of these prizes 



108 Tyleb's Quakteklt Magazine. 

were bestowed, when the American Eevolution put a stop to them. 
They were said by Wm. J. E, Marvin, Editor of the American 
Journal of Numismatics, to be the earliest of their kind in the 
United States (William and Mary Quarterly, IV, 2'63). 

Lord Botetourt was honored with a splendid funeral and he 
was buried in a vault underneath the floor of the chapel of Wil- 
liam and Mary. About five years later there was deposited in a 
vault near his own the remains of Peyton Randolph who pre- 
sided over the Assembly which passed the celebrated protest of 
May 16, 1769, and was afterwards first President of the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

The nephew and heir of Lord Botetourt was Henry, fifth 
Duke of Beaufort, son of his sister Elizabeth Berkeley. He 
heired his estate and title of Baron de Botetourt, for Lord Bote- 
tourt was never married and left no issue. In his letters pub- 
lished below, the Duke refers to a monument, which he intended 
to erect to his uncle's memory, but it seems the intended monu- 
ment was never raised. Probably it was prevented by the action 
of the Virginia Assembly, who on July 20, 1771, voted a statue 
to his lordship's memory. Both the Council and House of Bur- 
gesses were unanimous. 

The statue was made in London by the best sculptor in Eng- 
land, Richard Heyward, whose name is inscribed upon it. Its 
pedestal was decorated with an inscription apparently composed 
by Richard Bland suggestive of the admiration and gratitude of 
the people of Virginia {William and Mary Quarterly, V, 155). 
It was taken to Virginia in The Virginia, of which Howard Esten 
was captain, and reached tliere in May, 1773. The Va. Gazette of 
May 30, 1773, making tliis announcement, said it cost 700 
guineas. {Ihid.. XXI, 62.) Afterwards Gov. Benjamin Harrison 
in a letter to Jefferson, put its cost at £950, inclusive of tlie cost 
of shipping, but exclusive of the pay to the men sent over to put 
it up. (Gov. Benjamin Harrison's Letter Book, p. 369.) It was 
placed in the hall of the capitol. {William and Mary Coll. Quar- 
terly XXVII, p. 241.) It was seen by Mr. Weld much mutilated 
in that place in 1798. Some time after this it was transferred to 
the grounds of tb.e College of William and Mary. Here it re- 



CORKESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOURT. 109 

mained before the College steps until tiie outbreak of the Civil 
War, when it was transferred for preservation to the grounds of the 
Eastern State Hospital for the Insane. After the war was over, 
it was taken back to the College where it still stands in the path- 
way before the main College building, rather the worse for wear. 

It is one of the few pieces of statuary that survives the colonial 
period and probably nothing in any of the colonies equalled it in 
artistic character. The head and one arm was knocked off dur- 
ing the American Eevolution, but they were afterwards restored. 

There is a cenotaph to Lord Botetourt in the present church 
of Stoke Gifford, Gloucestershire, doubtless put there by his nep- 
hew, the Duke. 

The letters below from the Duke are originals. Most of the 
other papers are copies by Robert Carter Nicholas, who doubtless 
wrote the originals. 

(See for an interesting account of Lord Botetourt William 
and Mary College Quarterly, V, 165-171.) 

Virginia, Octor. 30th. 1770. 
My Lord Duke 

It is with infinite concern that we acquaint your Grace with 
the death of his Excellency Lord Botetourt, our late most worthy 
Governor; which happened on the loth. inst. after about three 
weeks Illness. We think we may venture to say that never was a 
loss more universally lamented; so large a share had his Lordship, 
by his many endearing Qualities, gained of the affections of all 
Ranks of people; and we flatter ourselves that your Grace will be 
persuaded that every human Effort was exerted to preserve a life, 
in which this whole Colony considered herself so exceedingly in- 
terested. 

Some embarrassments were occasioned by his Lordship's hav- 
ing omitted, till it was too late, to give directions about his affairs 
here ; these, however, it was endeavored to remedy in such manner, 
as will be best explained by the enclosed Transcript from the Re- 
cords of our General Court then sitting. The funeral was attended 
with som.e expense, of which particular Accounts shall hereafter 
be transmitted to your Grace. The managers, &c., we believe, the 



110 Tylek's Quaetebly Magazine. 

whole Country thought themselves called upon by every sentiment 
of Gratitude & affection to pay the most respectful regard to his 
Lordship's memory, and it will afford them no small satisfaction, 
if the manner in which it was conducted, should meet with the 
approbation of your Grace, and his Lordship's other friends in 
England. 

We have made an exact and perfect Inventory of his Lord- 
ship's effects, of which you will receive a copy enclos'd. Thinking 
it rather indelicate to particularize his Lordship's wearing apparel 
in the Inventory, we have there omitted it; but, for your satis- 
faction, we send you a distinct account of every article. Some few 
things in the House, of which we inclose a Memorandum, are of 
so perishable a nature, that we judge it most prudent to dispose 
of them as soon as possible, and will take care to have it done in 
the best manner. As to the rest, your Grace will be pleased to 
give such Order about them, as you may think proper. It occurs 
to us, as probable that some of the Articles, which you may not 
chuse to have sent over to England, may suit his Lordship's suc- 
cessors; many pieces of the Furniture are in tlie best taste, and 
we believe most of the liquors are good in their kind. The Slaves 
are reckon'd orderly & valuable, & perhaps, may be convenient to 
our next Governor. His Lordsp brought over with him a good 
many white Servants, and, after a short trial found it convenient 
and necessary to purchase and hire Negroes to assist in the busi- 
ness of his family, and do the Drudgery without doors. We pre- 
sume your Grace will have no inclination to transport the Horses 
to England ; and, upon considering that the expense of maintaining 
them, till your pleasure can be known, must be very considerable, 
we have thought it advisable to accept an offer made by a Gentle- 
man, by which he agrees to take them all at the same price they 
cost his Lordship, and keep them at his own expence. Bisque, till 
a new Governor arrives, and, if he chuses it, to let him have them 
at the same Rates; this proposal was made and accepted, as well 
to save charges to the Estate, as that the Governor may be accom- 
modated with a Sett of horses immediately on his arrival if he 
should incline to take these. 

We have thought it advisable to retain in the Service of the 



COBBESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOTTET, lit 

Estate, William Marshman, who proved a most valuable and faith- 
ful Servant to his Lordship, that the Furniture and other things 
may be taken care of, and we have also continued, as his assistant, 
Thomas Fuller another excellent Servant, till we receive your 
Grace's commands. Permit ns, if your Grace should incline to 
treat with a succeeding Governor for any of the articles contained 
in the Inventory, to recommend referring the several prices to 
to an appraisement to be made here by some reputable and judicious 
persons upon Oath. 

The exceeding great respect we have to his Lordship's mem- 
ory will ever incline us to render every acceptable Service, in 
our power, to your Grace and all others with whom he was con- 
nected; if therefore you should think fit to honour us with your 
Commands, we have only to beg the favour of you to be as particu- 
lar and explicit as possible in every respect, that we may be able 
with greater certainty and precision to answer your Grace's ex- 
pectations and wishes. 

We have the honour to be your Grace's 
most respectful and Obedt. hble. Servts. 
By Wm. Nelson, 
John Eandolph, 
Robert Carter Nicholas, 
Geo. Wythe, 
Jno. Blair. 

To the Honble. William Nelson, Esq., 

John Eandolph, Robert Carter Nicholas, George Wythe, and 
John Blair, Junr., Esquires. 

The Monument cannot be conveniently erected over the Grave, 
Gentlemen : 

I did not till la.st night receive your letter of October 30th, 
being the Duplicate, with the very melancholy account of Lord 
Botetourt's Death, Or I should sooner have acknowledged it. 

I must beg leave. Gentleman, thro You to make my best com- 
plimts. to the Council, and to return them many thanks for the 
great care that they have taken of Lord Botetourt's affairs in Vir- 
ginia by appointing such Gentlemen as you are, to be at the trouble 



112 Tylee's Quarterly Magazine. 

of managing them, And at the same time I can not be unmind- 
full how much I and all Lord Botetourt's Friends and Relations 
are indebted to you, for the great Regard, Resjject, and Esteem 
You have shewn to my late Dear Friend by directing so very hand- 
some a funeral and conducting it with so much Order and De- 
cency; And I shall be most ready to pay any Expence that may be 
incurred thereby. 

I understand by a Letter from Marshman to Ld. Botetourt's 
agent, Wm. Conway, that his Lordship expressed a desire some 
time before he died to be bury'd in Virginia, so that I do not 
intend removing the Body to England, but hope the President, 
&c. of the College will permit me to erect a monument near the 
place where he was buried, as the only means I have to show the 
sincere affection and regard I bore him when alive, and to express 
in some degree my sorrow and affliction for his Death. At the 
same time I flatter myself it will not be disagreeable to the Vir- 
ginians to have this remembrance of a person whom they held in 
such high estimation and whose loss they so greatly lament. 

As I wish as nearly as possible to fulfill Lord Botetourt's in- 
tentions, and as I know it was one of tlicm to present at his de- 
parture the Pictures of the King and the Queen and the State 
Coach with the furniture thereto belonging, to the Colony for 
the use of the succeeding Governor, I must trouble you therefore, 
Gentlemen, to desire the Council on behalf of the Colony to accept 
of them, and to receive them of me as a small return for the many 
distinguished marks of honor and esteem they have shewed my 
dear friend when alive, the care and attention they bestowed on 
him when ill, and the Respect and affectionate regard they paid 
to his memory in his funeral. 

For my own part, Gentleman, my most sincere thanks are 
due to you for the great assiduity and readiness with which You 
undertook these affairs, and for the trouble you have been at on 
my acct. by securing the Effects which by the generous Donation 
of the kind testator devolve to me. It gives me great satisfaction 
to hear that Marshman and all Lord Botetourt's Servants behaved 
themselves so well to their late Master, and I approve entirely 
of vour Direction to Marshman to stay there till all the Effects 



COKEESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOUKT. 113 

are disposed of, and that there may be as much trouble as possi- 
ble taken off your hands, I have by this same opportunity directed 
Blandford, of whose honesty and fidelity I have the highest opin- 
ion, to remain in Virginia and jointly to take your Direction and 
to execute your commands. 

I shall inclosed a list of those things that I would have sent 
to England, the rest of the things I desire may be disposed of to the 
best advantage either by public or private sale. 

I must desire You to be very careful of all of his public and 
private Papers and Accounts, And to give Directions that they and 
all his small things of Value should be put into the Mahogany 
Desk or Library Table or any other package you shall Judge most 
proper, and sent to England with the rest of the things in the 
List, by the first opportunity of a ship to Bristol. 

I desire that all Lord Botetourt's wearing apparell & body 
Linnen may be given to Marshman. 

It is unnecessary for me to add that I wish to have the State 
of his Lordship's acct. transmitted to me as soon as possible 
I am, 

Gentlemen 

Your most Obed'nt, most oblig. humble 
Ser't. 

Beaufort. 
Badminton. 

Jan. 2, 1771. 

Virginia 27th May 1771. 
My Lord Duke. 

We have been honoured with your Grace's favour of the 2d. 
of January & are much pleased to find that our Endeavours to 
pay a proper tribute to the memory of our late worthy Governor, 
have met with your approbation; We have already discharged 
the whole expences of his Lordship's Funeral & every other demand 
that we know of out of such fees & other Emoluments of the Gov- 
ernment as were due to him at the time of his death. 

In Complyance with your Grace's Eequest, we have had such 
Things as you were pleased to direct should be sent over to Eng- 



114 Tylee's Quarterly Maga^xxe. 

land, carefully packt up & now only wait a good opportunity of 
shipping them. We have not yet been able to prevail witii one of 
the Bristol Captains to take them on tolerable Terms, & are appre- 
hensive that our Difficulties, in this respect, will continue, unless 
your Grace can procure an order from some of the Merchants of 
Bristol to one or more of their Captains to receive them; Our last 
Crop of Tobo. was so exceedingly plentiful that the Captains very 
readily procured tlieir Freights of that commodity & therefore 
dont care to run the Risque of incurring the Displeasure of their 
owners by abridging consignments to them which yield so large 
a profit. We will, however continue our Endeavours to procure 
a passage for your goods, & so soon as this can be obtained, we 
will not fail giving your Grace the earliest Notice of it, that you 
may insure, or not, as you think fit. 

We have sold all the rest of Lord Botetourt's Effects in this 
Country except a few things still remaining on Hand & we think 
to good advantage; Tho, from the great scarcity of money here, 
we Judged it most advisable to allow credit for all sums above £10, 
till the 25th of Oct. next; by this means the prices of most articles 
were very considerably advanced. We hope in a short time to be 
able to make your Grace a Remittance & to transmit full & dis- 
tinct accounts of the sales & of our whole Transactions ; & you may 
rest assured that the Balance shall be sent to you as soon as we are 
able to collect the money, after it becomes due. 

We have communicated to his Majesty's Council that very 
polite & generous Paragraph of your Grace's letter, in which you 
are pleased to desire their acceptance of the King's & Queen's pic- 
tures & the State Coach for the use of the Colony; they have de- 
sired Mr. President Nelson to offer their grateful acknowledg- 
ments to your Grace for this obliging Favour, which they esteem 
the more highly, considering it as a genteel memento of a dear 
departed friend. 

The President & Professors of our College upon being in- 
formed of yr. Grace's purpose to erect a monument to Lord Bote- 
tourt's memory near the place of his Interment, have signified to 
us their unanimous & warmest approbation of it and we are pur- 
suaded that the Virginians will be much pleased with this & every 



COBBESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoBD BoTETOUBT. 115 

other Monument that tends to perpetuate amongst them the Re- 
membrance of a Governor they held in such high estimation. That 
your Grace may not be at a loss as to the size & Dimensions of a 
monument which will best suit the Chapel we take the liberty of 
furnishing you with the enclosed memo. & for yr. farther Informa- 
tion beg leave to refer you to the President of the College himself, 
Mr. Commissary Horrocks, who will shortly embark for England 
for the Recorery of his Health & will pay his respects to your Grace 
in person. 

We have the Honor to be Yr ; Grace's 
Very respectful & most obt. hble. servts. 
(Robert Carter Nicholas' writing) 

The Monument cannot be conveniently erected over the Grave, 
as it would spoil two principal Pews & incommode the Chapel 
considerably in other respects. 

If it is proposed to have it in the form of a Pyramid, it can 
be placed conveniently in no part, except at the Bottom of the 
Isle fronting the Pulpit, where it would appear to advantage, if the 
Dimensions should not be thought too much confined; the Isle 
itself is about ten feet wide; there must be a Passage left on 
each side of the monument at least two feet & an half, so that the 
width of the monument, which will form the Front can be no 
more than five feet. 

A flat monument may be fixt still more commodiously in the 
side of the wall nearly opposite to the Grave. Between two large 
windows, there is a strong brick Pier six feet and an half wide; 
the length of this pier from the ceiling down to the wainscot is 
twelve feet and an half, & from the Top of the wainscot to the 
floor eleven feet and an half more ; if the Height from the "Wainscot 
to the ceiling should not be tliought sufficient, we suppose there 
would no Inconvenience in leting the monument down into the 
wainscot as low as the Floor, but then the bottom Part of it would 
be hid by the Front of the pew. 

(Robt. Carter Nicholas' Writing.) 



116 TiVLlifi's QUAKTERLV MaGAZIJSB. 

Sir: 

I received your letters of Novr. 12th. & Jan. 2d. with Bills 
to the amount of 1809 10.7 stg. a few Days ago and cannot let 
pass the earliest opportunity of acknowledging and at the same 
time thanking you very sincerely for the very great trouble and 
care you have taken of my affairs in Virginia. I am afraid that the 
things sent by Capt. Cawsey are lost, as nothing has been heard of 
his ship since he left Virginia. I cannot help mentioning how 
extremely assiduous Mr. Norton has been to get the Statue, so 
nobly voted by the Assembly to the memory of Lord Botetourt, 
done in a handsome and elegant manner, to answer so generous 
and so noble an Order. He was with me the other Day and shewed 
me a Drawing that I believe he means to get completed, and if it 
is executed properly by the man that undertakes it, I flatter my- 
self it will give satisfaction to those who have expressed so much 
regard to the Person it represents. I must beg leave again to 
thank you for the great care you have been at and I should be 
happy ever to have it in my Power to return your civilities, I am, 

Sir, Your most obdient humble sevt. 
Beaufort. 

Grosvenor Square, 
Mar. 6-73. 

Virginia 8th. June 1771. 
My Lord Duke : 

Since our letter of the 27th. ulto we have agreed with Capt. 
John Cawsey of the Ship Planter belonging to the Messrs. Fare! 
& Jones of Bristol to carry to that part the things you were pleased 
to order This opportunity has offered much sooner than we ex- 
pected, & we believe was chiefly owing to a dreadful & pretty gen- 
eral Calamity which has happened by vast Floods of water issueing 
down from the mountains and destroying such large quantities of 
Tobacco in the public warehouses that the Captain could not so 
readily procure his lading as was expected. We have agreed to 
allow him 15. stg. for the Freight of the Goods & £25 stg. for 
his primage & extraordinary care of the Plate, &c. If your grace 
should think the Freight too high, we have further agreed to refer 



COKBESPONDBNCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOUET. 117 

it to you & the owners of the Ship to settle the matter in such 
manner as you & they may think more reasonable. The captain 
would by no means agree to take the Things unless something 
certain was fixed here, & we thought it adviseable to come into 
these terms, tlie very lowest that could be obtained, rather than 
they should remain in the Country another year. We are appre- 
hensive that he may be under Difficulties in landing the China & 
perhaps some of the other articles. We would therefore recom- 
mend it to your Grace previous to the arrival of the ship to procure 
a license from proper authority; this was done when the late 
Governor Fauquier's china, &c. was sent over to England. We 
cant with any Precision fix the value of the several articles, but, 
if you choose to insure them we think you may venture to estimate 
the whole at about £9000 stg; of this, however your Grace will be 
the better Judge, as you have a copy of the Inventory & know 
what tilings you have directed to be sent. The letter from Lord 
Botetourt's agent arrived just in time to prevent the sale of 3 
pipes of Madeira wine, so that all six will be sent. Mr. Marsh- 
man & Thomas Fuller whom we had retained in the service of the 
estate are very desirous of returning to England & will go with 
Capt. Cawsey. This we the rather approved, that the things might 
still continue under Marshman's eye, till they are delivered. We 
have the Honor to be 

Your Grace's 

Very respectful & most obt. servts. 
(Ro. Carter Nicholas' handwriting.) 

Virginia, 25th. July, 1771. 
My Lord Duke. 

The foregoing is the third copy of a letter we had the Honour 
of writing to your Grace some time ago, to which you'll be pleased 
to refer to. We since find that Capt. Cawsey will not sail so soon 
as he expected & have therefore thought it adviseable for Mr. 
Marshman & Thomas Fuller to go Home with Capt. Samson, as 
your goods are all delivered safe on Board of Capt. Cawsey's Ship 
& your Affairs here do not require their further attendance. We 
were, my loul, snch frequent v>itnesses of Marshman's exceeding 



118 Tylee's Quaeterly Magazine. 

good behavior during Lord Botetourt's life, & of his dutiful & 
painful attention to his Lordship thro'out his illness, & of his 
great care & Diligence since his Death that we can not, in Justice 
but recommend him to your Grace's Favour; we believe Thomas 
Fuller also was & still continues an excellent and very faithful 
servant. 

You will receive inclosed a particular account of your receipts 
& disbursements since Lord Botetourt's Death, Bala, in yr. Favour, 
for which we sent you a Bill of Excha. on Messrs. Nortor & Son 
Merehts. in London. The expences of the Funeral, &c. you'll 
observe was pretty high, as we at first supposed; but we hope your 
Grace will be persuaded that we have observed every kind of 
Economy which could be decently used upon such an occasion. 

We likewise send your Grace accounts of the Sales & of such 
things as have been used in the Family since his Lordship's Death. 
Mr. !Marshman will be able to explain every article & give you 
any farther satisfaction that you may desire. You may depend 
upon having a full remittance as soon as the money becomes due 
& we can collect it. We have the Honor to be Your grace's very 
respectful & Mo. Obt. Servts. 

(Endorsed:) Copy of a Ltr. to the Duke of Beaufort by Wm. 
Marshman. 

Gentlemen 

I have reed, your letters and beg leave to return you my pin- 
cerest thanks for tlie very great care you have taken of every 
thing that did belong to Lord Botetourt, and of every thing that 
has concerned his affairs since his Death, and for the repeated good 
offices You have done for me, his delation and Executr. The 
Accounts shew with how great assiduity and exactness you have 
managed every particular, but I must be further troublesome to 
you to order the Vouchers of those Accounts to be copy'd and sent 
over to me, (for Marshman informs me it is not proper to have 
the Vouchers themselves sent over) as I think it will have a bet- 
ter appearance for the A^ouchers to go along with the Accounts. 

The very great Honor the General Assembly does Lord Bote- 
tourt by their wishing to preserve to future ages the Esteem they 



COEBESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOUBT. 119 

had for him gives me infinite satisfaction and Pleasure, And I 
must thro you Gentlemen beg leave to present my sincere thanks 
for this Testimony of their remembrance of Lord Botetourt, and 
to assure them that I will give their Agent in England all the 
assistance in my power to render their wishes effectual that the 
Statue may be like, tho I fear it must be in some measure im- 
perfect as there is no Portrait of Lord Botetourt that has been 
taken within the last five and twenty or thirty years, but there is 
a Medal in Wax that is reckon'd tolerably like, that shall be com- 
municated to the person employ'd by the Assembly. 

I have at present nothing further to trouble You with, but to 
acknowledge the receipt of your Draft on Messrs. Norton & Co. 
for 545.0.6 and to assure You Gentlemen that I am with the 
greatest sincerity, 

Your most obedient and obliged humble sert. 

Beaufort. 
Badminton. 
13 Octr., 1771. 

"Things to le Sent to England 

In my Lords Bedchamber. Gold watch and "Walking Cane. 
Three seal skin Cases of surveyors instruments, one Shagreen case 
contg. Eight Chas'd silver Tea Spoons and one pair of Tongs, 
one Pair of Paste buckles, one red Leather case, a pair of stone 
shoe and knee Buckles, two Morroco asses skin pocket books of 
Memorandums, one Diamond Stock buckle, one pair of stone shoe 
& knee buckles, one Diamond Hatt Buckle, two Gold Seals, one 
Steel Seal, one pair of Good Buttons, two setts of new steel siioe 
& knee buckles, one pair of cutt steel shoe & knee Buckles, one 
Handsome Tooth Pick Case. 

In Dining Eoom. 
The Public & Private Papers and other things contained in 
the Library Table and Mahogany Desk, to be put in the Most con- 
Yenient of the Two and be sent carefully to England, the thirteen 
Wax Portraits. The East India Firelock. 

In Chamber oyer Dining Eoom, 
The Pistols with furniture & five small swords. 



120 Tyleb^s Quaetbbly Magazine. 

In Middle Room. 
Two Snuff Boxes, one small Ivory Box. 

In Store Room. 

One Piece of Fine Damask ISTapkining. 

All the maps and all the books, all the plate in General & 
knives, forks and spoons. All the China. 

All the table and house linen. Three pipes of Madeira to be 
filled & well cas'd. 

None of the Staffordshire ware to come. 

"Standing Furniture at the Palace 

In the front Parlour. 
34 Scripture prints 
2' shades in Frames 
2 Brass Branches 

7 mahogany chairs 
1 Iron grate 

Fry & Jefferson's map in the Closet 

In the hall and passage. 
Arms & Colours 2 looking glasses 
6 fire leather buckets 
1 step ladder 

In tlie Dining Room. 
1 Pr. brass sconces 

1 side board with marble slate 

In the Ball Room. 
19 Leather bottom Mahogany chairs 

8 long Stools 

8 stockae Brackets 
6 brass branches 

Supper Room. 

2 long walnut dining tables 
16 walnut leather bottom chairs 

1 jrlass lustre M'ith 12 bronclies 



COREESPONDEMCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOUBT. 121 

In the Porch. 
2 large deal benches 

In the Powder Room 
2 dressers 

In tlie little middle room. 
Chimney & 2 brass sconces 
a dresser & monumental piece to Thos Fairfax 
an old glass Lanthorne 
1 pr. steps 

In the pantry. 
1 gilt looking glass 

3 paintings over the door 
Map of Xew England 

4 leather bottom mahogany chairs 
1 pr. old money scales 

In the Passage np stairs. 
3 large Roman Catholick pictures 
1 glass Lankorn 
1 large looking glass, 1 pair steps 

in the closet 
Study. 
1 looking glass 
1 check curtain & rod 
1 writing table 

Chamber over the dining room. 
2 looking glass with black frame & 2 glass sconces 
2 outer window frames 
10 prints in frames in the closet 
1 looking glass with painted frame 
Chamber over the Front parlour. 

1 looking glass. 15 prints 

Middle Room. 

2 long looking glasses with red gilded frames 

1 large glass on the side of the room with carved pill fiau.e 
glass lustre with six branches 



122 Tylee's Quabteely Magazine. 

In his Lordship's chamber, 
one chimney looking glass • . 

a shade 
a stand of shelres 

in the 2d. store room. 
1 long box with a parcel of broken sconces 
3rd — 6 spring blinds, 4 billiard tacks, parts of bed-s't-ad 
1 brass sconce 
a parcel of old iron 

In passage upstairs. 
4 very old black leather chairs 

Eoom over his Lordship's bed chamber. 
1 looking glass with gilt frame 
stand of shelves 

Cellar. ' 

wooden horses 1 rope 

Garden. 
13 leaden six stone flower potts 
1 rotting stone — Tubbs & orange tree & roller for the Tubbs 

Out house. 
1 Hand mill 

In the wine store. 
1 step ladder & old chair 
3 horses, 2 large shelves." 

[Subscription to the Workhouse'] 
Sir: Please pay to 
Mr. Saunders the sum of Sixty Pounds, current money, being the 
Balance of Lord Botetourt's subscription to the Building of Work 
house, the whole of which was one hundred pounds, & part, viz, 
forty pounds, received from his Lordship by myself was formerly 
paid to Mr. Saunders — 

Your most Obedient and very hble serrt. 
Nov. 13, 1770 J. Horrocks. 

To : Robt. Carter Nicholas, Esqr. 

Treasurer. 



CoKRESPONDENCE RELATING TO LoRD BoTETOURT. 123 

(Endorsed on back:) Mr. Commissary's note to pay Mr, Saunders 
for bal. of his Ldship's subscription for the Work House 

£60— 

"A Catalogue of Ye Books in the Library. 
No. of 
Volumes. 

3 Clarendon's History of the Eebellion 
2 Postlethwayt's Dictionary 
2 Johnson's Dictionary 
7 Statutes at Large 

2 Anderson on Commerce 

3 Plinius Harduini 

2 Miller's Gardener's Dictionary 
1 Virginia Laws 

1 Laws of Virginia 

2 Ealegs Plistory of tlie World 

1 Conquest of Mexico 
1 Jacobs Law Dictionary 

4 Bacons Works 

3 Lockes work 

Acts of George the second beginning in the 15 yr. of his Reign 
ending the 30th 

1 Coopers Dictionary 

2 Traps Virgil 

1 Ansons Voyage 

1 Journal of the House of Burgesses 

3 Minutes of the Lords from Jany 1765 to May 1768 
1 Universal Dictionary of the marine 

1 Map of Virginia 

1 Virginia Laws 

1 Pamphlet Military Devotion 

1 Byron's narrative 

1 Ode to Shakespear 

1 Journal of H. Burgesses . . 

1 Seat of the late war 



124 Tyt.eb's Quaeterly Magazinb. 

1 Map North America 

1 Kerkead 

1 Ignorant Philosopher 

a parcel of Pamphlets & old magazines 

1 atlas, 3 books of prints & drawings in paste board 

1 red Letter Case 

6 Hanmers Shakespeare 

1 Carters Epictetus 
6 Popes Illiad 

5 Popes Odyssey, 2 Vols. Goldsmith's Roman History 
4 Smollets His. of England 

9 Ciceronis opera Oliveti 
3 Robert's His. of Charles the 5th 

3 Blackstones Commentaries, 2 do, 1 & 3 do lent out and not 
returned 

2 L' Esprit des Loix 

6 Humes His. of England (all missing E. R.), do 
1 Observations on the Statutes 

1 Playp. 

1 Prussian Exercise 

1 Ainsworth's Dictionary 

1 Dictionare de Boyer 

1 Caesar Auden dorpii 

1 Boyers Dictionary 

1 Littleton's do 

26 Statutes at Large 

20 L^niversal History 

1 Bible & 1 Prayer Book 

1 Diseases of the Army 

1 Smiths His. of Virginia 

1 Essays on Husbandry 

1 Coiden's His. of Canada 

1 Postlethayt's System 

1 Pownal on the Colonies 



COKRESPONDENCK RELATING TO LoBD BoTETOUKT. 125 

4 Sherlocks Sermons, 
6 Oeuvres de Voltaire 
2 Leland's Demonthenea 
9 Popes Works 

1 Camp Discipline 

1 Stat. Will. & M. Coll 

1 Virga. Laws, abridg'd 

1 Johnson's Dictionary 

2 Knox Historical Journal 

2 Smollett's Continuation 

4 Atterbury's Sermons 

2 Douglass's north America 

2 European Settlements 
1 Military Essay 

1 Bailey's Dictionary 

1 Meiges do 

1 Boyers do abridged 

6 Tom Jones 

9 Letters de Maintenon 

6 L'Ami de Hommes 

Sherlock 3d. volume, not his Lordship's 

1 Discource of trade 

16 Treatise on Ventilators 
1 Telemanque 

3 L Esprit de La Lique 

6 Memoirs de Maintenon 

1 Belisaire 

2 Adventures of Jos. Andrews, 1 missing, only one, 

1 Sprinkes Devotion 

8 Swiff s works 

2 His. of the 5 Indian nations 
10 Select plays, T & 1 TC. 

9 do C. 2d. Mr. Stark. 
Oeuvres de Moliere 



126 Tyler's Quabtebxy Magazinb. 

4 Fool of Quality 

2 Antonias's Meditation, Flora Virginiea. 

1 Milton's Paridise lost, 

Court & City register for 1768 

Do 1769 & 1770 

6 Virginia Almanack, 1669-177— 
(Endorsed) Catalogue of books. 



THE LANIER FAMILY. 

"The Laniers in England are stated in the Dictionary of Nor 
tional Biography, to have been of French origin. John Lanier, 
who died in 1572 is referred to, in 1577, as having been a musician 
and a native of Eouen, France. He owned property in Crutched 
Friars, parish of St. Olave, Hart Street, London. He was proba- 
bly father of 'John Lanyer, musician to her Ma*•^' This John 
Lanyer, or Lanier, married, Oct. 12, 1585, at the Church of the 
Holy Minories, London, Frances, daughter of Marc Anthony Gal- 
liardo, who had served as musician to Henry VIII and his three 
successors. 

"The most distinguished of the family, Nicholas, son of John 
Lanier just referred to, was baptized at the Holy Minories, Lon- 
don, Sept. 10, 1588. He became a musician in the royal household 
and in 1604 was 'musician of the flutes.' He held, subsequently, 
a high position among the royal musicians, both as a composer 
and performer. Among other music he composed that for Ben 
Jonson's masques: 'Lovers Made Men' (1617), and 'The Vision 
of Delights,' as well as painting the scenery for the latter. At 
the accession of James I he was made Master of the Music, with a 
pension of £200 a year. He was also a painter and skilled amateur 
of works of art. In 1625 he was sent abroad by Charles I. to pur- 
chase pictures and statues, and is considered to have been the first, 
with the exception of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, to appreciate the 
worth of drawings and sket<;-hes by the great masters. With the 



The Lanier Family. 127 

outbreak of the Civil War the fortunes of the family declined, and 
Nicholas Lanier followed the Stuarts into exile. At the Restora- 
tion he was restored to his office and died Feb. 1665-6. 

"Another Nicholas Lanier, probably uncle to the preceding, 
was musician to Queen Elizabeth in 1581, &c. He owned consid- 
erable property in East Greenwich, Blackheath and the neigh- 
borhood. He had four daughters and six sons, John, (died 1650), 
Alphonso (died 1613), Innocent (died 1615), Jerome (died 1657), 
Clement (died 1661) and Andrea (died 1659). All of these were 
musicians in the service of the crown and some of their children 
succeeded to their posts. The will of Nicholas Lanyer, gent., gave 
his lands &c. to his wife Lucreece, and 12 d. apiece to his sons 
named. Mrs. Lucretia Lanier was buried at Greenwich, May 31, 
1634. 

"Another Nicholas Lanier, probably a cousin of the musician 
and painter, was born in 1568 and published two volumes of etch- 
ings. He was probably the person of the name buried at St. Mar- 
tins-in-the-Fields, Nov. 4, 1646." Virginia Magazine of History 
and Biography, Vol. XXVIII, 341, 348. 

There are in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 
an abstract of the will of a John Lanier proved in England, August 
28, 1650, and an abstract of the will of his widow, Ellinor, proved 
22nd. July 1652', and it is probable that they have some connec- 
tion with the persons already mentioned. According to these wills 
John and Ellinor Lanier had issues, three children, John, Frances, 
and Elizabeth. 

While it appears impossible to trace all the American Laniers 
to one American ancestor, it is not at all improbable that they all 
doscend from a common English ancestry. 

The earliest person of the name connected by the records with 
this ancestry was John Lanier, who was resident in Virginia in 
1676. He was one of the rebels who took part, with Bacon during 
the disturbance known as Bacon Rebellion. Sir William Berkeley, 
then Governor of Virgmia, was slow to act in defending the Colony 
of Virginia against the Indians, and the men of the Southside of 
James River took the matter in their own hands. They formed a 
camp at .Jordan's Point, near the present Hopewell in Prirce 



128 Tyler's Quartekly Magazine. 

George County, and selected John Lanier and John Woodlief to go 
to the Governor and ask him for authority to go against the In- 
dians. But, Berkeley called them "fools and loggerheads," and 
denied them their request. On their return the camp was visited 
by Nathaniel Bacon who resided on the other side of the river at 
Curies Neck, and he assumed the command, and the trouble began 
by his going against the Indians without a commission from 
Berkeley. (WiUiam and Mary Quarterly, XV, p. 77.) 

Two years later Robert Lanier is found residing in the Parish 
of St. Michael, Barbadoes, and there, on August 21, 1678, was 
baptized Clement Lanier. As a Clement Lanier is found m Surry 
County, adjoining Prince George, Virginia., in 1713, as shown by 
a deed recorded there, and as many persons removed from Bar- 
badoes to Virginia, it is reasonable to suppose that Clement Lanier, 
born in Barbadoes in 1G78, was the same as the Clement Lanier 
of Surry County. Moreover, as this Clement Lanier had a son 
Nicholas and John Lanier had also a son Nicholas, it appears very 
probable that John of Virginia liad also come from Barbadoes and 
was a brother of Robert Lanier. 

Many of the descendants of botli John Lanier and Clement 
Lanier went southward into North Carolina, but it does not appear 
that all of the name in that state had them as their progenitors. 
As early as 1718 Lemuel Lanier filed a petition with the Council 
at Sandy Point in Chowan precinct (North Carolina Records, II 
308) and Robert Lanier was a juror in the same precinct in 1720 
(Ibid., II, 473). A Robert Lanier lived in Tyrrell County, North 
Carolina, and his will as given in Hathaway, North Carolina 
Register, is dated 20th. September, 1744. In this will he mentions 
his wife Sarah and botli children and grandchildren. 

John Lanier, of Virginia, had a son Robert, but he will be 
accounted for in his proper place. He had a grandson Lemuel 
but of course he could not be the Lemuel of North Carolina. It 
is probable that Robert Lanier and Lemuel Lanier of North Caro- 
lina were two sons of Robert Lanier, of Barbadoes, and it is more 
than probable that they were related to John Lanier of Virginia. 
This is all that can be said. 

The old will books of Beaufort County, N. C, have been de- 



The Laniee Family. 129 

«troyed and only a few of the ante-Kevolutionary wills remain. 
But among those recorded in a special book is the will of John 
Lanier, Esq., who represented Beaufort County in the North Caro- 
lina Assembly in 1790. In his will dated Jan. 5th., 1794, he names 
his wife Fanny, brother-in-law Thomas Barrow, Brother William 
Lanier, and refers to children but does not name them. Tlie will 
of John Barrow, Esq., dated June 2nd., 1781. shows that John 
Lanier married his daughter, Fanny. 

Pitt County, adjoining Beaufort, has experienced a similar 
loss. James Lanier was a prominent man in Martinsborough and 
represented Pitt County in the Provincial Assembly during the 
Revolution. His eldest son was Nathaniel Lanier, and deeds show 
that he had also James, Jr., and Isom Lanier. 

It would require an exhaustive search in the old records in 
almost every County in Eastern North Carolina, to fully analyze 
this branch of the Lanier family. Interest attaches to them, how- 
ever, because of the fact that J. F. D. Lanier, who was a promi- 
nent banker, was born at Washington, Beaufort County. He wrote 
a family sketch which is valuable as far as his own life and that 
of his father, and that of his grandfather are concerned, but which 
illustrates the fallibility of family narratives, when the writer 
ventures on hearsay to go beyond this limit. 

Clement Lanier and His Descendants. 
It has been noticed that Clement Lanier was living in Surry 
County, Va., in 1713. In that year by deeds of lease and release 
Thomas Farmer and Agnes, his wife, sold to Clement Lanier, of 
Southwarke Parish, in Surry, fifty acres, and the next year fifty 
acres adjoining was sold to him by William Scoggin. By deed 
dated August 7, 1758, Nicholas Lanier and Mary, his wife, of the 
parish of St. Andrew and County of Brunswick, conveyed the 
hundred acres to Alan Love, a merchant. In the deed which is 
recorded at Surry Court House, Clement Lanier is described as 
"father of said Nicholas, to whom as heir at law the said land de- 
scended, the said Clement dying without having made any dis- 
position of said land." Witnesses, H. Nicholson, Robert Hicks, 
Nicho, Edmunds, Silvanus Stokes, William Betty. 



130 Tylee's Quaeterly Magazine. 

Nicholas Lanier, son of Clement, made his will 5th, April, 
1788, which was proved in Brunswick County May 28, 1792. He 
names his son Clement to whom he gives five shillings current 
money; his daughter Sarah Bailey, to whom he gives the same 
amount, and son-in-law Samuel Hudgins to whom "in considera- 
tion of his maintaining me during his life," he gives the tract of 
land on which lived, lying on the east side of the Great Branch, 
estimated at one hundred and twenty acres, also one negro woman 
named Pretty and all the residue of his estate. He made Ms son- 
in-law, Samuel Hudgins and his friend Sterling Edmunds, execu- 
tors. Witnesses : Wm. D. Orgain, Wm, M. Johnson, John Turner, 
William Orgain, and Smart Hawkins. 

It is probable that John Lanier, of St. Andrews Parish, BrunS' 
wick County, who made his will 13th. February, 1794, which was 
proved June 23, 1794, was a brother of this Nicholas. He names a 
wife Selah and children, Clement, Edward and Sinah. The execu- 
tors were Samuel Hudgins, William Osburn and Selah Lanier, 

John Lanier and His Descendants. 

As stated, John Laniev was living in that part of Charles City 
County, afterwards known as Prince George, as early as 1676. In 
1683 a land warrant was issued to him and Peter Wycke for 482 
acres, located in the Parish of Westover, on the south side of James 
Eiver. Most of the records of Prince George were lost during the 
Civil War, but fortunately the volume containing his will has been 
preserved. He was born about 1655 and died between Jan. 5, 
1717-18, when his will was dated, and April 14, 1719 when a little 
more than a year later his will was probated. 

His children as named in his will, were (1) Robert, to whom 
he gave one shilling; (2) John to whom he gave one sliilling; 
(3) Sampson, to whom he gave twelve shillings; (4) Sarah Brewer, 
to whom he gave a cow or heiffer of 3 years old; (5) Nicholas, to 
whom he gave all the land he now lives upon and all his lands on 
the ott«rdaras, and all his movable and unmovable property. He 
made his son Nicholas executor, and gave to his grandson John 
Lanier, "the son of Nicholas, my son," a feather bed and bolster, 
and blankets, and rug, all new and good and a small gfunn well 



The Lanier Family. 131 

fixed, two pewter dipers and basin, one chest with lock and key and 
six spoons, one iron pott and pott-hooks, and frying pann and a 
small pair of Stillyards, two combs, a young horse of three years 
old and three sheep. 

Robert Lanier, Son of John Lanier. 
As his brother Sampson states in a deposition in Surry County 
that he was about 56 in 1738, Robert, who was probably the oldest 
son, was born about 1678. It is probable that he married more 
than once. His wife, at the time of making his will, Sept. 23, 
1753, was Priscilla, and and in this will he speaks of '^er deceased 
fatlier, Richard Washington." As Richard Washington, in his 
will dated Nov, 9, 1724, and proved in Surry County, May 19, 
1725, speaks of his daughter Priscilla Washington and his wife 
Elizabeth Washington names her, in her will proved May 21, 
1735, as Priscilla Lanier, the marriage must have taken place be- 
tween 1724 and 1735. Robert Lanier spent all his life in Surry 
County and his will Sept. 23, 1753, was recorded in the Clerk's 
Office there May 18, 1756. According to w^hich he left issue, John, 
Thomas, Robert and Priscilla, John Lanier, the eldest son, died 
in 1766, when his estate was appraised. 

John Lanier, Son of John Lanier. 
John Lanier was born about 1680. Of his death, or the num- 
ber of his cliildren, no record has been found. He appears to have 
resided in Surry County, for in 1702 John Lanier w^as taken 
into custody by the Sheriff of that County for not appearing as 
a grandjuryman when summoned. He married Elizabeth Bird, 
daughter of Thomas Bird, whose will was proved in Surry County 
in 1687. There is a deed recorded in Surry County April 4, 1720, 
by which George Nicholson and Mary, his wife, tenants during the 
life of said Mary in certain lands, and John Lanier and Elizabeth, 
his wife, and John Young and Tabitha, his wife, tenants of the 
reversion of tlie fee simple after the death of said Mary, convey the 
the said lands situated at the head of Upper Chippokes Creek in 
James City County to William Blaikley, merchant of James City 
Co. Later, on March 1, 1728, Elizabeth Lanier, who is described 



132 Tyler's Quaktebly Magazine. 

a« one of the daughters of Thomas Bird, releases to Richard Jones 
and her sister Tabitha, his wife, all her interest in 300 acres, she 
and Tabitha being the only surviving children of Thomas Bird.* 
Of their chiklren there is no record save this — One Bird 
Thomas Lanier appears in the records and was probably a son. In 
1734 he was appointed by Brunswick Court overseer of the new 
road to Shining Creek. From this his birth must have been prior 
to 1713. In 1735 he was appointed Constable and on Jan. 2, 1737 
Thomas Birdf Lanier had a land warrant for 313 acres in Bruns- 
wick County on the south side of Great Creek. He sold this land 
in 1739, at which time his wife Mary joined in the deed. It is 
possible that his wife, Mary, was the Mary Lanier whose will dated 
April 28, 1798, and proved at September Court in the same year. 
It names the following children: Edmund, who married Amy 
Goodrich, daughter of Benjamin Goodrich, Bird, Abner, Tabitha 
and Sally, wife of Edmund Laurence. 

Sampson Lanier, Son of John Lanier. 

Sampson Lanier, third son of John Lanier, was born, accord- 
ing to liis deposition, about 1682, and he married Elizabeth Wash- 
ington previous to 1724, the date of the will of Richard Wash- 
ington, who mentions his daughter Elizabeth Lanier, and son-in- 
law, Sampson Lanier and his five Lanier grand-children: Arthur, 
Thomas, Lemuel, Sampson, and Richard. Sampson Lanier later 
had two other children, Elizabeth, who married George Burch, and 
James Lanier. His will was proved in Brunswick County, Jan. 
8, 1742-3, and he mentions tberein his children, Thomas, Samp- 
son, Richard, Elizabetb Burch, Lemuel, and James, which last 
was under age. Thomas and Sampson were made executors. 

Of these children, 1, Arthur, born about 1705, died probably 



♦Thomas Bird left four children: Thomas, who died without 
issue; Mary, who married George Nicholson and died without issue; 
Elizabeth, who married John Lanier and Tabitha who married (1) 
John Young, (2) Richard Jones. 

tHe appears to have written his name sometimes as Bird Thomas 
Lanier and sometimes as Thomas Bird Lanier. 



The Lanieb Family. 133 

young and without issue. He is not mentioned in his father's will. 

2. Thomas, born about 1707, married Anne Maclin (for Maclin 
family see Willmin and Mary Quarterly, VII, 108). This mar- 
riage took place previous to July 3, 1734, when William Maclin 
executed a deed of gift "for love and affection to my daughter 
Amie Lanier and her husband, Thomas Lanier" (Brunswick Co., 
Yd., Records). He made his will August 23, 174:5, and mentions 
his children, Jacob, Wiliam, Drury and Benjamin Lanier. Jacob 
Lanier died in Greenville County in 1788, and as he leaves his 
property to his "brother Thomas." This Thomas must have been 
a son of Jacob's father, and born after 1745. He married Tabitlia 
Eves in 1744 (marriage bond at Brunswick C. H.). Benjamin 
Lanier, anotlier son of Thomas Lanier, removed to Sussex County, 
where his will dated 11th. Jime, 1789, and proved 3 Sept. 1789, 
names his children: (1) Herbert, (2) Augustine, (3) Benjamin, 
(4) Sterling, (5) Littleton, (6) Patsy. Augustine Claiborne was 
about this time Clerk of Sussex County and it is possible that 
Benjamin Lanier married one of his sisters. 

It is interesting to notice that one of these sons Sterling Lanier 
had the same name as the grandfather of the Poet Sydney Lanier, 
born in Rockingham Co., X. C. But to observe what a 
charming mangle of facts can be made by a poet, when he lets 
his imagination run rampant in genealogy, compare his letter in 
Mr. J. F. D. Lanier's interesting "Sketch" with the account 
stated here taken from the records. Assuming that he 
knew his line back to his grandfather Sterling, as the extreme 
limit allowed by genealogy for mere tradition, his claim of a 
descent from Buckner Lanier as his great grandfather must be 
rejected. As will be seen, Buckner Laiiier, son of Sampson Lanier, 
grandson of John Lanier, had no son Sterling. 

3. Lemuel Lanier, son of Sampson, was born about 1710 and 
married Hannah Peters, as is shown by a deed recorded at Sussex 
C. H. dated April 14, 1755, from Thomas Lanier of North Caro- 
lina to Thomas Peters, Jr., of Sussex County, Virginia, for 200 
acres of land, expectant upon the determination of the ]i\cs of 
Lemuel Lanier, and Hannah, his wife, the father and Motlier of 
the said Tlioma? Lanier, which said Thomas Peters, Sr. l)v deed 



134 Tylee^s Quakterly Magazine. 

of gift transferred to said Lemuel Lanier and Hannah, his wife, 
the daughter of said Thomas Peters, and then to his grandson tlie 
said Thomas Lanier. Lemuel Lanier lived in Albemarle Parish, 
Sussex County and the parish Pegister shows that he had the fol- 
lowing children by Hannah, his wife, (1) Thonias, born July 6, 
1733, (2) Elizabetli, born June 10, 1735, (3) John, born Dec. 
28, 1738, (4) Lemuel, born April 12, 1741, (5) Benjamin, born 
May 3, 1744. 

In partnership with his brother, James Lanier, he patented in 
1740 350 acres on the south side of Three Creeks in Brunswick 
County. This land was afterwards divided, and Lemuel Lanier 
sold his part, 175 acres, to Pobert Lanier, 26th. January 1763. 

He became one of the sureties on the bond of Elizabeth Lanier, 
widow of Sampson Lanier, and the guardian for their children. 

Hannah, the first wife of Lemuel Lanier, died before 1763, 
when a second wife, joining him in a deed of that date, had the 
name of Elizabeth, who by a further deed 25th. Feb., 1765 ap- 
pears to have been a daughter of John Peebles. This last deed 
was a deed of gift to his daughters Milly and Sally Lanier, grand- 
daughters of John Peebles. There is no record known to the writer 
of the will of Lemuel Lanier, but Lemuel Lanier, his son, was very 
probably Lemuel Lanier, whoee will was recorded in Robertson 
Co., Tenn., in 1817. He had a daughter, Martha, who married 
John S. Fagan, who served in the battle of King's Mountain. They 
had a son Pobert Lanier Fagan, who served in the war of 1812 and 
was great grandfather of Mrs. H. H. Neill, widow of Chief Justice 
Neill of San Antonio, Texas. 

4. Sampson Lanier, son of Sampson Lanier, and Elizabeth 
"Washington, was born about 1712. His first land warrant was 
dated 17 March, 1736, at which time he was doubtless over 21. 
He appears quite frequently in the records of Brunswick County, 
as Vestryman of St. Andrews Parish, Justice of the County and 
Sheriff. He married Elizabeth Chamberlin, daughter of Samuel 
Chamberlin, as is shown by a bond of Sampson Lanier to Mary 
Swanson dated Oct. 8, 1752, and recorded, and by the will of 
Samuel Chamberlin dated Sept. 14, 1752, and recorded. Samp- 
son Lanier left no will and so his widow, Elizabeth, on Sept. 2, 



The Lanieb Family. 135 

1757 gave bond to the Court of Brunswick Co. to administer on his 
estate, with Eichard Burch and Lemuel Lanier, as two of her 
securities. 

On November 23, 1757, Edward Goodrich, Isaac Eowe Walton 
and John Maclin, gentlemen, laid off and assigned to Elizabeth 
Lanier, widow of Sampson Lanier, deceased, her dower of said 
Sampson's estate. 

A marriage bond, dated 23, July, 1758, on file in Brunswick 
County, Va., shows that the widow, Elizabeth Lanier, married 
secondly Cuthbert Smith, and an order of Feb. 27, 1759, appointed 
Cuthbert Smith guardian of Rebecca Lanier, orphan of Sampson 
Lanier, and one of Sept. 5, 1759 appointed their Uncle Lemuel 
as guardian of Burwell Lanier, Buckner Lanier, Winifred Lanier, 
Martha Lanier and Anne Lanier. 

No mention is made in these records of a son named Lewis 
Lanier, who it is claimed was also a son of this couple, but there 
is a marriage bond in Sussex County, dated Sept. 21, 1778, be- 
tween "Lewis Lanier, son of Sampson Lanier and Anne Butler, 
daughter of Thomas Butler." In Clarke's North Carolina State 
Records, Burwell and Lewis Lanier appear in Anson County, North. 
Carolina, the first as a witness in 1776 against James Perry, a 
New Light Baptist, and the second (Lewis) as a member of the 
House of Commons in 1787 and 1788. 

Of these children, Rebecca Lanier, married Walton Harris oi 
Brunswick County (Sl'etch of J. F. D. Lanier) ; Buckner, married 
Rebecca Williamson, widow, in 1783 (marriage bond in Sussex). 
Buckner's will dated May 18, 1811, was proved in Sussex County, 
Ya., Dec. 5, 1811, and names children, Frederick, Polly and John 
(under age) to whom he gives the plantation whereon he lives. 
Winifred Lanier married Col. Drury Ledbetter of Brunswick 
County, son of Heni-y Ledbetter, and was ancestor of Mr. Atwood 
Violet of New York. (See article in Neiv York Genealogical and 
Biographical Magazine, January number, 1916.) Anne or Nancy 
is said to have married Major Yaughan, of Roanoke. 

4. Richard Lanier, son of Sampson Lanier and Elizabeth 
Washington, was born about 1715 as seems indicated by his first 
land transaction. On March 17, 1736, Sampson Lanier and 



136 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Richard Lanier, Jr., were granted a patent for 354 acres on the 
Watery Branch, adjoining the County line. If he was of age at 
this time, his birth must have been as stated. Being called "Jun- 
ior" there is an indication that there was another Richard Lanier, 
perhaps a son of one of the otlier sons of John Lanier, but of hijn 
nc thing is known. 

He married about April 2, 1759, with Ann Pettway, daugliter 
of Robert Pettway and widow of Isaac Mason (Marriage bond in 
Sussex, and Sussex records). The Albemarle Parish Register 
(Sussex County) shows that they had three children. Susanna 
born J any. 1766, William, 28 June, 1768, and James, LJ Fcby. 
1771. Anne Pettway Mason, when she married Richard Lanier, 
had also four children by her former husband, Isaac Mason, John 
Mason, Mary Ann Mason and Elizabeth Mason. 

The late date of his marriage renders it possible chat he had a 
fonuer wife and otlier children whose names are not handed down 
to us. On August 18, 1780 at a court held in Sussex county the 
church wardens were ordered to bind out, according to law, "Wil- 
liam and James Lanier, sons of Richard Lanier, it appearing to 
this Court that the said Richard Lanier neglects their education 
and proper instruction." 

5. Elizabeth Lanier, daughter of Sampson Lanier, is not men- 
tioned in the will of her grandfather Richard Washington and so 
is presumed to have been born after its date — 1724. She married 
Richard ( ?) Burch. 

6. James Lanier, son of Sampson Lanier, also for a similar 
reason is presumed to have been born after 1724, and in his case 
the presumption is rendered certain by the will of his father 
Sampson Lanier (1743) who refers to him as under 21 vears of 
age. It is reasonably certain that lie married Mar\'^ Cooke, daugh- 
ter of Henry Cooke, with wliom he liad land transactions, and who 
in his will dated Xov. 30, 1772 names his daughter, Mary l^anier. 

While James I^anier, grandfather of J. F. D. Lanier, was 
born at Washington, Beaufort County, in a .section of Xorth Caro- 
lina, where lived as seems descendants of the Lanier name having 
no immediate connection with the Virginia family, the tradition 
of his descent from Sampson Lanier i? so emphatic that in James 



The Lanier Family. 137 

Lanier, as Thomas Forsythe Nelson pointed out, may be found 
the connecting link. 

James Lanier, grandfather of J. F. D. Lanier, was born Feb. 
2, 1750, and this fits in very well with a son of James Lanier, 
youngest eon of Sampson Lanier, 

Sarah Brewer, Daughter of John Lanier. 

Sarah Lanier was born about 1684, and married George Brewer, 
whose will was proved in Brunswick County, August 2, 1744, and 
names his children, Oliver, Henry. Nathaniel, Sarah, Lanier, 
George, John and Howell. 

Nicholas Lanier, Son of John Lanier. 

Nicholas Lanier, whom his father made executor and to whom 
he left the land on which he lived, was evidently from the date 
of his death, and other particulars, much younger than any of his 
brothers. He was probably the child of a second wife, and had not 
like his half brothers, been provided for in his life time. Proba- 
bly he had not long been married when his father died (1717) 
and left a legacy to his son John. 

He removed to St. Andrews Parish, Brunswick County, and 
various records show that his wife's name was Mary. In the same 
parish resided also another Nicholas, son of Clement Lanier, and 
his wife's name was also Mary, but there is no difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing between the two. By a deed dated April 2, 1728, and 
recorded in Prince George County, Nicholas Lanier, described him- 
self as son of John Lanier, and now stated to be of Brunswick 
County, and Mary, his wife, conveyed the land patented formerly 
by his father along with Peter Wycke in 1683, and that whereon 
his deceased father had formerly lived, to Holmes Boisseau, of 
Prince George County. 

He was one of the first Justices of Brunswick County in 1736, 
was Captain of a company of militia, Sheriff, Church warden of 
St. Andrews Parish, &c. He lived to a very advanced age, and 
his will was offered for probate 23d. April, 1779. It was contested 
by his "heir at law" Nicholas Shepherd Lanier and was never ad- 



138 Tyler's Quaetebly Magazine. 

mitted to record. The original, however, dated 9 June, 1776 was 
found among the Court files by Mr. Thomas Forsythe Nelson, and 
it mentions the following devisees: his wife Mary, son William, to 
whom he gave the land on which he resided, 567 acres, son Nich- 
las Shepherd Lanier, son Thomas Lanier, son Lewis Lanier, and 
daughter, Sarah Brown. Mary Lanier, the wife, appears to have 
been Mary Lanier mentioned as daughter of William Nance in his 
will dated Nov. 17, 1770 and proved Feb. 25, 1771. John, a eon 
mentioned in the will of his grandfather John Lanier, (1717) is 
not mentioned in Nicholas' will, and so was dead without issue, 
leaving Nicholas Shepherd as "son and heir." 

Nicholas Shepherd Lanier, son of Nicholas Lanier, was born 
after 1717 and before 1726, which is twenty-one years prior to 
the date of his first land warrant, Oct. 1, 1847— say about 1720. 
From a deed conveying this same land in 1750 we learn that the 
name of his wife was Amy. He died before June 25, 1781, when 
his own will was probated in Brunswick County. This will dated 
August 28, 1780 shows tliat he had issue, (1) Bird, (2) Burwell, 

(3) Elizabeth, then wife of Edwards, (4) Drury. The 

will was proved by the oaths of Robert Gee, Jr., Eichard Atkins 
and John Lanier. His wife survived him. 

Thomas Lanier, son of Nicholas Lanier, patented land "on 
both sides of Mitchell's Creek" in Brunswick County, 12 Jan. 1747. 
He was born about 1722. From a deed dated 7th. August, 1753, 
we learn that his wife's name was Elizabeth, which afterwards a 
Bible record proves to be Elizabeth Hicks. He was one of the 
first Justices of Lunenburg County, which was cut from Bruns- 
wick in 1743. As furnished me, the Bible record has "Thomas 
Lanier, married Elizabeth Hicks in 1742-3. Issue, (1) Molly, 
born April 28, 1744; (2) Robert, born Nov. 12, 1746; (3) Sallie, 
born, Dec. 12, 1748; (4) Betty Hicks, born Sept. 29, 1750, mar- 
ried Col. Joseph Winston; (5) Caty, born July 31, 1752; (6) 
Patsy, born Nov. 26, 1754; (7) Rebekah, bom January 27, 1757, 
married Col. Joseph Williams; (8) Thomas, born Dec. 11, 1760; 
(9) Susanna, born April 13, 1763; (10) Lewis, born Sept. 21, 
1765; (11) Fanny, born Nov. 25, 1767; (12) William H., bom 
Aug. 25, 1770. Perhaps Fanny and William were by his second wife. 



The Lanier Family. 139 

Frances, who is mentioned in his will dated Dec. 14, 1804, and 
proved in Granville County, N. C, at August Court, 1805. In this 
will Thomas Lanier gives a small legacy to the heirs of his son Eob- 
ert Lanier, "if any there be," and a similar legacy to the heirs of his 
6on Lewis. They were then dead. Mary was living and still 
single. William was the only living son, and the otiier surviving 
children were named as Elizabeth Winston, Sarah Williams, Cath- 
arine Allen, Kebecca Williams, Susannah King and Fanny Sprag- 
gins. His executors were Robert Burton, James Vaughan, John 
R. Eaton. Melchisedeek Spraggins, William Hunt and Joseph 
Williams. 

Sarah Lanier, daughter of Thomas Lanier, married twice: 
(1) Joseph Williams in 1766, (marriage bond at Oxford, N. C; 
dated June 3, 1766, Joseph Williams to Sarah Lanier) ; (2) Rob- 
ert Williams, (uiarriage bond at Oxford, N. C, dated October 
10, 1774, Robert Williams to Sarah Williams). 

Robert Williams moved to Pittsylvania County, Virginia, where 
he was colonel of the militia in 1775 {Va. Mag. of Hist and Biog, 
XIX, 307). He had by Sarah Lanier (1) Xathaniel Washington 
Williams, Judge of Superior Court in Tennessee, (2) Mary mar- 
ried :\[atthew Clay, M. C. 1797-1813, (3) Lucy married Robert 
Call, (4) Martha married John Henry, (5) Sarah married James 
Chalmers, (6) Elizabeth married Rev. John Kerr, a distinguished 
Baptist minister, who served in congress from 1813 to 1817. 
(Wheeler's Reminiscences, 418.) 

Halifax County. 17 April, 1801. 
To Col. John Wimbish, Clerk: 

This is to inform vou that among many men I have seen 
have made choice of Mr. John Kerr, the bearer hereof, for my 
husband and request you to issue license from your office for the 
completion of the above intention, iS: oblige. 

Yours &c. 

Eliza Williams, 



140 Tylee's Quaktekly Magazine. 

John Kerr and Elizabeth Williams were great grandparents 
of Mrs. C. C. Andrews, wife of Mr. Walter Andrews, now of 
Newport, Ehode Island. 

The marriage bonds at Oxford, Granville County, N". C, show- 
that Martha (or Patsy) Lanier married Mr. William Watson, 
Rebecca married in 1772 Col. Joseph Williams, Jr., a brother of 
Ilobert Williams, Susannah married George King in 1781, and 
Fanny married Melchisedeck Spraggins in 1780. 

According to Wheeler's History of North Carolina, Joseph 
Williams, Jr., was Lt. Col. of the Surry, N. C. militia, and his 
issue by Rebecca Lanier was (1) Gen. Robert Williams, member 
of Congress from 1797 to 1803. Died in Tennessee. (2) John 
Williams, a colonel in the battle of the Horseshoe against the 
Creek Indians, (3) Lewis Williams, member of Congress in 1815, 
died Feb. 22, 1842, (4) Thomas Lanier Williams, twin brother 
of Lewis, and chancellor of Tennessee. (5) Dr. Alexander 
Williams, of Greenville, lenn, (6) Nicholas Lanier Williams, 
(7) Rebecca Williams, who married John Wimbish, of Halifax, 
Va., (8) Fanny, who married John P. Irvin, of Nashville, Tenn., 
(9) Major Joseph Williams, of Surry Co., N. C. 

That Thomas Lanier of Granville County, N. C, was the same 
as Thomas Lanier, of Lunenburg Co., Va., is shown by the fact 
that on Oct. 21, 1761, Thomas Ford and Eleanor, his wife, of 
Granville County, N. C, sold land in that county to "Thomas 
Lanier of Lunenburg County, Colony of Virginia," and there is a 
deed on record in Lunenburg Co., Deed Book 9, page 492, dated 
10 Jan. 1764, by which Thomas Lanier and Elizabeth, his wife, 
of Granville County, North Carolina, conveyed 200 acres af his 
land in Lunenburg County, Va., to David Christopher. These 
deeds make it clear that he moved from Virginia some time before 
October 21, 1761 and January 10, 1764. 

He had large possessions, as the Census of 1790 credited him 
with 1049 acres. 

Lewis Lanier, son of Nicholas Lanier. There is a marriage 
bond at Lawrenceville, the seat of Brunswick County Clerk's Of- 
fice, dated 25th November, 1752, executed by Lewis Lanier to 
Martlia Speed, and assuming that he was about 25 years old at 



The Lanier Family. 141 

the time, it shows that he was born about 1727. He was a resi- 
dent of Dinwiddie County, and there is recorded at Lawrenceville 
a deed from Lewis Lanier of Dinwiddie County and Martha, his 
wife, conveying 200 acres in Brunswick County on both sides of 
Stony Eun to Benjamin Simmons, which he had purchased in 
1765, from Isaac and William House. 

Unfortunately tlie records of Dinwiddie County have been 
destroyed except one rather late book and so we have no definite 
information of his children if he had any. There is on record at 
Lawrenceville, a deed of gift executed to him by his father, Nich- 
olas Lanier, November 7, 1774, conveying to him four negroes. 
He may have been the Lewis Lanier who represented Anson 
County, North Carolina, in the North Carolina Legislature in 
1787. But this Lewis may also have been Sampson Lanier's son 
Lewis. 



It is proper to state that work above on the Lanier Family was 
largely facilitated by a report of Mr. Thomas Forsythe Nelson. 
late of Washington, D. C, kindly furnished the editor by Mr. 
Atwood Violett, of New York 

A Lenoir family also resided in Brunswick Co., said to be like 
the Laniers of French ancestry. The family names are similar to 
those of the Lanier family, but it is hardly possible that Lanier 
and Lenoir were the same, though they sound much alike. Gen- 
William Lenoir, of Wilkes County, North Carolina, was very 
prominent in the American Revolution. He was a captain in Col. 
Cleaveland's regiment in the battle of King^s Mountain. He was 
born in Brunswick County, Va., May 20, 1751, 0. S., and was 
the youngest of a family of ten children. Wheeler's North Caro- 
Ivna, p. 462. 



142 Tylee's Quarterly Magazine. 

\ 

WASHINGTONS OF SURRY. 

There is a numerous family of Washingtons, who descend from 
n John Washington, living in Surry County in 1658, and doubtless 
several years previous. He is not to be confounded with John Wash- 
ington, ancestor of Gen. George Washington, who with his brother 
Lawrence, came to Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1657. These 
last were sons of Rev. Lawrence Washington, rector of Purleigh, who 
had a brother. Sir John Washington who married (1) Mary, daughter 
of Philip Curtis, of Northamptonshire, and (2) Dorothy Pargiter, 
daughter of William Pargiter of Gretworth, Esq. By the first mar- 
fiage he had two sons, John and Mordaunt. Now Theodore Pargiter, 
brother of Dorothy, writes a letter from London, August 2, 1654, In 
which he mentions his "cozen John Washington," apparently in 
Barbadoes. As many people resident in Barbadoes emigrated to South- 
Bide Virginia, it is not unlikely that John Washington, of Surry 
County, was John Washington, of Barbadoes, in which case he and 
John Washington, of Westmoreland Co., were first cousins. (See 
New England Historical and Genealogical Magazine. Vol. 38, p. 424, 
and Vol. 43. p. 405.) 

John Washington, of Westmoreland Co., married Anne Pope, but 
there is a deed in Surry dated November 15, 1656, in which John 
Washington of Surry contracted marriage with "Mary fford" (Ford), 
a widow, who had also been the widow Blunt, since the marriage con- 
tract makes provision also for "Tho: Blunt sonne of said Mary." 
Later, on 29 April, 1682, Thomas Blunt and Richard Washington ob- 
tained from the land office of Virginia a grant for 330 acres of land, 
which by deed dated 17th. Sept., 1686 and recorded in Surry, Thomas 
Blunt conveys to "my brother Richard Washington, all my right, title 
and interest in the patent and the land therein mentioned, 330 acres 
in Surry County, Virginia, dated 29 April, 1682." There is no will 
preserved of John Washington or of Mary, his wife, but the deed just 
mentioned proves that Richard Washington, of Surry, was the son 
of John Washington, of Surry, and his wife, Mary Blunt-Ford. 

In an "order book" at Surry C. H., under date of 6 July, 1681, it is 
stated that Richard Washington, "being of full age," appeared in 
Court and signed a deed for a parcel of land. This shows that Rich- 
ard was born about 1660, a year and a half after John Washington 
married Mary Ford. 

Richard Washington married Elizabeth Jordan, a niece of Col. 
George Jordan, attorney general of Virginia, and daughter of Arthur 
Jordon, who subscribed to a marriage contract with Elizabeth Bavinn 
in 1654. In his will dated Sept. 24, 1698, Arthur Jordan, of South- 
warke Parish, Surry County, mentions "his son and daughter Wash- 



The La>'ier Family. 143 

Ington," and his grandson "Arthur Washington." Richard Washing- 
ton in his will dated Nov. 9, 1724, names his son Arthur Washington. 

According to Clarke's "North Carolina State Records," Richard 
Washington, at the house of Henry Briggs in 1710, made his affidavit 
as to the boundary line of Virginia and North Carolina, and the same 
records show that a Richard Washington in 1720 was constable of 
Chowan Precinct, 1739. This last was probably Richard, son of 
Richard Washington, of Surry. 

Richard Washington had 7 sons, George, Richard, John, William, 
Thomas, James and Arthur, and five daughters, Elizabeth, married 
Sampson Lanier, Priscilla, married Robert Lanier, Ann, married John 
Stevens, Faith, married Josiah Barker, and Mary, married Robert 
Hart. 

LANIER WILLS. 
Will of John Lanier 

IN THE NAME OP GOD, AMEN: I, John Lanier, in the County 
of Prince George, being verry weak and ailding in Body but in per- 
fect mind and memory, thanks be given unto God therefore it is ap- 
pointed for all men once to dye, I do make and ordain this my last 
will and testament that is to say principally and first of all, I give 
and bequeathe my sould into the hands of God that gave it, and for 
my body I commend it to the Earth to be buried in a Christian Like 
and Decent manner, to the Discretion of my Executor — nothing Doubt- 
ing but at the genrall resurrection, I shall receive the same again, by 
the mighty power of God, and as touching such Worldly Estate where- 
with it hath pleased God to bless in this Life, I give Devise and Dis- 
pose of the same in the following manner and form — 

First, I give to my son Robert Lanier, one Shilling. 

Secondly, I give to my son John Lanier, one Shilling. 

Thirdly, I give to my son Sampson Lanier twelve Shillings 

Fourthly, I give to Daughter Sarah Brewer one Cow or Heiffer 
of three years old. 

Fifthly, I give to my grandson John Lanier, the son of Nich- 
olas Lanier my son, a feather bed and bolster and blanketts and ruggs 
all new and good and a small gunn well fixt, and I give to him two 
pewter Dishes and Bason and One Chest with lock and key and Six 
Spoons, One Iron pott and potthooks, and frying pan and a small pair 
of Stillyards and two Combs and a young Horse of three years old, 
and three sheep. 

Lastily, I give to my son Nicholas Lanier, all the land which 
I now live upon, and all my land on the Otterdams, to him and his 



144 Tyi-eb's Quaeterly Magazikb. 

heirs forever, and I give to my son Nicholas all my movables and 
Immovables. I do make my son, Nicholas Lanier, my whole and sole 
Exor. of this my Last Will and Testament, to see that it is performed 
As Witness my hand and seal this the 5th. of Janj, of 1717. 

John Lanier, Sealed with 

red wax. 
his 
William X Peebles 

marke 
Henry Peebles 

his 

Thomas X Burrow 

marke 

At a Court held at Merchantshope for the County of Prince George 
on the second Tuesday in April being the fourteenth Day of the said 
month Anno. Dom. 1719. 

The above written Last Will and Testament of John Lanier, 
Deced. was exhibitted into Court by Nicholas Lanier his Exectr. who 
made Oath thereto, and it being Duly proved by William Peebles, 
Henry Peebles and Thomas Burrow the sevel witnesses thereto is by 
order of the Court truly recorded and Certificate is granted the said 
Nicholas Lanier for Obtaining a Probate in Due form. 

Teste. Wm. Hamlin, CI. Cur. 
A Copy, 
Teste: 

W. D. Temple, Clerk. 

Will of Sampson Lanier. 
Brunswick Co., Virginia, Will Book 2, Page 52. 
IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN: I Sampson Lanier of tho 
Parrish of Saint Andrew in the County of Brunswick calling to mind 
the mortality of man do make and ordain this to be my last Will 
and Testament revoking all former wills by me made and tnis only 
to be my last Will and Restament to wit I give and bequeath unto 
my son Thomas Lanier all the tract of land whereon I now live con- 
taining one hundred and fifty acres to him and his heirs forever Imt 
It is my desire that my wife should have the use of the Plantation 
whereon I now live with the land on the east side of branch during 
her natural life makeing no waist on the same I also give unto my 
said son Thomas Five pounds cash and all my Coopers tools I give 
nnto my son Sampson Lanier one Negro man called Mingo my wife 



The Lanier Family. 145 

to have the labour of the said negro during her widowhood I give 
unto my son Richard Lanier two cows and calves two cows and pigs 
one feather bed bolster a blankett and rugg and a pair of sheets two 
peuter dishes three peuter plates one good chest one iron pott also 
one negro woman named Juda my wife having the labour of the said 
negro woman during her widowhood I give unto my Daughter Eliza 
Burch one negro girl called Mou the said negro girl and her increase 
to the use of my said daughter and the heirs of her body forever I 
give to my son Lemuel Lanier one negro girl called Agge to him and 
his heirs also one feather bed and bolster a pair of sheets a rugg and 
a blankett two peuter dishes and three peuter plates two cows and 
calves one heifer one young mare bridle and saddle and all the hoggs 
that is called his and agang of hoggs that yoused with the same one 
iron pot and frying pann I give to my son James Lanier two cows and 
calves two sows and piggs two peuter dishes two peuter plates one iron 
pott or kettle one young mare one small saddle and bridle one feather 
bed bolster a pair of sheets a rugg and a blankett and one negro man 
called Randol to him and his heirs but Lamuel Lanier to have the 
labour of the said negro till my son James come to the age of twenty 
one years I give unto my beloved wife Twenty Pounds cash which 
she hath in her possession to her and her disposial and also let the use 
of all the remainder part of my Estate to my beloved wife during 
her natural life or widowhood and after her death or marriage I give 
all that part of my estate to my five sone to be equally divided among 
them to them and their heirs my will and desire that my estate may 
not be brought to an appraisement I also constitute and appoint my 
two sons Thomas Lanier and Sampson Lanier Exor's of this my last 
will and testament IN WITNESS whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and afflced my seal this Eighth day of January, 1742/3. 

Sampson Lanier (Seal) 
Signed sealed and delivered in 
presence of us as his last will 
and testament. 

James Maclin. 
his 

Peter X Adams 
mark 

Richard Lanier 

At a Court held for Brunswick County May the 5th, 1743. 

This will was presented In Court by Thomas Lanier and Sampson 
Lanier the Exor's therein named who made oath according to law and 



146 * Tyi,ee's Quarterly Magazine. 

the same being proved by the oaths of James Maclin and Richard 
Lanier two of the witnesses thereto and ordered to be recorded, on the 
motion of the said Exor's ceitificate is granted them for obtaining a 
probate thereof in due form. 
TESTE: 

Ster. Clack, Clerk Court. 
A COPY, 
TESTE: 

R. H. Turnbull, D. Clerk. 

WILL OF NICHOLAS LANIER 

Original in the Court Files in Brunswick Co., Va. 

(Not recorded) 

IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN: I, Nicholas Lanier of the 
parrish of Saint Andrews and County of Brunswick, being of sound 
perfect mind and memory blessed be God do this Ninth day of June 
in the year of our Lord Christ, one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-six, make and publish this my last will and testament in 
manner following Vize: First, I lend unto my beloved wife Mary 
Lanier four negroes, to-wit: — Harry, Amey, Tom and Bett, also all 
my House hold and kitchen furniture, also all my stock of all kinds 
during her life. Also I give and bequeath unto my son William 
Lanier the land whereon I now live, containing five hundred and sixty 
seven acres, more or less, and all and singular the appertenances 
thereunto belonging to him and his heirs and assigns forever. Also 
I give and bequeath to my son William Lanier, three negroe slaves, 
namely, Tom, Dick and Rachel, to him. his heirs and assigns forever. 
Also I give and bequeath to my said son William Lanier all my house 
hold and kitchen furniture of all kinds after his mother's decease, to 
him and his heirs and assigns forever. Also I give and bequeath to 
my son Nicholas Shepherd Lanier, one negro slave, namely, Jack, 
to him his heirs and assigns forever. Also I give and bequeath to my 
son Thomas Lanier two negro slaves, namely: Jeff and Bet, to him 
his heirs and assigns forever. Also I give and bequeath to my son 
Lewis Lanier two negro slaves namely: Mary and Amy, after his 
mother's decease, to him his heirs and assigns forever. Also I give 
and bequeath to my daughter Sarah Brown one negro slave namely. 
Tiny, to her her heirs and assigned forever, and I do bequeath that 
if there be any of my estate which is not mentioned and herein be- 
queath to my son William Lanier, to him his heirs and assigned 
forever. 

I do desire there may be no aprasement of my estate and I do leave 
my son William Lanier my Executor. 



MUMFOBD AND MuNFOBD FaJ^ILIES 147 

Given under my hand and seal this Ninth day of June, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy six. 

Nicho. Lanier. (Seal). 
Signed, sealed and acknowledged in the presence 
of 

Robert Gee, Jr., 
John Lanier, 

his ' A COPY 

William X Persons. TESTE: 

mark R. Turnbull, Clerk. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 
Andrew Meade, of Ireland and Virginia, His Ancestors and some of 
his Descendants and Connections. By P. Hamilton Baskervill, 
A. M. (U. of Va.), Richmond, Virginia. Old Dominion Press, 
Inc., Printers, 1921. 
Mr. Baskervill, who not long ago favored the public with a book 
on the Baskervills and their connections, has now. In this publica- 
tion, tried his hand on the Meades. In addition, he has sketches of 
the Hardaway, Eggleston, Segar, Pettus and Overton families. It is 
very disappointing that he has not been able to trace these families 
back to England, for they are all of acknowledged standing in the 
chronicles of this State. There is no doubt that they belonged to the 
gentry of the British Islands, but the proof of their descent is not 
forthcoming. One of the sons, however, of Andrew Meade, the im- 
migrant, by name David Meade, married Susanna Everard, daughter 
of Sir Richard Everard, Governor of North Carolina, and with this 
family the story is different. Through the Everarfts and their ante- 
cedents, Mr. Baskervill's children are descended from kings and dukes 
■without number, representing England, France and Scotland. Not- 
withstanding all the difficulties, arising from broken records, Mr. 
Baskervill has published a useful work. The list of authorities given 
by him shows that he has consulted many sources. The book con- 
tains 170 pages and has an excellent index. 

History of the University of Virginia, 1819-1919. By Philip Alexan- 
der Bruce, LL. B., LL. D. 
Since the notice in this magazine of the first two volumes of this 
valuable publication, two more have appeared. These take the Uni- 
versity through the period of 1841-1904. It is a great story, which 
Dr. Bruce unfolds, and it makes its appeal to the friends of education 
everywhere. It tells of the influence of Rogers, of George and Henry 
St. George Tucker, of Basil L. Gildersleeve, of Francis H. Smith, 
John B.. Minor, and many others of its famous professors upon the 
youth of the South, promoting the development of those ideals which 



148 Book Reviews. 

found expression in the careers of W. Gordon McCabe, Robert L. 
Dabney, John A. Broaddus, and scores of former students who walked 
in every avenue of life. 

Perhaps in describing the "honor system" at William and Mary 
College and the University, Dr. Bruce gives to its origin too much of 
a local coloring. I think that this system grew out of the conditions 
of Southern life and, therefore, naturally found expression at these 
institutions, as it did at all other Southern institutions, more or less. 
Henry St. George Tucker, who offered the resolution about examina- 
tions in 1842, had been a student of William and Mary College, and 
grew to manhood in its shadow, and that ancient institution itself 
was developed from what it first had been — a copy or a college at 
Oxford — into an institution expressive of the Southern spirit. Neither 
Washington nor Lee was a graduate of William ana Mary College 
or the University, but they were truly as much products of the honor 
system as any alumni of those two famous "Schools of Honor." 

The Northern States, in laying stress upon the materialistic values 
of men, have been singularly free from producing ideals of character. 
Thus Franklin and Hamilton were masterful men, but their private 
lives were far from being idealistic, and we would hardly care 
for our children to copy after Lincoln's example of telling filthy 
stories. Verily, verily human selfishness meets with its punishment 
In time. The desire of Massachusetts to exploit the South through 
high tariffs and bounties has driven away the old Puritan population 
and handed that State over to the mongrels of Europe. 

American Liberty Enlightening the World. Moral Basis of a League 
of Peace. By Henry Churchill Semple, S. J., moderator of 
Theological Conferences of New Orleans, lately moderator of 
Theological Conferences of New York. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York and London. The Knickerbocker Press, 1920. 
The author who is a Roman Catholic priest was inspired to write 
this plea by utterances of Pope Benedict XV, wherein that good man 
announced his faith in the American people as his chief hope of re- 
storing peace and order to the world. Father Semple believes in the 
good old doctrine that treaties have a moral basis and cannot be 
treated as scraps of paper. His discussion of the obligation of posi- 
tive international law Is very interesting. No nation can live to 
itself and is more or less dependent on other nations, and compacts 
between them should not be violated. How far the conduct of the 
United States at the present time in withdrawing itself from obliga- 
tions to insure the peace of other nations may be considered a depar- 
ture from its true relations to the world, is a question of much doubt. 
The policy may conduce to the peace of the United States, but Amer- 
ica in the robe of self-interest hardly presents the figure of a nation 
taking much interest in "enlightening the world." 



Vol. III. No. 3. 



JANUARY, 1922 



anb 




(Genealogical jHaga^ine 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office in Richmond, Va., according 
to act of Congress. 



(Kpler'fli (JSuarterIp ^isitorical anb 
(§enealosical iHagajine 

Vol. III. JANUARY, 1922. No. 3. 

NOTICE 



Annual subscription, $4.00. Single numbers, SI. 25. 

As Vjack numbers of the old William and Mary Quarterly, of which I was 
proprietor, have become very scarce, single copies, as far as had, may be ob- 
tained from me at $2.00 apiece. 

LYON G. TYLER, Editor 
711 Travelers Building, . _ _ Richmond, Va. 



CONTENTS 



More Propaganda 149 

Dr. John Hamilton Robinson, 1732-1819 154 

Dr. Evans and the Vv'ar (1861-65) 157 

Williamsburg Caricatured 164 

Some Descendants of Patience McKinne and Joseph Lane, Jr., 

Halifax, N. C 166 

Mumford and Munford Families 174 

The TTiornton Family 181 

The Chenoweth Family 1S6 

Register of Marriage Bonds of Greensville County, Virginia, 

1781-1808 194 

Lanier Family 210 

Pollard Family 211 

Mr. Leigh and the Vice-Presidency 214 

Militia Officers Commissioned for Amherst Co., Va 216 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 218 

Book Reviews 220 

In Memoriam — Annie Tucker Tyler 221 



tKpIer's; (©uarterip historical anb 
Genealogical jWagajine 

Vol. III. JANUARY, 1922 No. 3 

MOEE PROPAGAXDA. 

In the April number, 1920, and January number, 1921, two 
articles by the Editor appeared on "Propaganda in History," in- 
tended in the nature of a protest against the wholesale misrepre- 
sentations of facts in connection with Plymouth and Abraham 
Lincoln. The protest was continued in the October number, 1921, 
in an article on "American Ideals," which shows how many North- 
ern writers have completely reversed the truths of history. 

Now comes another illustration of this regrettable disregard of 
historical accuracy. 

Fort "Wayne, Ind., is the headquarters of a lot of gentlemen 
who have organized a league ("The American Lutlier League") 
apparently to create "one hundred per cent Americans" by flood- 
ing the country with a little pamphlet on "Inalienable Kights," 
by W. H. T. Dau, a copy of which was sent to the editor. Though 
stating that "One Hundred Per Cent Americanism" must start 
with the Declaration of Independence, this pamphlet does not 
once mention the great author of that paper, but proceeds to 
ascribe it to a lot of "authors," or "framers," leaving the number 
beautifully undefined. 

This ignoring of Thomas Jefferson, a Virginian, the real and 
only autbor, is after the impudent manner in which Jamestown 
has been ignored to make way for Plymouth as "the first colony," 
and Washington, the Father of his whole country. North and South, 
removed from his pinnacle as the "First American" to make way 
for Lincoln, who can never be justly regarded as other than the 
representative of a section involved in a bloody war with his own 
countrvmen. 



150 Tylee's Quakteely Magazine 

Mr. Dau's pamphlet 

"Analyzing somewhat these statements in the Declaration of In- 
dependence which glow with the convictions of its authors &c." (Page 
4.) 

"But for our present purpose, it is sufficient to nail down this in- 
controvertible fact that the framers of our Declaration of In- 
pendence thought of one kind of rights — which they called inalien- 
able." (page 7.) 

But not content with dividing out Mr. Jefferson's work among 
a number, and not once mentioning his name, the "writer proceeds 
next to make James Otis "the intellectual father" of the Declara- 
tion of Independence : 

"The thoughts expressed in the Declaration of Independence, and 
even some of its most expressive terms, had been current in the 
American colonies for sometime prior to the 4th of July, 1776. The 
intellectual father of this renowned document was James Otis &c." 
(Page 5.) 

In support of this the writer proceeds to quote from the speech 
imputed to James Otis by John Adams fifty-six years after he 
made it, and from a more authoritative pamplilet published by 
Otis in 1764 on the "Eights of the British Colonies." 

It is hard to apply the proper name to Mr. Dau's comments. 
The most charitable view to take is that he is crassly ignorant of 
his subject; and has guilelessly accepted everything tliat New 
England writers have written in magnifying the reputation of a 
Massachusetts man. 

The ignorance of Mr. Dau does not consist in saying "that 
the thougliis expressed in the Declaration of Independence, and 
even some of its most expressive terms, had been current in tlie 
American colonies before the 4th of July, 1776," but in saying that 
they were prevalent "sometime" prior to that date and in ascrib- 
ing their origination to one James Otis. 

Why, tlie principles enunciated go back to Magna Carta, and 
were current among the American people not "sometime prior to 
the 4th of July, 1776," but from the time of their settlement on 
these shores. They were clearly expressed in England by Locke 
and Sidney in the 17th centur}% and afterwards in France by 
Voltaire, Eousseau and Montesquieu. They were expressed by 



Moke Pkopaganda 151 

Eichard Bland, who, as a leader in Virginia, held quite as promi- 
nent position as James Otis held in Massachusetts. See Bland's 
letter in the Pistole Fee in 1753, and "The Colonel Dismounted," 
written in 1763 in the dispute of the "Two Penny Act," some 
months before Otis published his pamphlet on the "Eights of the 
British Colonies." In this last pamphlet Bland used these words : 

"Under the English government all men are free born, and 
only subject to laws made with their own consent and cannot 
be deprived of the benefit of these laws, without a transgression 
of them." And on the burning question soon to press for con- 
sideration^ Bland, instead of admitting as Otis did in his pamph- 
let on the "Eighth of the British Colonies," the supremacy of 
Parliament in all matters, denied that it had any authority what- 
ever in matters purely internal — a position subsequently assumed 
by the House of Burgesses in its resolutions of November 14, 1764, 
far in advance of Massachusetts. 

Jefferson says that in drafting the Declaration of Independence 
he "turned to neither book or pamphlet." He never saw Otis' 
pamphlet, and, of course, he could not read his speech on the Writs 
of Assistance because it did not exist in print. The fact is, it 
was not necessary to do any of these things; for Jefferson had 
been brought up in an English colony where the "inalienable rights 
of man" were preached to him from early boyhood. 

The intellectuality of the Declaration of Independence does 
not consist in its origination of principles, but in the marvelous 
marshaling of the factors as applied to the American cause. It 
sets out the inalienable rights of man, and then describes how 
the king of England had violated these rights, justifying armed 
resistance and independence. In doing this it employs, in the 
opinion of a well known New England writer, "a Demosthenic 
momentum of thought and a fervor of emotional appeal such as 
Tyrtaeus might have put in his war song." He well describes the 
declaration as "a kind of war song;" "a stately, passionate chant 
of human freedom," — "the most commanding and most pathetic 
utterance in any age, in any language, of national grievances and 
national purposes." (Moses Coit Tyler, Literary History of the 
American Revolution.) 



152 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Nevertheless, Thomas Jefferson, the author of this unparalleled 
paper, is to be set aside, and James Otis is to be made the father 
of its intellectuality ! — the one figuring on the national stage for 
over sixty years as a leader of thought and of men, and the other 
prominent, indeed, in his own colony, but scarcely kno\^Ti during his 
lifetime outside of it; the one constantly from his youth defend- 
ing the rights of the colonies and the other, when the critical 
period of the Stamp Act arose, declaring resistance treason and 
later counselling submission to the Eevenue Act, — being much of 
his time in an irresponsible mental condition. 

And yet, despite his lack of a sense of justice, which nothing 
can excuse, I cannot but realize that Mr. Dau has been made a 
victim to New England misstatements. It begins with John 
Adams, a man of great ability and sterling qualities it is true, 
but intellectually disfigured by childish prejudices and vanities. 
The contemporary opinion of the people of Massachusetts was 
uttered by himself in 1776 when he gave to Patrick Henry of Vir- 
ginia, "the credit witli posterity of beginning and concluding this 
great Eevolution." 

Also in the contemporary opinion of John Adams and the 
people of Massachusetts, Patrick Henry easily ranked as the great- 
est of American orators. But John Adams, patriot and states- 
man — for he was both — underwent a change. He grew jealous of 
Virginians, and lugged James Otis to the front, manufacturing for 
him a speech which has the real merits of march and fire, and pro- 
nounced him a better orator than Henry. Later he did not hesi- 
tate to say that he had heard a hundred speeches from Josiah 
Quincy, Sr., better than any he ever heard from Patrick Henry. 

New England writers took up the cue and ever since the ques- 
tion of the 'HiVrits of Assistance" has figured in their histories as 
the opening or, at any rate, "the prelude to the American Eevolu- 
tionary Drama." The truth is, there is nothing in the contem- 
porary accounts calculated to impress us that anything very extra- 
ordinary occurred when Otis spoke in 1761. 

Hutchinson, the historian of Massuchusetts, who was alive to 
every incident of his times, makes no such allusion. The affair 
of the "Writs of Assistance involved a legal question of search ap- 



MoEE Propaganda 153 

plicable as much in one part of the British Empire as another. 
John Adams was present at the trial and took down some notes "in 
a very careless manner," but there is nothing treasonable in the 
remarks ascribed in these notes to Otis — nothing that might not 
have been said in England as well as in America. The Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts decided against Otis and the "Writs were 
most freely issued down, to the Boston Port Bill. There is no 
evidence whatever that the case attracted any attention in Vir- 
ginia or other colonies. 

As a matter of fact, the question in Virginia of the Pistole Fee 
in 1753 and the Two Penny Act in 1758, both preceding the ques- 
tion of the Writs of Assistance," and both directly affecting the 
question of local taxation, had much better claims to being con- 
sidered "the prelude" of the American Eevolution. These ques- 
tions not only convulsed the colony of Virginia, but were carried 
to England and produced warm controversy on both sides of the At- 
lantic. Moreover, both were decided in favor of Virginia. The 
latter question was one of long continuance and mingled with the 
Stamp Act and the tax on tea, and powerfully swelled the tide 
'which rolled the colony on to independence. (See William and 
Mary College Quarterly, XIX, 10-2'7.) There is contemporary evi- 
dence tliat Patrick Henry used words of treason in the matter of 
the Two Penny Act, and none whatever that James Otis did in 
the "Writs of Assistance. All after evidence is apt to be affected by 
after thoughts. 

It seems from a letter head that the following appear as names 
of those who are in command of the affairs of the "American 
'Luther League :" 

Dr. H. A. Duemling, President. 

Albert Buuck, 1st Vice President. 

F. J. Rump, 2nd Vice President. 

Hy. J. Doell, Fin. Secretary. 

Paul Pichter, Treasurer. 

"W. D. Holterman, Secretary. 

John C. Baur, General Secretary. 

Members of Executive Board : 
W. C. Dickmeyer. 



154 Tyler's Quaetekly Magazine 

Wm. Fruechtenicht. 
Louis C. Eippe. 
C. W. Scheumann. 
John F, Schroeder. 

Here is a grouping of names that does not apparently contain 
a single one of English origin, and the Editor is bound to say- 
that to a person who lives in Virginia, where only about two per 
cent of the population is foreign born, this array of men of strange 
tognomens engaged in the cause of making "one hundred per cent 
Americans" by snubbing a man who was in his day the greatest 
exponent of the inalienable rights and the founder of American- 
ism, as we understand it, and is today the greatest living influence 
on American thought, is one of the most astonishing pieces of 
propaganda which has come under his notice. 



DR. JOHN HAMILTON ROBINSON, 1732-1819. 
Communicated by A. J. Morrison. 

John Hamilton Robinson, son of David Robinson and Miriam 
Hamilton, was born in Augusta County, Virginia, Jan. 24, 1782. 
He was bred a physician and came to St. Louis shortly after the 
transfer of Louisiana to the United States. In 1806 and 1807 
he was attached to Capt. Pike's celebrated party that went to 
Santa Fc and Chihuahau. 

Captain Pike set down plainly what he thought of Dr. Robin- 
son: "He has had the benefit of a liberal education, without 
having spent his time as too many of our gentlemen do in colleges, 
in skimming on the surfaces of sciences, without ever endeavoring 
to make themselves masters of the solid foundations. Robinson 
studied and reasoned; with these qualifications he possessed a lib- 
erality of mind too great even to reject an hypothesis because it 
was not agreeable to the dogmas of the schools ; or adopt it because 
it had all the eclat of novelty. 

"His soul could conceive great actions, and his hand was ready 
to achieve them, — in short, it may truly be said that nothing 



De. John Hamilton Kobinson, 1732-1819 155 

was above his genius, nor anytliing so minute that be considered 
it entirely unworthy of consideration. As a gentleman and com- 
panion in dangers^ difficulties and hardsliips, I, in particular and 
the expedition generally owe much to his exertions." That state- 
ment was in print before the end of 1810. 

Dr. Eobinson at Santa Fe and in the Chihuahua neighborhood, 
temp. 1807, became very much interested in the fortunes of Mexico 
and in the outlook for a self-determining Mexico. In 1810 he 
persuaded Secretary Monroe to send him to Chihuahua on State 
business. Dr. Eobinson made his reports during 1810 and 1811. 
Mr. Monroe was not ready to commit the United States to a mili- 
tant sort of co-adjutorship in the affairs of the republicans of 
Mexico, and Dr. Robinson by the year 1813 was quite ready to be 
a filibuster. 

In 1815 he cast in his lot with the revolutionists in Mexico, 
and ranked as general of brigade in their army as it was consti- 
tuted from 1815 to 1819. And along with Gutierrez and Toledo, 
Dr. Eobinson had been one of the first accredited representatives 
in the United States from the republicans of Mexico. 

In 1816 William Davis Eobinson of Georgetown, District of 
Columbia, went to Mexico to supply General Mina's army with 
muskets "at $20 the musket." He fell into the hands of the 
Spaniards, and was long held a prisoner in Mexico and in. 
Spain. The Spaniards at first thought he was Dr. Eobinson, and 
throughout his troubles William Davis Eobinson suffered the more 
because of his name. Both the Eobinsons were men of brains and 
republican principles, and the Spanish authorities had reason to 
look out for them. 

John Hamilton Eobinson was early dissatisfied with the inci- 
dence of the Southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. 
In 1819 he published at Philadelphia a remarkable "Map of 
Mexico, Louisiana, and the Missouri Territory, including also the 
'State of Mississippi, Alabama Territory, East and West Florida 
&c." This was a large-scale map, and Dr. Eobinson desired in 
this way to draw the attention of the United States (and the 
attention of Secretary Adams) to Texas especially. 

Niles' Register (XIV, 359), under the caption Small Dif- 



156 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ference ! remarked at the time : "Dr. John H. Robinson's new 
map of Louisiana and Mexico is noticed in a Natchez newspaper. 
The boundary lines of the territorial claims of the United States 
and Spain are marked on this map." Niles then figured out the 
enormous acreage lying between the lines so marked. Niles was 
no annexationist and was not much interested in the map. 

Natchez was the gateway to Texas from much of the United 
States for some years. Dr. Eobinson, during his service in Mexico, 
'had settled his family there. He had married at St. Louis Sophie 
Marie Michau. Several of their children died of yellow fevei 
at Natchez during 1818, and the next year, Sept. 19, Dr. Eobin- 
son died there of the fever. His wife survived him many years. 
Their son, Antoine Saugrain Robinson, was living in St. Louis 
in 1888, at the age of seventy-nine. He was for many years cashier 
of the old Bank of Missouri. 

Some day perhaps. Professor Joslin Cox of Northwestern Uni- 
versity, will write a Life of Dr. Robinson. These notes have been 
thrown together because the subject is undoubtedly interesting 
and to emphasize the importance of gathering up for the bio- 
graphical dictionary of the Virginia region a good many impor- 
tant western names. John Hamilton Robinson, as a subject for 
biography, is immensely interesting. 

Consider the times, and th^ plans of Blount, Hamilton, Burr, 
Miranda, and how many others. It was not logical for the United 
States to stay fenced off from the Great South Sea. But the logic 
of the expansion was that America before and with the Revolu- 
tion had bred the expansionists. 

REFERENCES. 

iBIllon, Annals of St. Louis, second series, p. 191. 

zjoslin Cox, Am. Hist. Review, 1911, Vol. I, 208-215. 

The Controversy of West Florida [Albert Shaw Lectureg] 

Johns Hopkins Univ., 1918. 

3Coues, Pike's Expedition, Vol. II, p. 498, 

■tWilliam Davis Robinson, ,Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution, 
Vol. 1, Preface. 

isBancroft, History of Mexico, Vol. IV, 634. 

amies' Register, XII, 222. 

iSenate Reports, No. 89, 35th Cong., 1st Session, Vol. 1. 



Dr. Evaxs axd the War (1861-1865) 157 



DR. EVAXS AXD THE WAR (1861-65). 

The following letters, the first dated at the beginning of the 
war for Southern Independence, and the other at the close, were 
written by Dr. Moses Ford Thomas Evans to his sister Mary, wife 
of Frank R. Stockton, of Philadelphia, the novelist. Dr. Evans 
was the son of Thomas F. Evans, and Mary Mansfield Brooks, 
his wife, and was born in South Carolina in June, 1820. He at- 
tended a military school in that state and afterwards studied medi- 
cine, with much distinction, at the University of Pennsylvania. 

In 1847 he settled in Amelia county, Virginia, where for many 
years he enjoyed an extensive practice. "^Mien the war for South- 
ern Independence broke out in 1861, Dr. Evans entered the ser- 
vice as lieutenant in the Painesville (Amelia County) Rifles, which 
he did much to organize and drill. This company was mustered 
into the Fourteenth Regiment. He was made Adjutant and soon 
afterwards was promoted to Lt. Colonel. He was wounded slightly 
at the battle of Seven Pines and not long afterwards was rendered 
unfit for further service by a severe wound received at the battle 
of Malvern Hill. He retired to Painesville, where he was residing 
when Gen. Lee evacuated Richmond. 

At the time of his death, January 16, 187?, he was superin- 
tendent of schools for his county, and a better choice could not 
have been made. The writer of his obituary says, "I have rarely 
ever met a man who united so many useful and graceful acquire- 
ments. He possessed a strong, quick, incisive intellect, intensi- 
fied and brightened by culture, research and thought. Xot only a 
physician of the highest professional attainments, he was also a 
scholar and literateur. Skilled in occult sciences, he was devoted 
to their intricacies and beauties, a mathematician, chemist and ma- 
chinist. Yet, with these solid attainments, he was a lover of the 
fine arts and polite literature — a rare and singular combination." 

His funeral was largely attended, and he was interred in Amelia 
County, in the graveyard cf Capt. John Wiley. 

Dr. Evans married twice: (1) Elizabeth Hulens Stockton, 
of Philadelphia, sister of Frank R. Stockton, and (3) Mary Re- 



158 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

becca Wiley, of Amelia County, Virginia, by whom he had Sarah, 
who married Yelvei"ton Evans Booker, 

These letters throw some interesting light upon the war. In 
its destructive tendencies Grant's army held a kind of inter- 
mediate relationship to McClellan's and Sherman's. Under Mc- 
Clellan the Federal soldiers respected the persons of non-com- 
batants and protected their private property. No praise can be 
too great for George B. McClellan. Under Grant, the army, while 
not cruel to individuals and did not as a rule burn private houses, 
were wholesale looters of stock and personal property. Nothing 
was safe — from the chicken sleeping peacefully on his roost, to 
the Family Bible solemnly revered as containing the family register. 
Plundering and robbing and looting amounted with them to a kind 
of disease. Under Sherman, the Federal soldiers equalled the Ger- 
mans in their indifference to tlie demands of humanity, and in 
their barbarous destruction of homes and personal property. The 
Germans might well have hesitated to drive away the whole popu- 
lation of a French city, but Sherman did not. Witness his con- 
duct at Atlanta. 

Hermitage Camp, near Richmond, Va., 
April 30th, 1861. 
My dear Sister Mary 

I am about to surprise you with a letter — that is, if Uncle Sam 
is willing to carry it. A letter from me is a fit attendant upon the 
times. 

How hard it is to realize the strange calamity which has fallen 
upon our country. War to the death! I have long looked for all this, 
and yet cannot fully feel that it is a fixed fact now. 

What is to be the end of it? 

Both sections are actively and fully arming. You see one side — 
I will tell you of the other. 

Virginia has at this moment, of her own force, Seventy-five thou- 
sand men In the field — drilling daily — this force is very well armed. 
The five months preceding the war have been so well spent by the 
South in purchasing arms and ammunities of war in Europe and 
at the North, that the whole South may be regarded as being as well 
armed as any nation in Europe. What next? 

The wish — the universal wish — is to march upon Washington — 
then upon Philadelphia — another army at the same time upon Cin- 
cinnati. But the authorities at the head of affairs may be more pru- 



Dk. Evans and the Wab (1861-1865) 159 

dent than to commit these blunders. Washington is properly ours, 
and soon will he really — but no further. Maryland belongs to the 
South, and will be fought for to the last extremity — but no Northern 
invasion will be thought of by those in power here. 

In Richmond we now have 25,000 troops — the other forces of the 
state are at the various camps in different localities. Alexandria is 
our depot. 

Virginia has officially joined the Southern Confederacy, and one 
thousand South Carolina troops are now here. 20 thousand more will 
be on next week. Jeff Davis will be here in a few days. Richmond 
will probably be the Capital. 

Ben, Hood, George Wily, & Miller are here in Camp. All well 
and in fine spirits. 

We hear from home about daily. All well there. 

What are you & Frank driving at in these times? Come south. 
We want Frank to sketch the "Battle of Washington" for us. Won- 
der if this letter will ever get through to you? doubtful! If it does — 
dont telJ on us. 

Orderly Hood looks as savage as a meat axe. Ben don't like the 
fun particularly — especially his new duties as Corporal of the Guard, 
George Wily enjoys the whole. Without intending to compliment 
our little Painville Squad, I may say that the flower of the Southern 
youths are in the field everywhere. 

Our Genl Lee (Late U. S.) thinks the South invincible. So do I. 
(two great men thus agree) 

Oh what armies we are to see! America has yet known nothing 
like it. 

Write what is going on — if you can. Loulu is suffering with 
neuralgia. Sorry that I cannot be with her. We will take excellent 
care of her, and return her in good condition when the war is over. 
It will not last long. 

Love to all. Write fully if you can. Your loving brother 

M. F. T. Evans. 

Enclosed in an Envelope to Meade & Baker Druggists. 



Painville, Amelia Co., Va., 
United States of North America, 
Western Hemisphere, Earth, 
Solar System No. — Nebula No. — 
Universe, June 14, 1865. 
My dear Sister Mary: 

With the above patriotic heading, I suppose that I may safely 



160 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

write somewhat explicitly. As soon as President Johnson has estab- 
lished, at the point of the bayonet, the respective numbers of our 
solar system, and Nebula, I will fill the above blanks with pleasure, 
and in the true Union spirit. 

Your letters, and Loulu's, to Sister Bess, Mary, and Kate, have 
just been received, and we poor rebels have derived much pleasure 
from them. That you all love us still, is a marvel, considering the 
multitude of magnificent lies concerning us, with which your papers 
have favored you during the four eventful years which have just 
passed. But as obedient, grateful, and well whipped curs, we should 
perhaps be careful how we talk of misrepresentations, and only be 
thankful if something much worse is not yet in store for us. Mrs. 
Stockton's kind letter, though written before yours, came also today. 
That you all sympathize with us is very grateful to our feelings, but 
thank heaven we have not suffered so much as you very reasonably 
expected we would from the rushing of two great armies over our 
very bodies, I may almost say. For several days during the recent 
transit, Amelia County was alive with the moving hosts of pursued 
and pursuers — the whole county filled with Infantry, Cavalry, Artil- 
lery, and immense wagon trains; but though many partial battles 
occurred in the County, few houses were burnt or destroyed. A large 
amount of horses, cattle, and provisions were stolen of course, and 
crops in many place much Injured. 

A brigade of Federal Cavalry charged into Painville on Wednes- 
day the 6th. of April, while we were at breakfast. They came at 
full speed, with pistols cocked, sabers flashing, and yelling like demons 
— about two thousand strong. The village, at the time, was defended 
by Lieutenant General Nathan Seay, Major General Thos. I. Horner, 
Brigadier Gen'l. Thos. E. Whitworth, Col. Edwin Cosby, and myself. 
Our army consisting of women, children, and negroes. After a manful 
defense for two whole seconds, we surrendered. The fight was fully 
as fatal as that celebrated battle between the Dutch and Swedes at 
Fort Christina, so graphically described by Diederick Knickerbocker. 
Our conquerors behaved very well, only stealing all our horses, and 
cows, and as much of our provisions as they could manage to get. 

After some hours, a body of Fitz Lee's Cavalry came up and a 
running fight commenced which continued from Painville to Jeters- 
ville — the "Yanks" falling back most heroically. On Thursday the 
7th. April, the 5th Army Corps, about fifteen thousand men, passed 
through our village. No damage done by them to us, except the usual 
stealings, which seem to be an essential part of military tactics. 

My own losses may be summed up as follows: — two fine horses; 
two excellent milch cows; two barrels of flour; about one hundred 



Dr. Eyaxs a^b the War (1801-18 65) 161 

pound of bacon; all my oats; nearly all of my fodder; about twenty 
gallons of molasses; a hive of honey; a quantity of preserves, and 
brandy, peaches; many dozen of eggs; about twenty hens; some ducks; 
and geese, etc., etc. 

But they did not get all of my supplies, as I had left six barrels of 
flour; twenty barrels of corn; three hundred pound of bacou; and 
other "fixings" — besides twenty one hens, and a good garden. So 
you see we are not starving. 

Upon the whole I will say, that the Yankee Army behaved here 
almost as well as Genl. Lee's Army did in Pennsylvania, which is 
saying a good deal. A propensity to steal watches, and jewelry, was 
the worst form of theft which I heard of, as this could not be based 
upon any animal necessity. A clergyman who was staying at my 
house at the time had two watches taken from him. I had given 
my watch to Lettie for safe keeping, and so saved it. 

Beck had hidden hers, with her jewelry, so we lost nothing in 
this way. 

Mary and Kate happened to be away from home. 

Our house was not pillaged, but many iuotaaces of complete sack- 
ing occurred in the county — chiefly with houses deserted by the fam- 
ilies through fear. 

Of course the panic among the women was gieat. A Yankee of- 
ficer, seeing Mrs. Garland Jefferson in great trepidation, exclaimed — 
"Madam, we do not eat women and children!" TTiis certainly should 
have reassured her, but she might with truth have retorted, "Sir, 
you do eat raw bacon, and half hatched eggs " But I cry out from 
experience, "what will not army folks eat" — it is well for the women 
and children on both sides that the war did net last a four years 
longer. 

You northern people have had no true idea of the condition of 
things in the South during the war, as your papers have given you 
little else than a tissue of enormous and ridiculous lies concerning 
us. Even your true heart may, in some measure, have been turned 
from us, by this continued abuse. T can only say here that the South- 
ern authorities and the southern people carried on the war with an 
honest conviction of right. It was a war of the people — the authori- 
ties being only agents — we have had no tyranny — no anarchy — 
within the Confederate lines, law and order have everywhere pre- 
vailed. Our sufferings have been such as were necessarily incident 
to a war of such tremendous magnitude. The conscription was un- 
avoidable, and was regarded as proper by all thinking men. The op- 
position here to President Davis was purely a party opposition, in 



162 Tylee^s Quarterly Magazine 

matters of opinion and policy, but all regarded him, and still regard 
him, as a Vii'tuous statesman and Christian. 

This sounds strangely to your ears, but if it is not all true, then 
I shall lose faith in the best evidences of truth. Jefferson Davis had 
about as much to do with the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, as you 
had. That horrid deed shocked the whole Southern people quite as 
much as it shocked the northern people, and it was as sincerely re- 
gretted. 

Another stupendous lie concerns the wilful starvation of pris- 
oners. It is true that the prisoners did often suffer much from want 
of food, hut only when our own army suffered in like manner, and 
for the same good reason — never from wilful cruelty. Frequently, 
however, they fared better than our army, because they were often 
nearer to the transportation facilities. Concerning battles, too, the 
lying has been by wholesale. I am now convinced from the teachings 
of my own experience that there is no such thing as an accurate ac- 
count of a battle, but independently of this apparently unavoidable 
diflBculty, the wholesale and evidently wilful deceptions about battles, 
practiced by your papers, are inconceivable. 

One example in particular has been a constant source of surprise 
to me, the battles of Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, fought below Rich- 
mond on the 31" May and 1" June, 1862. Your papers and Genl. Mc- 
Clellan's dispatches, represented the last day's fight as resulting in a 
rout of our army — the troops being hotly pursued to the works near the 
City. Now I was present, and slept both nights on the battle field. 
On the morning of the 2d. June, before day, our troops were marched 
to a new position, in perfect order and quiet — no enemy near us, and 
not a gun fired. The federals had retired beyond our reach. Now 
how, think you, will history record these battles? 

But why write of all this? We have been weighed in the bal- 
ance and found wanting — not in courage, or endurance, but in men 
and now that it has been proved that twenty millions of people, aided 
by men and supplies from all the earth, can whip five millions, sealed 
up within their own territory, it follows that further quarrelling had 
better be dropped. We honestly desired a separate government, but 
as that can not be had, we accept in good faith the alternative. 

The southern people love peace and order as much as any people, 
and as soon as all reasonable hope failed, the quarrel was dropped. 
Do any imagine that those states could not have carried on the war 
for a considerable period, even after Genl. Lee's surrender? If so, 
they are mistaken. We stni had large armies in the field, and in such 
a country as ours, a guerilla warfare could be indefinitely waged. 
But it was foreseen that final success was impossible, and so the ques- 



Dr. Evans and the War (1861-1865) 163 

tion was settled. We are not Mexicans, nor like them. The failure of 
a fair triel — an honest trial — at separation, now leaves the south ready 
and willing to restore the Union in good faith, and as the slavery 
question, and the question of State Sovereignty, are settled forever 
all over the Union, the South will have nothing more to do with re- 
volutions — unless some forgetful Yankee state attempts to re-assert 
the latter of the two above named doctrines, in which case, the South 
will cheerfully treat her to a dish of cold bayonets. 

Nobody here cares three figs about slavery now, except in regard 
to the little matter of "money out of pocket" — and I hear very little 
even about that. Very few, in my opinion, would wish to re-establish 
it. Let it go — and at once. 

I hope that Congress will not foolishly pass any "gradual eman- 
cipation" laws; and further hope that every state will now ratify "the 
constitutional amendment" of the last session. 

These sentiments, I believe, prevail here generally. 

So much for these matters. 

What of literature? Have any books been published since the 
war began? Are England, France, Russia, and Trinnicum still in 
existence? Are there any great men now? If, so, who are they, and 
as little Fort says, — "what for." 

Sister Bess is at Mr. Peyton's doing well, and looking well. I do 
not think that she has any idea of going to Philadelphia now — nor 
have Mary and Kate. The northern people love us so much, and 
value us so highly that these girls naturally fear that they will be 
smothered in kindness, or hear too many pleasant things. But the 
chief object of this letter is to ask you and Frank and Loulie to come 
here. You see, from previous statements, that we still have some- 
thing to eat — so you need not fear starvation. We will all be much 
pleased to see you, and Sister Bess will blow up with joy. Ben — rare 
Ben — is teaching school at Mr. Whitworth's in Painville. The same 
cranky, odd fish, as of old. Beck is well and sends love. Mary & 
Kate ditto, ditto. 

Little Fort grows apace. Yesterday was his birthday — four years 
old. He gave a dinner to his friends, on the occasion, and treated 
them to sponge cake, custard, raspberries and cream, etc. 

Little Sallie Fleming (9 mos.) is a little beauty. She looks wise, 
but says nothing — a safe example for many of us. 

But I am tired of this scrawl. 
Come — one and all. 

As ever your affectionate brother, 

M. F. T. Evans. 



164 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

WILLIAMSBURG CARICATURED. 

C. De La Pena to John Adams Smith. 

Williamsburg Novr 3rd 1827. 
John A. Smith Esq. 

Richmond. 
Dear Sir: 

According to my promise I write to you from this sad place of 
solitude and exile, which in former and better times was the Capital 
of Virginia. As time destroys every thing, nothing remains here that 
would ascertain its past glorifes, but an old statue of an old wretched 
english general who was the first Govenor of this State under the 
british dominion to be seen on the College's yard, and many half 
ruined wooden houses which afford a tranquil and peaceful asylum 
to insects of every description. The streets give an idea of the won- 
derful fertility of this soil, by their being covered with grass, and 
several cows, pigs, horses, mules and goats are to be seen pasturing 
undisturbed along them. I thought I was transported to Noah's 
Ark, when I first came into this town, so prodigious was the quantity of 
animals I met with, without seeing a single person till I reached the 
post office which stands in the center of Main St. It is one of the 
curiosities of this place. I whish I could describe it to you, but such 
thing is entirely out of my power, and I defy Walter Scott himself 
to do it, notwithstanding his astonishing imagination, but as to enable 
you to form an incorrect idea of this superb establishment I will 
tell you that there is not article whatever in the world which could 
not be found in it. It is a Book Seller's store in which you will find 
hams and french brandy; it is an apothecary's shop in which you 
can provide yourself with black silk stockings and shell oysters; it 
is a post office in which you may have glisters, chewing tobacco & in 
a word it is a museum of natural history in which we meet every after- 
noon to dispute about the Presidential election, and about the quality 
of Irish potatoes. 

I do not recollect who was the blessed soul who told me in Rich- 
mond I would be delighted with the society here. I must confess that 
I am not delighted with it, at least I cannot dislike it, as such thing 
is by no means to be found in here. 

I went some days past to the celebrated York, and scarcely had 
I been half an hour in that town when I was acquainted with every 
soul, having visited the famous Cafe in which the Commander of the 
english Army abode on account of his not being acostomed to smell 



WiLLIAMBURG CaEICATURED 165 

the cannon powder, and he was some what afraid of its affects. Judge 
how much pleased was I with that little bit of a town, that on my 
returning to Williamsburg I was quite delighted as I thought I en- 
tered in a Paradise. 

Now I must speak in honest. The few persons I know here have 
paid me every kind of attention in their power and Doct. Cole's family 
in which I board is a very agreeable and interesting one. My situa- 
tion here is a great deal better than I could imagine. I will on Mon- 
day next open my french class at the College as I think I will have 
about 40 students attending to it. I have also several scholars In 
town & in a few days I will very probably get more than I shall be 
able to attend. 

I intend to pay a visit to my good friends of Richmond about 
Christmas time, and spend again in their society a few happy days. 
Has Miss Martha heard from Mr. Thompkinson? Do present my 
best respects to her, her sister, Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Deuby and Miss 
Harvey and remember me to the recollection of the Doctor, and the 
Messrs. D. Timberlake, R. Adams, Ferguson and all the members of 
our Club partisans of the Administration. Tell Mr. Adams I am very 
much indebted to him for his letter to Mr. Campbell who I found a 
very amiable and polite gentleman with whose society I am very 
much pleased. 

Do write to me when you have nothing better to do, as I will al- 
ways receive a great pleasure in hearing from you. 

Farewell my good friend. Do sometimes think of those poor 
exiled who like me are far from their friends. 

Adieu yours 

de La Pena.* 



*C. d9 La Pena was professor of Modern Languaj'es at William 
and Mary College for several years. The little that Is known of him 
is furnished by this letter. 

Pray excuse my bad engllsh. 



166 Tylee's Quarteely Magazine 



SOME DESCENDANTS OF PATIENCE MCKINNE AND 
JOSEPH LANE, JR., OF HALIFAX, N. C. 

( Communicated. ) 

1. Patience McKinne, daughter of Barnaby McKinne and Mary 
Exum, his wife, was born about 1715. Her estate, from her father 
who died 1759, was given her Nov. 18th 1760 and the proceeding 
recorded in N. C. Colonial and State Records, Vol. 6, pp. 383-384 
and 481. 

She married in Halifax, N. C, 1730, recorded in N. C. Colonial 
and State Records Book 2, p. 317 and 519, Joseph Lane* Jr. b. 
1710 d. 1774, sone of Joseph Lane who lived in Jamestown^ Va. 
before moving to N. C. In 1727 Joseph^ Lane Sr., with Major 
Barnabas McKinne and others, was elected a vestryman of the 
N. West Parish of Bertie. N. C. Records Vol. 25, p. 210. In Vol. 
5, p. 982 "The Executors of Joseph Lane,^ former sheriff of Edge- 
combe County (N. C.) was allowed £16 as his salary for the years 
1751 and 1752, he having fully accounted with Mr. Haywood, 
former treasurer, and paid all taxes for these years, as also 40 
shillings for summoning the court for Tryall of a negroe for felony 
and executing said negroe and as by account lodg'd with your com- 
mittee £18— Nov. 27th 1758." Joseph Lane,^ Sr. born 1665 d. 
1758, it is supposed was the son of Jo^ Lane b. in England 1631, 
son ^f Richard^ b. 1597 and Alice^ b. 1605, sailed for Va. 1635-36. 
"License to go be'jQud the seas April 16th 163/1 •. -fnese parties 
hereafter expressed are to be transported to the Island Providence, 
embarked in ye ^Expectation' Corneilius Bellinger, master, having 
taken the oath of Allegience and Supremacie as likewise being 
conformable to the church of England whereof they brought their 
testamonie from the minister and justices of Peace of their Abodes : 
Alice Lane,^ aged 30; Jo Lane,^ age 4; Samuel Lane^ aged 7; 
Oziel Lane,^ aged 3 ; Richard Lane,^ aged 38." 

In 1727 Joseph Lane,* Jr., so st}ded himself. He was Justice of 
Peace— Ordinances of Convention 1776, Vol. 23, p. 995, N. C. 
State Records. Boundary Commissioner 1748, Vol. 23, p. 287, N. C. 



Descendants of Patience McKinne and Joseph Lane 167 

State Eecords. Justice of Edgecombe Co. 11 Oct. 1749 — and 
juror in the same year, N. C. State Eecords, Vol. 4, pp. 521-522- 
524-966. Granted land and approved in Edgecombe Co. Vol. 4, 
pp 32'9-331-353-441-588-643-711-?88. 

The children of Patience McKinne and Joseph* Lane, Jr., were : 

I. Joseph^ m. Ferebe Hunter. II. Col JoeP m. Martha llinton 
2nd Mary Hinton. The celebrated Senator and founder of Raleigh, 
N. C. III. Jesse^ m. Winifred Aycock. IV. James.^ V. Barna- 
bas.'^ 

(These are mentioned m the records of Gov. Parid Swain, a 
descendant. ) 

References'. 1. Life of Col. Joel Lane, Pioneer and Patriot, by 
Marshall De Lancey Haywood. 2. History of N". C. and Early 
Times in Raleigh, by Wheeler. 3. Historical Records of N. C, by 
Gov. David Swain. 4. Hotten's List of Emigrants to America 
1600 to 1700. 

IL Jesse Lane,^ born July 3rd 1733, died Oct. 28-1806 (?) 
married Dec. 16th, 1755, Winifred Aycock^ daughter of Wm Ay- 
cock,^ who took out a grant of land in Northumberland Co. N. C. 
500 acres Aug. 26-1746 (N. C. Hist and Genealogical Register, 
1900) and in Aug. 1779 — was one of the grandjurors in the first 
court held in Wilkes Co., Georgia (G. G. Smith's "Story of Geor- 
gia") and his wife, Rebecca Pace,^ widow of Wm Bradford. Both 
Wm and Rebecca Pace Bradford Aycock were Welsh. [The Welsh 
name was Aweek.] 

Winifred Aycock' Lane was born April 11th 1741, died Dec. 
16th, 1794, from pneumonia contracted from exposure when driven 
from her home by the Indians. She is buried in the "old cemetery" 
at Athens, Clarke Co., Ga. Her parents belonged to the church 
of England, of which church she also was a member until con- 
verted to Methodism by Rev. Humphries and Mr. Majors. 

All of Winifred Aycock and Jesse^ Lane's children except the 
youngest, Elizabeth, who was born in Wilkes Co., Ga., were born in 
Wake Co., N. C. 

I. Charles b. Oct. 2"^ 1756 m. Elizabeth Mallory. 
II. Richard b. Feb. 9^^ 1759 m. Mary Flint. 

III. Henry b. Mar. 28*1^ 1760 died in infancy. 



168 Tyler's Quakteely Magazine 

IV. Caroline b. May 26*^ 1761 m. David Lowry who was killed 
by the Indians. 2°'^ George Swain. 
V. Ehoda b. May 2V^ 1763 m. John Eakestraw. 
VI. Patience^ b. March 28"> 1765 m. John Hart. 
VII. Jonathan b. April 3^*^ 1767 m. Patience Eogers 2"<^ Mary 
Colley. 
VIII. John b. Dec. 25^^ 1769 m. Elizabeth Street. 
IX. Simeon b. March 10^^ 1771 m. Judith Humphrey. 

X. Eebecca b. March 5^^ 1773 m. James Luekie. 
XI. Joseph b. xMarch S^^ 1775 m. Elizabeth Hill. 
XII. Mary . , -, -lothi'-'^^ ^^- Thomas Kirkpatrick 

XIII. Sara m. John Kirkpatrick 

brothers. 

XIV. Winifred b. Oct. 11'^ 1779 m. James Pele'g Eogers. 
XV. Jesse b. June 12^^ 1782 m. Ehoda Jolley. 

XVI. Elizabeth b. Sept. 6^^ 1786 m. W™ Montgomery. 

Jesse Lane^ was a grand old patriarch. He served in the 
American Eevolution, being an officer in the Third N. C. Conti- 
nentals (Army Accounts, Vol. 13, Section AA, p. 50 — 1782, also 
p. 175, 11-6, 1783). He with his son John (father of General 
Joseph Lane of Oregon) was in the battle of King's Mountain. He 
moved to Georgia in 1784 first to Elberton Co., and thence to 
Oglethorpe County, thence to Jackson Co. (formed of a part of 
Clarke Co.), where he settled. With his son Jonathan and son in 
law, David Lowry, he built the first Methodist church in that part 
of Georgia in 1787, which was dedicated by Eev. Humphries and 
Majors. 

III. Patience Lane,^ daughter of Winifred Aycock and Jesse 
Lane born March 28*-^ 1765 married 1787 John Hart," son of Ben- 
jamin Hart^ and Xancy (Ann) Morgan Hart of X. C. thought to 
have been the daughter of Thomas and Eebecca Alexander Mor- 
gan, and granddaughter of James Morgan of Bucks Co., Penna. 
Nancy Morgan Hart was a woman of remarkable strength and de- 
cision of character. History records many deeds of daring achieved 
bv her during tlie Eev. War and Georgia is justly proud of her, 
having recently hung a potrait of her in the Capitol at Atlanta. 



Descendaa^ts of Patience McKinne and Joseph Lane 169 

Benjamin=^ Hart was the son of Thos.^ Hart, b. 1679, d. 1755, of 
Hanover Co. Va. and his wife Susanna Eice. Benj. was born in 
1730 and died in 1798 in Brunswick, Glynn Co. Ga. He was bu- 
ried in the old cemetery on Wright's Square [which no longer ex- 
ists]. Deeds for the transfer of his estate are on record in Glynn 
Co., Vols. A, B, E, F, 1802. His brothers were ^Col. Thos. m. 
Susanna Gray. ^John died having one daughter who had no issue 
^David m. Susanna Munn ^Nathaniel m. Sarah Simpson, and a 
sister =*Ann m. James Gooch, all of whom left descendants in Ken- 
tucky, who have since scattered widely. 

John Hart,* second son of Benjamin and Ann (Nancy) Mor- 
gan Hart with four others founded Watkinsville, the county seat 
of Clarke Co., Ga., after an act passed Dec. 5-1801 to divide Jackson 
County. (Clayton's Digest of Laws of Ga. 1801 to 1810, p. 35.) 
John and Patience lived in Long Creek in 1788, 3 miles from Lex- 
ington in Oglethorpe Co. In 1791 they moved to Spark's Fort, 
near Athens, In 1793 they moved to the Oconee, 3 miles below 
Athens and in 1802 or 1803 moved to Ky. settling in Union County, 
what is now Henderson County seven miles south of the town of 
Henderson on the old Frog Island road. There in the family 
burying ground on the side of the hill below the old log house he 
and his wife and mother are buried. At the site of the house there 
is a pile of bricks which formerly was the chimney and some bits 
of broken crockery. Three long sunken graves — unmarked — are 
the resting place of John, Patience, and his mother, Ann (Xancy) 
Morgan Hart. 

Gen. Joseph Lane of Oregon says : "My father, John Lane, and 
uncle John Hart and uncle Lowery were all good Indian fighters. 
In pursuit of the Indians who had been robbing outside settlers, 
they ventured too far, were attacked by warriors and Uncle Lowery 
was killed. This battle was with the Creek Indians 16 Sept. 
1787." 

John Hart's will is on file in Henderson Co., proved 16 Oct., 
1821. Will Book A, p. 346. 

The children of Patience Lane and John Hart were 

1. Thomas m. Sallie Buggs 2. John J. m Coghill — Jno 

Jr was killed in a Mex. Skirmish. 3. Ann m. Jordon 4. Kezia m. 



170 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Win. Standley 2"'^ Wiley Suggs 5. Eebecca^ m. Dr. Thomas Worth- 

ington. 6. Susanna ni. Floyd 2"'^ Slack 3'"'^ 

Dixon 7. Ehoda m. Floyd 2"^ Talbot. 8. Mary m. Dr. 

Alex Bailey. 

IV. Eebecca^ Hart, daughter of Patience Lane and John Hart, 
born Feb. 28*^ 1797 in Georgia, died Aug. 15^^ 1866 in Dallas Co. 
Texas, married in Henderson Ky, 1817, Dr. Thos. Wortliington, 
eldest son of William Worthington* and his wife, Mary Mason, 
born May 27*^^ 1786 died in 1852 — an eminent doctor and minister 
in Mulilenberg Co. Ky — where he lived and died, being buried at 
Island, McLean Co., Ky. 

After the death of her husband, Rebecca Hart Worthington 
moved to Mississippi, but, at the outbreak of the war, moved to 
Dallas Co., Texas, where she remained until her death. She is 
buried at the W. W. Corinth Farm north of the city of Dallas. 

The children of Eebecca Hart and Dr. Thos. Worthington 
were: 1. George (eldest child) m. Josie Bott. 2. Samuel m. 
Elizabeth Lacy. 3. William m. Eoxie McNeal. 4. Thomas m. 
Lou Montgomery, 2nd Sallie McNeal, 5. Mark m. Eliza Mims. 
6. Aaron m. Mamie Flournoy. 7. Mattie m. Wm Caruth. 8. 
Elizabeth m. Dr. Peter Hendricks. 9. Ann Amanda m. Capt. 
Walter Caruth 

V. Ann Amanda" Worthington, youngest child of Eebecca Hart 
and Dr. Thomas Worthington. born July 2"*^ 1841 married March 
o'h 1865 Captain Walter Anderson" Caruth born Feb. 1^^ 1826 
in Allen Co. Ky— died Feb. 3^^ 1897 Dallas Co. Texas— Capt. 
Caruth held large tracts of land in Dallas and Denton Counties. 
He was quartermaster of the Confederate Army stationed at Tyler, 
Texas during the Civil War, in Col. N. H. Darnell's regiment and 
Col. Stone's regiment to the close of the War. He was the son of 
John^ Caruth bom 1800, died Jan. 9'^ 1869 in Dallas Co., mar- 
ried April 13*^ 1824 Katherine Anderson, bom in Allen Co. K3\ 
daughter of Wm Anderson thouglit to have been the son of John 



♦Note: "Wm. Worthington was born in Berkeley Co., Va., 1761. 
Who were his parents, Also Mary Mason was from Philadelphia. 
Who were her parents? His Rev. War records is on file in the Bureau 
of Pensions. 



Descendants of Patience McKinne and Joseph Lane 171 

Anderson of Augusta Co. Va., whose will 1787 is given by Boogher 
in "Gleanings of Va. Hist." Jno. speaks of his son Wm who is to 
have certain legacies "if he returns from his journey." It is 
thought Wm. went to Ky. and remained there. It is known that 
Katherine Anderson Caruth (spelt Carruth interchangeably — 
sometimes both ways in a single document in the old Ky. and 
Texas records) had two brothers at least — Samuel and Hiram, 
the latter moved to Louisiana where he died. If he left descen- 
dants they are unknown to the writer.* 

The children of Jno^ Carruth and Katherine Anderson were: 
1. Walter b. Feb. V^ 1826, d. Feb. 3^'^ 1897. 2. William b. 1828 d.— 
Jno.^ Carruth is buried in Dallas Co., Tex., on the W. W. Caruth 
Farm north of the city of Dallas. He was the second son of Capt. 
Walter* Carruth and Ann (Nancy) Barr, thought to have been a 
daughter of Capt. James Barr of Mecklenburg Co., N. C. (proof 
desired). Capt. Walter* Carruth was born about 1750 in N. C. 
presumably Mecklenburg Co., and died about 1820 in Macon Co. 
Tenn. at Carruth Fort where he was buried with his wife. Their 
children were. 

1. Thomas (eldest child) b. abt. 1898 

2. Jno. b. 1800 m. Katharine Anderson 2"*^ Emily Stark: no 
issue. 

3. Samuel m. Tabithea Manion 

4. Mark m. Anderson (perhaps sister or cousin of Kath 
arine). 

5. Henry Clay m. Mary Mansfield. 

6. Elizabeth m. Austin 

Capt. Walter* Carruth was Justice of Mecklenburg Co. 1778. 
Was commissioned Captain of the Cavalry of the IST. W. Border 
from Lincoln Co. 1787. Apt'd wagonmaster and Issuing Com- 
mander 1782. (Original documents in the possession of Geo. 
Wm. Caruth, Little Eock, Ark., son of Henry Clay Caruth.) He 
was also given a very complimentary letter of introduction by 
prominent N". C. men when he left N. C. to go West. He was the 
third son of Adam^ Carruth and Elizabeth . Adam Carruth 



♦Note: Proof is desired. 



172 Tyleb^s Qltaetekly Magazine 

was born abt. 1715 in Penna. d. 1782. Will recorded in Lincoln 
N. C. Mentions "three sons and three sons-in-law." Witnessed 
by Major Jno. Carruth of Lincoln, Eobert Carruth and Elizabeth 
Carruth. It is presumed by the disposal of the estate that Eliza- 
beth was his wife. Walter Carruth of Ark., son of Major Jno testi- 
fies in a document owned by the writer that the sons were his father, 
"uncles Walter and Eobert Carruth." It is thought Eobert Car- 
ruth married Elizabeth, dau. of Eobt. Anderson (the Eobt. Ander- 
son being mentioned in Adam Carruth's will). (See Boogher's 
"Gleamings of Va. Hist.," page 314.) 

Adams-'' Carruth was the son of Walter^ Carruth, and both came 
from Penna. thru Va. to N. C. In 1747 Adam Carruth sold to 
Jno King £7.10.0 current money Va. 8 acres 3 E. on a branch of 
Naked Creek (Augusta Co. Va.) comer of Jno. Seawright's land. 
Teste : Jno. Anderson, Jno. Seawright, Jno Stevenson. 4 Aug. 
1747. Proved by all 19 Aug. 1747. Chalkle/s New Augusta Co. 
Records, Vol. Ill, p. 261. 

N. C. State Eecords, Vol. 22, p. 398. In "Capt. Alex Osburn's 
Co." Among others "Adam Carruth October ye 30, 1759." 

In the land grants to Carruths: In 1753 and 1755 Walter^ 
Carruth Book 2, p. 128—300- acres in Anson Co. 1705 Book 6, p. 
125 302 Acres in Eowan Co. 1753 Book 16, p. 30— 1755— Anson 
Co. 300 acres, and no further issues to a Walter, therefore it may 
be said Walter'' lived and died in Anson Co. N. C. though no will 
or furtlier proof has been obtained to date 1919. In N. C. Colonial 
and State records, Vol. 4, p. 951. "At a council at New Bern 11*^^^ 
April 1749 — the Governor appointed Walter Carruth a Justice of 
the Peace with the County of Anson and was reappointed 1751, 
p. 1243. 

N. C. Land Grants, Book 6, p. 125. Jan. 1755. Adam Car- 
ruth received 333 acres of land in Rowan Co. 

Book 18, p. 148-381— in 1765 and 1767—100 and 251 acres 
(resp.) in Mecklenburg Co. N. C. 

Book 17— p. 164 April 1765—100 acres in Mecklenburg 
« "_" 418 " 1767—261 " " " 

« 23—" 305 " 1768—100 " " " 

« "_« 80 " 1767—164 " " " 



Descendants of Patience McKinne and Joseph Lane 173 

" 55— " 54 Nov. 1784—100 " Lincoln Co. 
Which shows how he moved around. Walter^ and Adam^ were 
the first of the name to receive land. 

Notes and Queries by Egle, Vol. I, series 3, p. 518 and Pa. 
Genealogies by Egle, p. 384-385, are recorded the following notes 
resp. 

"Alexander Asten, of Hanover, Pa. Will dated IIJ^S. Wife 
Isabel, son James— legatees Jno. and Henry McCormick. Execu- 
tors Walter Carruth and Jno. McQueen.'*' 

"Thomas McCormick, son of James McCormick, was born about 
1702, married in Ireland, Elizabeth Carruth born about 1705, 
died Jan. 1767, in Cumberland Co. Pa., daughter of Adam Carruth, 
and sister of Walter Carruth both early settlers of Hanover Town- 
ship, Lancaster Co. Pa." 

Therefore it is thought the above Adam^ was the father of 
Walter,^ whose son was Adam^ father of Capt. Walter* Carruth, 
who died in Tenna, and whose grandson was Capt. Walter^ An- 
derson Carruth. 

The children of Capt. Walter^ Anderson Caruth and Ann 
Amanda** Worthington were: 

1. Minnie Belle b. 1866 died in infancy. 

2. Mattie b, 1868 m. N. A. McMillan of St. Louis, Mo. 

3. Walter Jr. b. 1869 died 1905, unmarried. 

4. Kistie b. 1874 died in infancy. 

5. William b. 1876 m. Sidney Scott of Joplin, Mo. 

6. Henry Clay b. 1878 died in infancy. 

7. Raymond Percy b. 1885 m. Margaret Scruggs. 

VI. Eaymond Percy'' Carruth, the youngest child, was born 
Jan. 2'7^^ 1885 married June 6'^ 1912 Margaret Scruggs, daughter 
of Marion Stuart Price and Gross Robert Scruggs, born Feb. 18^^ 
1892. Their children are : 

VII. 1. Walter^ Scruggs Caruth b. July 15*^ 1914. 

2. Marianne Worthington Caruth b. Sept 20^1^ 1917 d. Dec. 
6*^ 1918. 



174 Tylek^s Quarterly Magazine 



MUMFOED AND MUNFOED FAMILIES. 
(Continued from page 68.) 

Quite distinct, at least in later generations, from this Mum- 
ford family, was the Munford family which had its habitat in 
Prince George, Amelia and Mecklenburg Counties. This family 
apparently begins with James Munford, who patented 5014 acres 
of land in "Westopher parish," Charles City Co., 20 April, 1689, 
in that part of the County on the South side of James Eiver, after- 
wards Prince George County. In this patent, as recorded, the 
name is spelt Mumfort, and it may be that he was a brother of 
Edward Mumford of Warwick and Gloucester Counties, and that 
Edward and this James were children of Thomas "Mumpford," 
who patented in Nansemond County in 1664. 

A fragment of a Charles City record book shows tliat in 1684 
James Munford was the executor of Robert Wyatt, deceased, 
probably a son of Capt. Anthony Wyatt, who was born in 1604 and 
came to Virginia in 1624, and lived at Chaplin's Choice near 
Jordan's Point. James Munford probably married the daughter 
of Eobert Wyatt, and hence the name of his son Eobert Munford, 
who under the name of Eobert Mumford patented in 1704 the 50l^ 
acres in Westover parish "formerly granted 20 April, 1689, unto 
James Mountfort." 

Robert Munford, spelt more generally "Mumford" in the vari- 
ous patents obtained by him, married in 1701 Martha Kennon, 
daughter of Col. Richard Kennon, of Conjuror's Neck. (Henrico 
Co. Eecords.) He was a vestryman of Bristol Parish, colonel of 
the Prince George militia, and member of the House of Burgesses. 
He ceased to be a member of the vestry of Bristol Parish in 1735, 
and probably died about that time. 

He had issue 1 James Munford, to whom calling him "son," 
he made a deed in 1727 (Prince George Co. records), 2 Robert. 
There is no direct proof that Col. Robert Munford had a son 
Robert, but there can be little doubt. After Col. Robert Mun- 
ford's name drops from the vestry book of Bristol Parish in 1735 



MuMFOEB AND MuNFORD FaJMILIES 175 

"Mr. Robert Munford" is elected a member. 3 Edward, born Nov. 
11, 1726. (Bristol Parish Register.) 

James Munford, son of Robert Munford, Sr., served in the 
vestry of Bristol Parish, Prince George Co., from 1728 to 1744, 
and was major of militia. He is pleasantly mentioned by William 
Byrd in his Land of Eden. After 1744 he lived in Amelia County. 
He married Elizabeth Boiling, daughter of Robert Boiling, in 
1727-28 (Wiyi. and Mary Quarterly, V, 276) and had issue named 
in Bristol parish register 1 Martha born 2'8 Sept., 1728, 2 James 
born Sept. 16, 1732, 3 Susanna born March 29, 1734. Besides 
these children, no one of whom is mentioned in his will, he had, 
named therein, 4 William, 5 Robert. He had also 6 Thomas 
Boiling, not named in father's will, but named as '^brother" in 
5 Robert's will, and 7 Edward, named as '"brother" in Thomas 
Boiling Munford's will. 

Major James Munford's will was dated March 16, 1754, and 
proved in Amelia County 25 April, 1754, Besides his sons, Wil- 
liam and Robert, he names his wife Elizabeth, to whom he gives 
land on the lower side of the Sweathouse Creek, including the 
Plantation during her natural life, and after her decease to his son 
William, together with all the furniture and stock of cattle, hogs, 
&c,, including "one dozen silver spoons," which have the arms of 
the Boiling Family," One of the legacies also to his son Robert 
was one dozen spoons marked R. M. In the inventory of the per- 
sonal estate, there is mention of "1 doz. silver spoons to J. Mun- 
ford." 

Robert Munford, son of Major James Munford, represented 
Amelia in the House of Burgesses in 1765, 1766-68, 1769, 1770 
and 1771. From 1760 to 1773 he was also clerk of Halifax County, 
succeeding George Currie, who was clerk from 1752 to 1760. He 
married Anne Brodnax (marriage bond Feb. 11, 1755), probably 
the daughter of that name of Edward Brodnax, of Charles City 
County, stated on family tradition not to have married {Wm. & 
Mary Quarterly, XIV, p, 136). There is a deed recorded in Amelia 
from Robert Munford and Anne, his wife, William Munford and 
Prudence, his wife, and William Wilson, Jr., dated March 31, 
1773, by which 300 acres on the South side of Sweathouse Creek 



176 Tyler^s Quaktekly Magazine 

were transferred. William Wilson, Jr., had probably married one 
of the daughters of James Munford. 

Robert Munford, calling himself of "Nottoway Parish, Amelia 
County," made his will Sept. 9, 1771, but it was not proved till 
1778. It names his wife Anne, who is to have the land on which 
he now lives, and mentions children without naming them. Makes 
"Brother Thomas Boiling Munford" and Vivian Brooking execu- 
tors. Vivian Brooking married Elizabeth Brodnax, sister of 
Anne Munford. (See WilHum and Mary Coll. Quarterly, XIV, 
136.) In 1773 Eobert Munford is called Eobert Munford, Sr., 
to distinguish him doubtless from Col. Eobert Munford, of Meck- 
lenburg, who was rather younger. 

William Munford, brother of Eobert Munford, married Pru- 
dence Ward (marriage bond dated Jany 11, 1768). He was a 
captain in the War of the Eevolution, and was living in 1780, when 
he made a deed for land on both sides of Sweathouse Creek. 

Thomas Boiling Munford, another brother, was a member of 
the House of Delegates from Amelia County in 1777 and 1778. 
He married Jane Watson (marriage bond, Feb.. 1766), and his 
will, dated 24 April, 1780, is on record in Amelia. The inventory 
of his personal estate was recorded Jan. 2-i, 1782. To his wife 
Jane he devised 400 acres, including the buildings on "my Manor 
plantation known as Bollingbrook," likewise a single chair, and 
certain slaves, and after her death "they and their increase to be 
equally divided among my surviving children by my executors, as 
they separately come of age." "Brother Edward Munford and 
worthy friends Eichard Jones, Samuel Sherwin, Nathan Fletcher 
and Samuel Davis" executors. Two of his sons were doubtless 
Eichard Jones Munford, and Thomas Munford, of Nottoway 
County, who were living in 1800. See Wm. & Mary Quarterly, 
XXvi, 42, 43. 

Edward Munford, brother of Major James Munford, married 
Elizabeth Hall, widow of Edward Brodnax of Charles City Co., who 
died in 1748. He moved to North Carolina, and in 1760 Edward 
Munford of Halifax County, North Carolina, conveyed 620 acres in 
Amelia on Deep Creek, bounding on the land of Eobert Munford, 



MUMFOED AND MuNFOKD FAMILIES 177 

(Amelia County records). And on May 1, 1769* Edward Munford 
and Betty, his wife, of Halifax County, N. C, conveyed land on 
Tomahun Creek in Charles City County, "devised for life to Betty 
Brodnax now Munford." (Charles City Co records.) 

We now take up Eobert Munford, second son of Robert Mun- 
ford and Martha Kennon. He was vestryman of Bristol Pariah, 
Prince George Co. from 1735, and represented the county in the 
General Assembly from 1736 to 1740. The Bland Papers states 
that he married Anna Bland, born Feb. 25, 1711, 3rd daughter 
of Richard Bland the Antiquary, and had issue three children: 
Robert, Theodorick Bland (born Feb. 21, 1742), and Elizabeth 
(born Sept. 22, 1734). 

Of these "Captain" Theodorick Bland Munford attended the 
grammar school of William and Mary College in 1753-54, and died 
at Col. John Banister's residence in Dinwiddle County, in Octo- 
ber, 1772 {William and Mary Quarterly, IX, p. 240), and Eliza- 
beth Munford married Col. John Banister in 1755 (marriage 
bond. Ibid., -XIX, 274-276). She appears to have been his first 
wife, and is not noticed in the Banister pedigrees. Col. Banister 
married 2dly. Martha, daughter of Col. Theodorick Bland, of 
"Cawsons," and 3rdly. Anna, daughter of John Blair, of Williams- 
burg. 

This Robert Munford, who married Anna Bland, died in De- 
cember, 1744, whereupon his widow married George Currie, who 
was first clerk of Halifax County, and had by him two daughters. 

Robert Munford, eldest son of Robert Munford and Anna 
Bland, was educated at the Academy in Leeds, Yorkshire, and, 
on reaching manhood, served as captain in the French and Indian 
War. Two of his letters written in 1758 from the "camp near 
Cumberland," are printed in the "Bland Papers," while another 
appears in the Calendar of State Papers. After the peace, when 
the County of Mecklenburg was formed in 1765 he was appointed 
county lieutenant, continuing in that office till his death in 1784. 



*By mistake in the punctuation this date is given as the date of 
the marriage of Edward Brodnax to Elizabeth Hall in William and 
Mary Coll. Quarterly, XIV, 135. 



178 Tylek's Quarteely Magazine 

He was also one of the first two representatives for that county in 
the House of Burgesses, remaining a member till 1775, and in 
1779 and 1780 he was a member of the House of Delegates. 

During the American Revolution Robert Munford performed 
much service in recruiting soldiers for the American army. He 
was a scholar, and in 1798 his son William Munford published a 
collection of his "Plays and Poems," a copy of which is in the 
State Library. The book was printed in Petersburg by William 
Prentiss, with a Preface written by William Munford. He mar- 
ried Anna Beverley, daughter of William Beverley, and died, as 
stated in 1784. His will dated Dec. 16, 1783, and proved Feb. 
8, 1784, was recorded in Mecklenburg County, and names chil- 
dren (1) Elizabeth B. Kennon, (2) Ursula A. Byrd and (3) Wil- 
liam. He names also his sons-in-law Richard Kennon, who suc- 
ceeded him as county lieutenant and Otway Byrd. 

William Munford, only son of Col. Robert Munford and Anna 
Beverley, his wife, was born in Mecklenburg County August 
15, 1775. He was only eight years old when his father died. He 
studied the ancient languages and literature under George Wythe, 
who conducted private classes in the classics in Williams- 
burg, and studied law both under Wythe and Judge Tucker (1790- 
1794) at the College.* He practiced law in the courts and was 
member of the House of Delegates for Mecklenburg in 1798-99, 
1800-01, and 1801-02. He also represented the county in the 
Senate 1802-03, 1803-04, and 1805-06. In 1806 he removed to 
Richmond, where he became one of the foremost lawyers, and on 
the death of his old friend and preceptor, George Wythe, in that 
year he made the funeral address. He was appointed to the Privy 
Council, and served till 1811, when he was appointed clerk of the 
House of Delegates, holding that office till his death. He also 
acted as reporter of the Supreme Court of Appeals, and his work 
is embodied in Ilening and Munford's Reports (1808-1812), and 
in Munford's Reports (1812-1818) — ten volumes in all. 



•For extracts from Munford's letters while at College, see Wil- 
liam and Mary College Quarterly, VIII, 153-157. 



MUMFORD AND MuNFOKD FAMILIES 179 

In 1819 he assisted Benjamin Watkins Leigh in the revision of 
the Statute laws of Virginia. 

Mr. Munford was one of the most scholarly men of his day, 
and inherited the love of poetry from his father. But his tastes 
and ability in this line were far greater. Of his poetry the earl- 
iest published was in 1798 — "Poems and Compositions in Prose 
on several occasions, by William Munford, of the County of Meck- 
lenburg and State of Virginia." The book was printed in Eich- 
mond by Samuel Pleasants, and a copy is in the State Library. 
He occupied the leisure of his maturer year in making a transla- 
tion of the "Iliad," which has been pronounced by competent 
critics superior to Pope's famous translation. It was published 
posthumously in 1848. Mr. Munford died at Eichmond, Virginia, 
June 21, 1825. 

In 1802 he married Sarah Eadford, daughter of William and 
Eebecca (daughter of Geddes and Mary Jordan Winston) Ead- 
ford, and had issue eight children (1) George W3rthe, for a long 
time Secretary of the Commonwealth, father of Brigadier General 
Thomas Taylor Munford, C. S. A. Cavalry, (2) Anna Eebecca, 
mar. John Sherrard, (3) John Durburrow, father of Beverley B. 
Munford, whose brilliant book, "The Attitude of Virginia To- 
wards Slavery and Secession," 1909, acquired for him a national 
reputation, (4) Eobert, M. D., who married Anna Elizabeth, dau. 
of Dr. Henry Curtis and Christiana Tyler, youngest daughter of 
Gov. John Tyler, Sr., (5) Elizabeth Madison, who married Wil- 
liam Preston Peyton, (6) William Preston (7) Elvira H., married 
Powhatan L. Ellis, (8) Carlton Eadford, died unmarried. 

For later generations, see Slaughter's Bristol Parish (194-199). 

Charles City Co. Mmifords. In Charles City County resided 
another family of Munfords, but of them the loss of records per- 
mits only an imperfect account. 

In 1737 the will of Jeffrey Munford was produced in court and 
proved. He was probably father of William Greene Munford, a 
prominent citizen of that county. The latter was member of the 
Charles City County Committee of Safety in 1775, and major of 
the militia during the Eevolution. He served in the House of 
Delegates from 1781 to 1785, as a colleague of John Tyler. His 



180 Tyler^s Quarterly Magazine 

will dated February 8, 1786 was proved May 3, 1786, and names 
issue (1) Eobert (2) John, (3) Stanhope, (4) William Greene, 
(5) Mary, mar. John Lightfoot, of James City Co, (6) Elizabeth. 

His son, Eobert Munford, was lieutenant in the Revolution 
and married Margaret W. Harwood, dau. of Major Samuel Har- 
wood of Weyanoke and Margaret Woddrop, his wife. He was clerk 
of Charles City County Court from 1797 to his death in 1800. 
His will, dated December 12, 1799, was proved March 24, 1800, 
and names two sons Samuel and Robert. These two sons removed 
to Gloucester County, where they died and lie buried. Margaret 
Ann Munford, a posthumous child, of Eobert Munford, the clerk, 
married Mr. John Sinclair, of "Shabby Hall," Gloucester Co., 
which was subsequently sold to Robert C. Selden, and is now called 
"Sherwood." (See for Munford wills and notes thereon, T7m. 
(£■ Mary College Quarterly, XI, 260-264.) 

Mvnfords of London. In 1669 Anne, widow of Augustine 
Munford, grocer of London and John Munford, grocer of the 
same place, appointed William Munford of York River, in Vir- 
ginia, to demand certain debts from Capt. John Grove, of James 
River, and Elizabeth his wife, late wife of Col. Thomas Pettus. 
The latter (William Munford) describing himself as "citizen and 
mercer of London," entered into an agreement with Robert Bax- 
ter, Robert Booth, Samuel Powell and John Munford, citizens and 
grocers of London, to manage very considerable adventures of 
money in Virginia. (York County, Virginia, records.) 

Mumfords of New England. There is in the yard of Christ 
Church, Alexandria, Virginia, a tombstone to the memory of Capt. 
George Mumford, of Xew London, Connecticut, who died in 
GeorgetoAvn July 17, 1773. His grandfather, Thomas Mumford, 
is said to have come to Rhode Island from England, and married 
Sarah Sherman. Capt. Mumford had an elder brother, Thomas 
Mumford, whose portrait is preserved by his descendant Edward 
Winston Paige of Xew York. Wm. & Mary College Quarterly, X, 
p. 107; XI, 76. 



The Thornton Family 181 

THE THORNTON FAMILY.* 

Compiled by W. G. Stanard. 

(Continued from Vol. VI., page 57.) 
86. Charles Thornton^ {Anthony,'^ Anthony,^ Francis* 
William'^), of "North Garden/' Caroline County, Va., and of 
Kentucky, commonly called "Captain" Charles Thornton (doubt- 
less from his holding that rank in the Militia) married, 1st, Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Wm. Jones, of Essex. She had no issue. 
He married 2ndly, Sarah, daughter of John Fitzugh, of "Belair," 
Stafford Count)', Va. Captain Thornton moved to Oldham County, 
Ky., about 1812. 

Issue: 161, Fitzugh,^ married Caroline Fitzugh, and died in 
Henry County, Mo., in 1864; all of his children died witliout issue, 
except Sarah Ann,^ who married James Todd, of Henry County, 
Ky. ; 162, Alice^ died unmarried; 163, Henrietta,® married Frank 
Taliaferro, of Orange County, Va.; 164, Katherine Presley," mar- 
ried Cole Fitzugh and had a daughter, Ann, who married Richard 
F. Taylor and lives near Windsor, Henry County, Mo.; 165, Eliza- 
beth,® married Richard Merriwether, of Shelby, Ky,, and had one 
son, Richard, who died without issue; 166; Dr. Charles," married 
Mary Taliaferro, and had a large family, and has many descen- 
dants; all of his children are dead, except Reuben T.' Thornton, 
of Nevada, Vernon County, Mo.; 157, Dr. John Henry Fitzugh,* 
married, 1st, Mary Symmes, daughter of President William Henry 
Harrison, and had issue: (a), Wm. Henry Harrison,' of Elletts- 
ville, Monroe County, Indiana; unmarried; (b), Charles, surgeon 
in the United States Army; died unmarried; (c) Anna Harrison,' 
died January 17, 1883, married Lee Mason Fitzugh, of "Fern 
Bank," Ohio; (d), Alice Elizabeth,' married John C. Lewis, of 
Chicago; (e), Lucy Harrison,' died young; (f) John Fitzugh,' 
of "Fern Bank," married Lela Morgan West, and had Charles;' 



•This number of the Thornton Family, being out of print, is re- 
published here from Vol. VI. 109-113, William and Mary College Quar- 
terly. 



182 Tylee^s Quakterly Magazine 

died young. Dr. John Thornton married, Sndly, Sarah Fitzugh, 
and had Susan Fitzugh/ and George Fitzugh.^ 168, Daniel Mc- 
Carty,^ purser United States Navy, married, 1st, Susan, daughter 
of Hay Taliaferro; 2ndly, Mary, daughter of Gen, Lawrence T. 
Dade, and had issue: first marriage: (a) Charles Hay,' served in 
Confederate States Army; married Betty Johnson, and had issue: 
Charles Hay,^ Virginia Susan,^ and Nathaniel;^ (b), Henry,^ 
served in the Eichmond Howitzers, C. S. A.; married Betty Con- 
way, and had Henry ^ and Marian;^ (c), Virginia'' married Dr. 
Frederick Eoddy, of Eichmond; (d), Emma,' married first, Na- 
thaniel Norfleet, and secondly. Col. Wm. E. Cutshaw, C. S. A., 
of Eichmond: (second marriage): (e), Lawrence'; (f), Baylor,' 
married; (g), Foxhall A. Parker,' married; (h). Hay,' mar- 
ried; (i), McCarty,' married; (j) Arthur Conway,'; (k), 
Lucy,' married Catlett Conway; (1), Mary,' married Catlett Con- 
way; 169, Henry,® married a Miss Curry, and left an only son, 
Charles Henry Thornton, who married twice, leaving by his first 
marriage, a daughter, Sallie, and by the second (Mrs. Belle Thorn- 
ton, who survives, and is living at Los Angeles, California), two 
children; 170, Francis,® married Anne Eose Thornton, and died 
near Jacksonville, 111., leaving a number of children: 171, William 
Tucker.® 

87. George° Thornton {AntJiony* Anthony,^ Francis,^ Wil- 
liam^), born in Caroline County, Va., November 18, 1752; died 
August 30, 1853, aged nearly 101 years; married June 9, 1774, 
Margaret Stanley. He served in the Eevolution as a private in 
Capt. Wm. Buckner's and other companies of militia, and later 
received a pension ; the papers in regard to it have been preserved. 
About 1784 he removed to what is now Green County, Va. Issue: 
172, Catherine Taliaferro,® born August 18, 1775; 173, Ann,® 
born March 5, 1779; lived in Madison County, Va. ; 175, Mary P.," 
born September 20, 1781; married Willis Kirtley and removed to 
Kentucky; 176, Charles,® born December 12, 1783; removed to 
Muhlenberg County, Ky., and had a son, Edward'; 177, George® 
bom March 3, 1786; 178, Lucy Buckner® (twin), bom March 3, 
1786; married Smoot, Madison county, Va. ; 179, Thomas 



The Thoenton Family 183 

S.," married Mary Herndon, and had George/ Varinda/ and 
Lucy^; 180, Antliony^; 181, John,« born October 31, 1793; re- 
moved to Muhlenberg county, Ky. 

88. Reuben^ Thoenton {AnthonyJ^ Anthony,^ Francis,^ Wil- 
liam}), was justice of the peace for Spottsylvania in 1805; mar- 
ried Mildred, daughter of Benjamin and Priscilla (Rootes) 
Grymes. Mrs. Mildred Thornton married, secondly, Peter Dudley. 
In her will, dated March 16, 18 23 and proved in Spotsylvania in 
September 1823, she made bequests to her son, Anthony R. Thorn- 
ton, and his wife, Mildred B., and his daughter, Mildred Ann 
Grymes Thornton; to Mary H., wife of her son, Benjamin G. 
Thornton; to Ann, wife of her son, Wm. F. Thornton; to Maria, 
wife of her son, Reuben Thornton; to Susan, wife of her son, 
Nicholas C. Thornton; to Lucy B., wife of her son, Charles T, 
Thornton; and to her nephew John A., son of Wm. Wedderburn. 

Lucy Rootes Grymes made a will, dated April 18, 1813, and 
proved in Spottsylvania iSTovember 3, 1817, in which she made be- 
quests to her nephews, Benj. Grymes Thornton, Reuben Thornton, 
Anthony Thornton, Wm. Fitzugh Thornton and Charles Tailia- 
ferro Thornton; and to her sister, Mildred Dudley. 

Issue: 182', Anthony R.« married Mildred B. Walker; 193, 
Benjamin Grymes, married Mary H. Xorth^; 184, ^Yilliam 

Fitzugh^; 185, Reuben, married Maria ; 186, Ann^; 187, 

Nicholas Cabell,® married Susan ; 188, Charles Taliaferro,' 

married Lucy B. . 

89. Presley' Thornton {Anthony* Anthony,^ Francis,^ WU- 
liam^), born 1760; died in Kentucky, November 5th, 1811. He 
was commissioned Cornet in the Third Continental Dragoons Feb- 
ruary 21, 1777; was promoted to Lieutenant and captain, and 
served till 1783. On June 17, 1783, a warrant was issue to him 
for 4,000 acres of bounty land for three years' service; and on 
March 30, 1796, a warrant for 666 3/3 acres more for his seventh 
year's service. When the first warrant was issued the following 
certifieate was filed : 

"I do certify that Captain Presley Thornton was appointed a 
Comet in the 3d Regiment of Light Dragoons the 17tli of March, 
1777; he was promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant the 27th 



184 Tylee's Quaeteely Magazine 

of May, 1778; also to the rank of First Lieut, the 15th of Novem- 
ber 1778; and to a Captaincy the 10th of May, 1780, which com- 
mission he resigned the 25th of March, 1781. 

Geoege Baylor, 
Colo, of the 1st Eegiment of Cavalry." 

Captain Thornton subsequently reentered the army, and served 
to the end of the war. He married Alice, daughter of Col. Francis 
Thornton, of "Society Hill." Issue: 189, Francis Atitlwny^; 190, 
Sally Fitzugh," died aged eighteen months; 191, McCartv',^ died 
in New Orleans, aged twenty-two years; 192, Presley,^ died aged 
one year ; Elizabeth Presley,^ married Dr. Avery Gwin of Kentucky. 

91. Dr. Henry F.^ Thornton (Anthony* Anthony,^ Francis,'^ 
William'^), bom July 14, 1763; married Ann Eose, daughter of 
John Fitzugh, of "Bellair." Issue: 194, Anthony,^ born July 29, 
1796; 195, John"; 196, Maria, married Edward Fitzugh; 197, 

Susan, married Meriwether; 198, Harriett married John 

Conway; 199, Ann,* married Anthony Thornton; 200, Dr. Henry, 
Jr., died unmarried; 201, Eliza'. 

92. Thomas Griffin' Thornton {Anthony* Anthony,^ Fran- 
cis,^ William}), of Caroline County (he bought "Ormsby" from 
his brother Antliony), was born June 11, 1775. He was a justice 
and Sheriff of Caroline, and, while holding that latter ofiBce, he 
was murdered by a man against whom he had a writ. Mr. Thorn- 
ton was, in his day, noted as a fox hunter; and the American Turf 
Register and Sporting Magazine contains anecdotes illustrative of 
the great excellence of his hounds. He married, October 19, 1796, 
Ann H., daughter of William and Sarah (Digges) Fitzugh, of 
Fauquier county. Issue: 202, Susan"; 203, William'; 204, 
Sarah,' married Lewis Battaile; 205; Harriet,' married Charles 
Jesse; 206, Gordon'; 207, Thomas Griffin'; 208, Mary Digges,' 

married Chas. Jesse (another) ; 209, Ellen,' married — 

Catlett. 

93. John** Thornton {Anthony* Anthony,^ Francis,^ Wil- 
liam}), of "Fairfield," near Guiney's station, Caroline county 
(the place where Genral Jackson died), and afterwards of 
"Ormsby," was born March 4, 1775 (so given in a copy from the 



The Thornton Family 185 

family Bible, but evidently erroneous, as his brother T. G. is giren 
as born on June 11 of the same year) ; married, first, September 
17, 1795, Sarah daughter of George and Mary (Digges) Fitzugh, 
of Fauquier county ; married, secondly, Mildred Washington Dade ; 
married thirdly, October 22, 1812', Jane Laughlin; no issue except 
by first marriage. Issue: 210, Susan,^ married Captain Eoyston; 
211, George Fitzugh," John"; 212, Mary Ann," married Wm. 
Eoyston; 213, Edward Digges"; 214, William Fitzugh"; 215, Ad- 
dison F."; 216, Elinor." 

102. Egbert Horsley" Thornton {Peter Presley,'^ William,*' 
Francis,^ William,'^ William'^), born October 16, 1809; married 
January 27, 1853, Louisa, daughter of Eev. Charles Wingfield, of 
Albemarle county. Issue: 217, Charles Presley,'' born March 15, 
1854; 218, Mary Cary,^ born September 3, 1855; 219, Camilla 
Jane,'' born May 10, 1857; 220, Eobert Horsley,'' born June 3, 
1859; 221, Marie Eosalie,^ born August 4, 1861, and died May 
24, 1863. 

104. Francis" Thornton (Francis,^ Francis* Francis' Fran- 
cis,^ William''), of "Fall Hill," Spottsylvania County, born 1760, 

died ; was appointed justice of the peace for Spottsylvania 

county in 1790; married Sally, daughter of Judge Harry Innes, 
of Kentucky, and niece of James Innes, colonel in the Eevolution, 
and attorney-general of Virginia. Issue : 222, Elizabeth,^ born 
December 22, 1793; married J. H. Fitzgerald, of Fredericksburg; 
223, Francis''; 224 Hariy Innes^; 225, Sally Innes,'' born Jan- 
uary 11, 1799; married Murray Forbes, of Falmouth, Va. 226, 
James Innes'; 227, Eobert Callaway,' born 1802; died unmarried; 
228, Catherine,'' born 1804; married Thomas Marshall, of "Happy 
Crrek," Fauquier county, Va. ; 229, Butler Brayne, born 1806 ; 
died 1833. 

(To be continued.) 



186 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

THE CHENOWETH FAMILY. 
By Arthur L. Keith, Northfield, Minnesota. 

The founder of this family appears to have been John Chino- 
weth who died in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1746. He proba- 
bly lived for a time in Baltimore County, Maryland, and in that 
county part of his children continued to live after John Chino- 
weth had moved on to Virginia. A descendant of John Cliino- 
weth, Jr., eldest son of John Chenoweth^ Sr., gives me the informa- 
tion that John, Jr., was born in 1706. 

This agrees well with the following items taken from the 
records of St. George's Parish, Baltimore County. John Chenner- 
worth (sic) and Mary Smith were married Nov. 26, 1730-31. 
William Chennerworth, son of the above, was born Jan. 8, 1732. 
John Watson and Mary Chennerworth, spinster, were married 
May 24, 1733. A comparison with the will of John Chinoweth, 
1746, Frederick Co., Va., given below, shows that these persons 
belong to his family. These are the earliest records I have found 
relating to the family of the blacksmith John Chinoweth. Proba- 
bly he came to this country shortly before 1730 and before 1746 
with a part of his family moved to Frederick Co., Va. Arthur 
Chenworth and Eichard Chenworth were land-owners in Balti- 
more County in 1750. 

In Frederick Co., Va., on Apr. 11, 1746, John Chinoweth, black- 
smith, made his will, probated May 6, 1746. Witnesses were Joseph 
Stanley, Mary Stanley, and William Jolliffe. He mentions wife 
(not by name), children John (eldest), Eichard, Arthur, William, 
Thomas, Mary Watson, Hannah Carter, and Euth Pettit; grandson 
John Watson, Jr.; son-in-law John Petit. Son Thomas Chino- 
weth and James Carter were appointed executors. 

Another John Chenowith (sic) made will in Frederick Co., 
Va., on Xov. 3, 1770, probated Mch. 5, 1771. Witnesses were John 
Salsberry, William Salsberry, and M. Morgan. He mentions wife 
Mar}', who is appointed executrix; eldest sons William and John, 
who receive land in Hampshire County on the Cacapon; sons 
Absalom, Thomas, and Eichard, who receive land on which the 



The Chenoweth Family 187 

testator lives; son Abraham (probably an error for Absalom as he 
is not heard of again); son Arthur; daughters Elizabeth, Mary, 
and Rachel ; son-in-law James Stuart ; granddaughter Mary Cheno- 
with, daughter of eldest son, William, whose legacy is conditioned 
on her remaining with her grandmother until she becomes of 
age. Son Eichard is to receive testator's smith's tools. This John 
of 1771 is undoubtedly the son of the John of 1746. 

William Chenowith whose will was probated in Frederick 
County, Va., in 1773 was the son of the John who died in 1771 and 
identical with the William born in Baltimore County, Jan. 8, 
1733'. He mentions wife Jane; sons John, Jonathan, and William; 
and daughter Mary. He refers to Mary's deceased mother, so Jane 
was not his first wife. From other sources it is known that this 
William Chenoweth married 1. Euth Calvert and had John Cheno- 
weth, born 1755; Jonathan Chenoweth, born 1757; Mary Cheno- 
weth, born 1759 (mentioned in the will of John, 1771, see above) ; 
and William Chenoweth, born June 18, 1760. This last named 
William will be given below. 

The will of Absolum Chenowith was probated in Berkeley 
County, Va., Apr. 13, 1773. (Berkeley was formed from Fred- 
erick in 1773). Tills Absolum was born 1745 and was the son of 
John who died in 1771. The will was witnessed by James Seaton, 
William Chenoweth, and John Hanna. Wife Ruth and Morgan 
Morgan are named as executors. Testator mentions brother Wil- 
liam's son William Avho had been bound to him to learn the black- 
smith's trade. His children were James (born Dee. 31, 1767, died 
May 18, 1815) ; Absolum Chenoweth (who in 1831 was living in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, with wife Lydia, and children Stephen, 
John, Ephraim, Ross, Mary, and Angelina) ; and Ann Chenoweth 
(who married James Boggs). 

In Berkeley Co., Va., on Mch. 15, 1773, Mary Chenowith, widow 
of John Chenowith, Absolum Chenowith and Ruth, his wife, Arthur 
Chenowith and Margaret his wife, all of Berkeley Co., Va.; and 
Thomas Chenowith and Rachel, his wife, of Baltimore Co., Md., 
sell to George Scott land on the drains of Mill Creek and branch 
of Opeckon, granted by patent to the aforesaid John Chenowith, 



188 Tyler's Quarterly Magazii^e 

on Oct. 6, 1764. The Absolum, Arthur, and Thomas of the above 
deed are undoubtedly sons of the John who died in 1771. 

Joseph Chenoweth of Berkeley Co., Va., made will Sept. 23, 
1785, probated Oct. 18, 1785. Witnesses were William Cheno- 
weth, Gabriel Haya, and John Hays. Wife Sarah is mentioned and 
daughter Newly (?). Brother Absolum Chenoweth is appointed 
executor. This Joseph was the son of the following William Cheno- 
with. 

William Chenowith of Berkeley County, Va., made will Oct. 
10, 1785, probated Dec. 20, 1785. He mentions wife Anne; sons 
Absolum and William, and heirs of son Joseph, deceased; daugh- 
ters Mary, Ann, and Hannah. Son William and wife Anne are ap- 
pointed executors. This William could be no other than the son 
of the blacksmith John Chinoweth of 1746. He is to be identi- 
fied with William Clienowcth of Frederick Co., Va., who on Feb. 
12, 1743-4 bought land on Mill Creek, a branch of the Opeckon, 
from John Mills, Sr., of Prince George Co., Md. William Cheno- 
worth of Fredericks Co., Va., in 1752 received grant for 171 acres. 
In Berkeley County on Oct. 6, 1788, Absolum Chenowith and 
Anne Chenowith sold to Adam Smith land conveyed by John Mills 
to William Chenowith, 

We turn now to Hampshire County, Va. In 1753 John 
Chenoth (sic) received grant for 248 acres on the Great Cacapehon. 
On Nov. 26, 1771, William Chenoweth of Frederick Co., Va., and 
wife Jane sold to John Chenoweth of Hampshire County 124 
acres on Great Cape Capon, which had been bequeathed him by 
his father John Chenoweth and granted to the said John Cheno- 
weth, dec'd by Rt. Hon. Thomas Lord Fairfax, Mch 3, 1753. 

The following heads of households were living in Hampshire 
County in 1784; John Cheno worth, Sr (probably the son of John 
who died in Frederick County in 1771), John Chenoworth, Jr 
(probably son of the preceding), Jonathan Chenoworth (probably 
son of the William who died in Frederick County in 1772), and 
Arthur Chenoworth (probably son of the John who died in 1771). 
In Hampshire County in Apr. 1791, John Chenoweth and Mary, 
his wife, sold land to John Copsey. On Apr. 19, 1811 John Cheno- 
weth of Hampshire County made will, probated Sept. 14, 1812'. 



The Chenoweth Family 189 

Witnesses were Abraham Cresswell, George Cole, William Nixon, 
Joseph Xixon, and Thomas Megrow. He mentions wife Eleanor; 
sons William, Absolum, John, James, and Elias Chenoweth; 
daughters Elizabeth Monroe, Eleanor Ashbrooke, Rachel Ashbrooke, 
and Mary Ashbrooke. He refers to land on south side of Cacapon 
Mountain. Executors are son William and John Monroe. This 
John Chenoweth is probably the son of the John who died in 
Frederick County in 1771. 

The following did military service in the Eevolution from 
Va. : Jonathan Chenoweth, John Chineworth, Thomas Chinworth, 
Richard Chinoweth (captain), and William Chinoweth, the last 
two names being found in the Illinois papers, indicating that they 
probably served in Kentucky. On June 28, 1837, Mary Cheno- 
weth, aged 75, widow of John, applied for a pension from Ran- 
dolph Co., Va. Her maiden name is given as Pugh. 

We now take up the records of Baltimore County, Maryland. 
Notwithstanding published statements to the contrary, I regard 
Arthur Chenworth and Richard Chenworth, landholders in this 
county in 1750, as certainly the sons of John Chinoweth, black- 
smith, who died in Frederick Co., Va., in 1746. We shall note 
their wills below. Thomas Chinworth and Rachel Moore were 
married Sept. 14, 1766 in St. George's Parish, Baltimore Co., Md. 
He was undoubtedly the son of the second John of Frederick Co., 
Va., as shown by the deed of Mch. 15, 1773, given above. Thomas 
and Rachel Chenoweth had the following children: Elizabeth, 
born Apr. 8, 1768; Ruxton, born Dec. 13, 1769; and Mary, born 
Sept. 8, 1773. 

In 1766 Nicholas Ruxton Gay of Baltimore Co., Md., made deed 
of gift to Thomas Chenoweth, Jr and wife Rachel, "she being my 
niece." From what Sr this Jr after Thomas's name is to distin- 
guish him, I do not know unless it may be the son of Richard or 
of Arthur, both of whom had sons named Thomas living at this 
time in Baltimore County. The Thomas who married Rachel 
Moore seems to have died before Nov. 37, 1783, for on that date 
his inventory is presented to the Baltimore court by James Moore, 
his admr and next of kin. Another Thomas Chinworth and Rachel 



190 Tyler^s Quarteely Magazine 

Morris were married Jan. 1, 1788, apparently both of Harford 
Co., Md. 

The following took oath of fidelity in Baltimore County in 
1778 : Arthur Chinworth, Sr, Arthur Chenoweth, son of Richard, 
Thomas Chinworth, Thomas Chenoweth (twice), Samuel Chin- 
worth, Eichard Chenoweth, and William Chenoweth. In 1778 in 
Montgomery Co., Md., we find Eichard Chinoth, Thomas Chinoth, 
and Thomas Chinorsath (sic). 

Eichard Chenoweth, blacksmith, of Baltimore Co., Md., made 
will Oct. 1, 1781, probated Dee. 4, 1781 (1785?). He mentions 
wife Kezia ; sons Eichard, Arthur, Thomas, Joseph, William ; grand- 
son Eichard, son of John, dec'd; and daughters Susanna Price, 
Hannah Ashton, and Kezia Chenoweth, Jr. Executors are wife 
Kezia and son Joseph. This Eichard Chenoweth I regard as cer- 
tainly the son of John of Frederick Co., Va., 1746. 

Arthur Chenoweth of Baltimore County made will Dec. 4, 
1800, probated Apr. 7, 1802. He mentions sons Eichard, Samuel, 
Thomas; daughter Euth Butler; granddaughter Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Eichard Chenoweth. Son Eichard is appointed executor. 
I regard this Arthur Chenoweth as identical with the Arthur 
Chenoweth, Sr of Baltimore County who in 1761 made deed of 
gift to his son Arthur Chenowetli, Jr. Likewise in 1768 he made 
gift of land to his son John Chenoweth. Sons Arthur and John 
are not mentioned in the will of Arthur, given above, probably be- 
cause they had received their portions by gifts. The date of birth 
of this Arthur Chenoweth is given as 1716 in a chart of the family 
prepared in 1893 by Ximrod H. Chenoweth of Dayton, Ohio. It 
agrees well with the known facts of his life, his death in 1802 
and the birth of his son John which is given as 1739. However, 
the chart above referred to and some published accounts make 
this Arthur, born in 1716, the son of another Arthur of whom so 
far as I can ascertain not one contemporary record survives. 

Draper in his manuscripts now located at the state historical 
library at Madison, Wisconsin, had accepted this tradition but offers 
no records as proof. In my notes on this family published in the 
William and Mary Quarterly, XX, 113, I offer no objection to this 
tradition but I now regard it as practically certain that the Arthur 



The Chej^-qwetii Family 191 

Chenoweth, born 1716, died 1802, was the son of John Chinoweth, 
the blacksmith, of Frederick Co., Va., 1746. John Chenoweth and 
Samuel Chenoweth, sons of the Arthur who died in Baltimore 
County in 1803, moved to Berkeley County, Va., where John died 
in 1820, leaving a large progeny. 

Draper in the manuscripts above referred to gives data on 
the large family of one Thomas Chenoweth, whom I regard now 
as the son of the John of 1746. The exactness of the dates indi- 
cates that their ultimate source was the family Bible. The names 
and dates are as follows: Martha, born Dec. 25, 1744; Sarah, 
born May 12', 1747; Mary, born July 23, 1749; John, born May 
15, 1751; Thomas, bom Sept. 10, 1753; Arthur, born Dec. 6, 1755; 
Richard, born Apr. 1, 1758; William, born May 3, 1760; Elijah, 
born June 12, 1762; Ann, born May 6, 1765; Hannah, born Aug. 
18, 1767; and Abraham, born Jan. 25, 1770. 

From the above mentioned children Sarah married T. Down- 
ing. Thomas Chenoweth (born 1753) married Cassandra Foster 
and had John, Benjamin, Thomas, Joseph, Richard, and Ruth. 
Arthur (bom 1755) married Elizabeth Carter and had Absolum, 
Joseph, George, Hiram, Luke, Thomas, Martha, Amelia, Mary, 
Elizabeth, Rachel, Ruth, Addie, Harriet, and Mildred. Richard 

(born 1758) married and had Arthur, 1786, Thomas, 

1787, Hannah, 1788, Richard, 1790, Sarah, 1791, Ruth, 1793, 
Uriah, 1795, Rebecca and Nathan, 1797, and Martha, 1799. Elijah 
(1762) married Rachel Foster and had Thomas, John, Joseph, 
Elijah, Elizabeth, Richard, and Ruth. Abraham (born 1770) 
married Rebecca Kerr and had Martha, 1791, William, 1792, Jacob, 
1794, Anna, 1796, John, 1797, Susan, 1799, Mary, 1801, 
Noah, 1803, Sarah, 1805, Hannah, 1806, Abraham, 1808, Re- 
becca, 1809, Joel, 1811, and Gideon, 1813. 

The following records are from the family Bible of James 
Chenoweth, son of the Absolum who died in Berkeley Co., Va., in 
1773 (see above). 

James Chenoweth, bom Dec. 21, 1767. Rebecca Bruce, bom 
June 6, 1770. They were married Sept. 21, 1790. They had 
Rachel B. Chenoweth, born June 21, 1791. Ruth Ann Chenoweth, 
bora Dec. 3, 1792. George L. Chenoweth, born Mch. 17, 1797. 



192 Tyles^s Quart ekly Magazine 

James B. Chenoweth, born June 27, 1800. Edwin G. Chenoweth, 
born May 5, 1803. Alfred W. Chenoweth, born Sept. 13, 1811. 
We now follow the Chenoweths to Kentucky. Richard Chenoweth 
'(later called captain) appeared in Ky. as early as 1776. He was 
almost certainly the son of John Chenoweth of Frederick Co., 
Va., who died in 1771. Arthur Chenoweth who, like Richard 
Chenoweth, settled in Jefferson County, Ky., was undoubtedly tlie 
son of John of 1771, which gives an added reason for ascribing 
Richard to the same John. Capt. Richard Chenoweth married 
Peggy McCarty, probably daughter of Thomas McCarty of Hamp- 
shire Co., Va. WTiile living in the eastern part of Jefferson Co., 
Ky., about 1782 his family was involved in the famous Chenoweth 
massacre at the hands of the Shawnee Indians. His son Gideon 
Chenoweth was killed, his wife was scalped but survired and others 
not of the family were killed. 

In 1784 Isaac Cox and Richard Chenoweth were justices in 
Jefferson Co., Ky. In June, 1803, in same county, the death of 
Richard Chenoweth was entered on the records and the suit of 
John Williamson vs Richard Chenoweth in regard to disputed land 
claims was continued against his heirs, namely, Thomas Cheno- 
weth, James Chenoweth, Mildred Nash, Jane Miller, Naomi Cheno- 
weth, Tabitha Chenoweth, and Ann Chenoweth. Thomas Cheno- 
weth was appointed to defend Naomi, Tabitha, and Ann, being 
minors. Margaret Chenoweth, widow of Richard, was still living 
on the disputed land in 1806. In Jefferson Co., Ky., on Aug. 24, 
1811, license was granted to Benjamin Irwin to marry Margaret 
Chenoweth, possibly the widow of Richard. According to the 
same records license was granted Apr. 9, 1792, to Harnan ( ?) 
Nash to marry Mildred Chenoweth and on Apr. 22, 1793, to Wil- 
liam Miller to marry Jane Chenoweth. Arthur Chenoweth was a 
grand juror in Jefferson Co., Ky., in 1795. In 1821 he was still 
living there with wife and children Absolum, John, and Sarah. 

One William Chenoweth appeared on Pottenger's Creek in Ky. 
in Aug. or Sept., 1779. On Mch. 5, 1782, in Jefferson Co., Ky., 
he was appointed admr. of estate of David Henton. Later he mar- 
ried the widow Mary Henton, who was the daughter of Jacob 
Van Meter. This William Chenoweth was the son of the William 



The Chexoweth Family 193 

who died in Frederick Co., Va., in 1772, and was not the son of 
Thomas as I conjectured in the William and Mary Quarterly, 
XX, 113. He was born June 18, 1760, and died Aug. 16, 1828. 
His wife, Mary Van Meter (Henton) Chenoweth, was born Feb. 
11, 1757, and died June 29, 1832. They are buried near Deats- 
Tille, Nelson County, Ky. 

Their son Abraham Chenoweth was born Dec. 27, 1785, died 
Mch, 31, 1861, at Perry, Illinois. He married Eachel Chenoweth 
who was daughter of Arthur and Elspa Chenoweth. This Arthur 
was probably identical with the Arthur, son of the John of 1771. 
Eachel Chenoweth was born Jan. 31, 1789, and died Dec. 29, 1864. 
Miles Hart Chenoweth, son of William and Mary (Van Meter) 
Chenoweth, was born July 7, 1791, died 1846 in Andrew Co., Mis- 
souri. He married Rebecca Fairleigh. A fairly complete account 
of about 1200 descendants of William Chenoweth and wife Mary 
(Van Meter) Chenoweth is ready for publication. 

John Henton, son of the above Mary Van Meter by her first 
husband David Henton, married Katharine Keith, daughter of 
Alexander Keith, who lived until about 1773 in Hampshire Co., 
Va., and then until about 1780 in southwestern Pennsylvania and 
later in K^elson and Hardin Counties, Ky. 

The La FoUette Genealogy represents that the mother of this 
Alexander Keith was a Chenoweth but the present writer after 
examining the evidence is satisfied that this is an error. The name 
Chinoth occurs as a Christian name in an early generation of the 
Keith family. There was a close parallelism in the history of the 
two families. They both lived in Baltimore County, Md., Hamp- 
shire County, Va., and Nelson County, Ky., consecutively. 

There are other coincidences, but in spite of them the present 
writer does not believe there was any relationship between the two 
families, at least until some later generation. Another erroneous 
statement in the claim appearing in some published accounts of 
the family that one of the early Chenoweths, the original John or 
one of his descendants (the accounts do not agree on the particu- 
lar Chenoweth) married a member of Lord Baltimore's family. 
The claim is supported by no contemporary record. 



194 Tyler's Qfaeteely Magazine 



REGISTER OF MARRIAGE BONDS OF GREENSVILLE 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1781-1808. 

Compiled by Mrs. Dora Hedges Goodwyn, Emporia, Va. 

(Continued from p. 66.) 

Lundie, Alexander & Susanna Maclin, 17 Dec, 1804. James 
Maclin, Sec. 

Lundie, Thomas Yates & Elizabeth Maclin, 9 June, 1800, Peter 
Pelham, Sec. 

Lundy, Edwin & Lucy Peterson, 3 Feb., 1789. Chislon Morris, 
Sec. 

Lundy, John & Elizabeth Nelson, 21 Aug., 1786. Frederick 
Davis, Sec. 

Lundy, John & Dorcas Tooke, 6 Feb., 1793, widow of Dempsey 
Tooke. Isaac Metcalf, Sec. 

Lundy, Joshua & Polly Tyus, 8 Sept., 1794. Byrd Lundy, Sec. 

Lundy, Peyton & Dorothy Harris, 5 Oct., 1790. Samuel Clif- 
ton, Sec. 

Lundy, Isham & Dolly Haylay Rives, 29 Jan., 1796. Benjamin 
Rives, father, consents & is Sec. 

Lifsay, John & Hollen Allen, 31 March, 1769. Benjamin 
Brewer, Sec. 

Lifsey, William & Fanny White, 20 March, 1787. John Lif- 
sey. Sec. 

McKendree, James & Martha Wilkinson, 27 Dec, 1792'. 
Michael Ezell, Sec. 

Mabry, Daniel & Mar}' Smith, widow, 16 June, 1785. Johr 
Fenton, Sec. 

Mabry, Edward & Ann Turner, widow, 30 Sept., 1806, James 
B. Lockhart, Sec. 

Mabry, Richard & Amy Grigg, 23 Feb., 1793. Burwell Grigg, 
father, consents. John R. Tillar, Sec. 

Mabry, Richard & Polly Braxton Mabry, 19 Aug., 1799. Henry 
Mabry, Sec 



Register of Marriage Bonds 195 

Mabry, Robert & Rebecca Mason, widow, 22 Sept., 1787. John 
Mason, Sec. 

Maclin, Frederick, Jr., & Mary Spencer^ 14 July, 1806. EoIj- 
ert Spencer, father consents. Elliott Spencer, Sec. 

Maclin, William & Winny Wyche, 27 Dec, 1781. Edmunds 
Wilkins, Sec. 

Maholland, John & Lucy Smith, 27 Dec, 1785. Benjamin 
Tarbor, Sec. 

Malone, Joseph & Sarah Malone, 21 April, 1795. Thomas 
Malone, Sec. 

Mangum, Henry, Jr., & Nancy Harrison, 9 Feb., 1801. Henry 
Mangum, Sec. 

Mangum, Isham & Patsy Allen, 1 Dec, 1800. William Allen, 
father consents. Henry Mangum, Sec. 

Mangum, Jeremiah & Nancy Jackson, 20 Dec, 1796. Drewry 
Walton, Sec 

Mangum, Littlebury & Clara Jordan, 22 Jan., 1807. Sterling 
Thompson, Sec 

Mason, George & Elizabeth Jones, 7 Feb., 1807. Benjamin 
Jones, father, consents and is Sec. 

Mason, Henry & Rebecca Jeter, 11 Nov., 1796. John Jeter, 
Sec. 

Mason, John & Mary Maclin, 23 Oct., 1788. Achillea Jeffries, 
Sec. 

Mason, John & Lucy Cordall, 19 Nov., 1788. John Shearling, 
Sec 

Mason, Richard & Mary Woodford, widow, 14 Jan., 1799. 
Henry Wrenn, Sec. 

Mason, Richard & Mary Vick, 25 Dec 1790. John Mason, Sec. 

Mason, William & Rebecca Richardson, 9 Aug., 1800. Jordin 
Richardson, father, consents. Thomas Spencer, Sec. 

Mason, William & Tabita Wynn Tewell, 11 May, 1799. Hugh 
Tewell, father, consents, and is Sec. 

Massey, John & Anne Shehorn, 12' Oct., 1799. Wilson She- 
horn, father, consents. Pettipool Massey, Sec. 

Massey, William & Fanny Goodrich, 25 Feb., 1796. W. Good- 
rich, father, consents. John Rives, Sec 



196 Tylek's Qcaetekly Magazine 

Mayes, Joshua & Hannah H. Dupree, 28 Jan., 1790. Gardiner 
Mayes, Sec. 

Meacham, Banlvs & Elizabeth Person, 6 Dec, 1785. William 
Andrews, Sec. 

Medill, Alexander & Martha Wall, 6 Nov., 1792. Sarah Wall, 
mother, consents. Gresham Watson, Sec. 

Mitchell, Bannister & Celia Mitchell, 12 Feb., 1795. Brax- 
ton Eobinson, Sec. 

Mitchell, David & Elizabeth Scott, 22 March, 1794. Philip 
Jones, Sec. 

Mitchell, Drewry, Jr., & Elizabeth Johnson, 12 Sept., 1808. 
David Johnson, Sec. 

Mitchell, Henry & Polly Mitchell, 2 Feb., 1797. Bannister 
Mitchell, See. 

Mitchell, James & Sally Llwellin, 7 June, 1789. Eobert 
Mitchell, Sec. 

Mitchell, Joseph & Molly B. Emmery, 22 May, 1793. Edmund 
Llwellin, Sec. 

Morris, Henr}' & Selah Clarke, 21 July, 1789. Peter Clarke, 
Sec. 

Morris, Nathaniel & Angelina Adams, 17 Sept., 1796. Eliza- 
beth Adams, mother, consents. Tyson Llwellin, Sec. 

Morris, William & Winny Wilkinson, 19 Aug., 1786. John 
Morris, Sec, 

Moore, Francis & Elizabeth Pollings, 11 Feb., 1805. Eliza- 
beth Pollings, mother, consents. William Atkinson, Jr., Sec. 

Moore, James & Permelia Payne, 10 May, 1802. Eandaa 
Wrenn, Sec. 

Moore, Joshua & Hannah Dupree, Dec. 8, 1789. Elizabeth 
Dupree, mother, consents. 

Montgomery, Benjamin & Sally Tatum, 13 Dec, 1802. Batte 
Tatum, Sec 

Moseley, Hartwell & Patsy Owen, 10 Dec, 1800. Henry Wrenn, 
Sec 

Moss, Howell &: Patsy Clark, 19 Dec, 1806. Sarah Clark, 
mother, consents. Edwin Clark, Sec. 

Moss, William & Elizabeth Collier, 4 Oct., 1785. Joel Prince, 
Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 197 

Morris, Chislon & Tabitha New, 30 Dec, 1794. George Cain, 
Sec. 

Morris, Jabez & Elizabeth Lundy, 19 Aug., 1783. Thomas 
Morris, Sec. 

Murfee, John & Jenny Thompson, 14 April, 1806. Sterling 
Thompson, Sec. 

Mnrrell, John & Charlotte Jones, 19 May, 1795. William 
Ozmor, Sec. 

Nanny, Wyatt & Elizabeth Lanier, 12 Jan., 1801. Eandolph 
Price, Sec. 

Newsom, Thomas & Sally "Wrenn, 13 Aug., 1789. John 
Jarratt, Sec. 

Newsom, William & Mary Stark, 2 May, 1782. William 
Fanning, consents. Henry Tazewell, Sec. 

Nolley, Thomas & Susanna Nolley, 17 Dec, 1799. Nehemiah 
Nolley, Sec. 

Norwood, George & Winifred Eives, 26 June, 1794. Michael 
Ezell, Sec. 

Northington, John & Sally Stewart, 26 Aug., 1784. Wm. 
Grizzard, Sec. 

Owen, Gronow & Elizabeth Simmons, 8 Dec, 1796. Benj. 
Simmons, Sec 

Owen, Willis & Mary Ford Grigg, 10 Sept., 1804. Frederick 
Grigg, Sec. 

Ozmor, William & Lucy Murrell, 13 Oct., 1789. Joseph Vin- 
cent, Sec. 

Parham, Thomas & Elizabeth Parham Batte, 20 Nov., 1794. 
Sarah Batte, mother, consents. James Batte, Sec 

Parham, Thomas & Eebecca Mason, 30 Dec, 1805. Thomas 
Spencer, guardian, consents. John B. Malone, Sec. 

Parks, Henry & Milly Small, 20 Sept., 1794. Solomon Thomp- 
son, Sec. 

Parks, Joseph & Elizabeth Garris, 24 Nov., 1790. Henry Cox, 
Sec. 

Patrick, Thomas & Cressy Clifton^ . Cressy 

Cli^t'^n. mother, consents. John Rogers, Sec 



198 Tylee's Quaeteely Magazine 

Payne, Jacob & Susanna Collier, 2'6 Oct., 1805. Crawley 
House, Sec. 

Pearson, Howell & Dorothy Locke, 20 Jan., 180-i. Charles 
Locke, Jr., father, consents. George Walton, Sec. 

Peebles, Herbert & Sally Wilkinson, 30 Nov., 1796. Joel Wil- 
kinson, father, consents. William Smith, Sec. 

Peebles, Howell & Eebecca Fox, 9 Sept., 1789. Robert Fox, 
Sec. 

Peebles, Howell & Hannah Dancy, 20 June, 1808. James Ed- 
wards, Sec. 

Peebles, Nathaniel & Nancy Walton, 7 Feb., 180-4. Isaac R. 
Walton, Sec. 

Peebles, Sterling & Patsy Wilkins, 20 April, 1788. Douglas 
Wilkins, Sec. 

Peebles, Willis & Colin Jordan, widow, 24 Aug., 1797. Jesse 
Peebles, Sec. 

Pelham, Thomas & Isabella Dickson, 4 Oct., 1799. William 
W. Wilkins, guardian, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Pelham, Thomas & Hannah Burrell, 3 Sept., 1801. Peter 
Pelham, Sec. 

Person, Anthony & Rebecca Person, 5 April, 1790. Mary 
Person, mother, consents. Burgess Bass, Sec. 

Piland, James & Mary Robinson, 8 Dec, 1794. William Robin- 
Bon, father, consents. Braxton Robinson & Samuel Avent, See's. 

Person, Benjamin & Rebecca Parke, 13 May, 1805. James 
Hayley, Sec. 

Peterson, William & Sarah Bass, 11 March, 1797. Fortune 
Bass, mother, states bride is 35 years of age. 

Pettway, Benjamin & Lucy Sills, 18 Dec, 1795. John Camp, 
Sec. 

Pettway, John & Elizabeth Smith, 12 Feb., 1800. John Smith, 
father, consents. Williamson Smith, Sec. 

Pettway, Robert & Frances Wilkinson, 27 May, 1799. Joel 
Wilkinson, father, consents. 

Pilkinton, Willis & Mary Pettway, 3 March, 1783. Hinchia 
Pettway, Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 199 

Pollard, George & Eebecca Davis, 8 April, 1805. James Davis, 
Sec. 

Porch, Frederick & Martha James, 4 May, 1801. Bride 21 
years of age on Dec. 7, 1800. William Camp, Sec. 

Porch, Howell & Elizabeth Atkins, 23 Dec, 1800. Wm. W. 
Wilkins, Sec. 

Powell, Robert & Sarah Malone, widow, 23 Sept., 1785. Peter 
Wyche, Sec. 

Price, Sterling & Mary Freeman, 30 June, 1791. William 
Andrews, consents. William Eaves, Sec. 

Pritchett, John & Martha Mayes, 13 April, 1807. Henry 
Wyche, Sec. 

Purnell, William & Elizabeth Wilkins, 1 Nov., 1799. Douglaa 
Wilkins, father, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Eagland, Stephen & Mackavinia McLemore, 5 Jan., 1790. John 
Fisher, Sec. 

Raines, John H. & Mary W. Watson, 13 Dec, 1806. Harmon 
W. Temple, Sec. 

Randall, John & Sarah Whittington, 9 Dec, 1785. John Whit- 
tington, father, consents. 

Randall, Thomas G. & Rebecca Robinson, 27 June, 1793. Brax- 
ton Robinson, Sec. 

Randall, William & Susanna Robinson Rives, 24 Sept., 1802. 
Braxton Robinson, guardian, consents. I. R. Walton, Sec. 

Rawlings, John & Letha Smith, 21 Dec, 1799. Jacob Payne, 
Sec 

Reese, Edward Perry & Jane Watson, 10 Dec, 1788. John 
Watson, Sec 

Richards, Williams & Willie Young, 10 May, 1787. William 
GriflBn, Sec 

Richardson, William & Edith Vick, 24 June, 1790. William 
Andrews, Sec. 

Richardson, William, Jr., & Sally Mayes, 10 March, 1800. 
Allen Mayes, Sec. 

Riddle, Elisha & Susanna Pepper, 17 Jan., 1792. Anselm 
Ivey, Sec. 



200 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Riddle, Thomas & Mary Dean, 17 Jan., 1793. John Goodnim, 
Sec. 

Eivers, Thomas & Elizabeth Jones, 31 Dec, 1782. Nathaniel 
Lucas, Sec. 

Eivers, William & Susanna Richardson, 19 Dec, 1789. Thomas 
Richardson, father, consents. Benjamin Woodroof, Sec 

Rivers, William & EUsha Jackson, 19 Jan., 1791. Thomas 
Rivers, Sec 

Rives, John & Amy Rivers, 17 Feb., 1794. Martha Rivers, 
mother, consents. Nathaniel Rives, Sec 

Rives, John & Mourning Perry, 28 Nov., 1799. William Tom- 
linson. Sec. 

Rives, Nathaniel & Lucy Robinson, 18 Dec, 1783. James 
Robinson, Sec. 

Rives, Nathaniel & Elizabeth Rivers, 7 Dec, 1786. Robert 
Rivers, father, consents. Robert Rivers, Sec. 

Rives, William D. & Lucy Jeter, 25 Feb., 1803. James J^ter, 
Sec 

Robinson, Braxton & Fanny Walton, 20 Nov., 1789. Wil- 
liam Allen, Sec. 

Robinson, Braxton & Lucy Sims, 28 March, 1795. John 
Camp, Sec. 

Robinson, Braxton & Mary Hicks, widow, 28 Sept., 1799. 
Kinchin Peterson, Sec, 

Robinson, John & Elizabeth Piland, 29 July, 1785. John 
Berryman, Sec 

Robinson, William J. & Sally Rives, 1 Sept., 1797. Benj. Rivea, 
Sec 

Roe, Robert & Milly Giizzard, 25 Oct., 1797. Samuel Andrews, 
Sec 

Roper, John & Martha Capell, 20 Jan., 1791. Brittan Capell, 
Sec 

Rosser, George & Ann Brewer, 26 Feb., 1790. John Ingram, 
Sec 

Rowell, Isaac & Susanna Morris, 9 Jan., 1782. Edmund Jeter, 
Jr., Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 201 

Rowland, John & Polly Woodford, 24 Dec, 1805. James 
Moore, Sec. 

Santee, William & Mary Blizzard, 17 Feb., 1786. Eobert 
Brown, Sec. 

Sammons, ISTewett & Claramond Lawrence, 13 Feb., 1787. 
Joseph Long, Sec. 

Sexton^ Mark, son of Samuel Sexton, & Elizabeth Graham, 28 
March, 1786. Samuel Sexton, Sec. 

Seward, Samuel & Tabitha Lanier, 23 Jan., 1807. Tabitha 
Lanier, mother, consents. Hamlin Allen, Sec. 

Shehorn, John & Crecy Cato, 28 June, 1796. John Cato, 
father, consents. Jesse Howard, Sec. 

Shehorn, William & Judith Evans, 11 Sept., 1736. William 
Evans, Sec. 

Shehorn, Wilson & Priscilla Howard, widow, 20 Aug., 1803. 
John Shehorn, Sec. 

Shelton, Euckner & Betsy Cato, 26 July, 1792. John Cato, 
father, consents. Edmund Shelton, Sec. 

Shelton, James & Winifred Peebles, 28 Sept., 1786. Thomas 
Shelton, Sec. 

Shepard, George & Nancy Wilkins, 14 Nov., 1808. James 
Watkins, Sec, 

Shore, Thomas & Jane Gray Wall, 27 June, 1793. Sarah Wall, 
mother, consents. John Grayson, Sec. 

Short, Armistead & Elizabeth Ross, 4 Feb., 1808. George 
Cain, Sec. 

Short, John & Susanna Andrews, widow, 1 Nov., 1806. George 
Cain, Sec. 

Shurling, Richard & Delilah Clarke, 5 Aug., 1789. William 
Bennett, Sec. 

Sills, Gray & Sarah Wyche, 24 April, 1788. Henry Wyche, Sec. 

Sills, Isham & Patsy Hazlewood, 8 Nov., 1797. Wilkins Good- 
rich, Sec. 

Sills, Richard & Charlotte Clarke, 24 Nov., 1791. Traris 
Clarke, father, consents. Edward P. Reese, Sec. 

Sims, Howell & Mary Nolley, 28 Sept., 1797. Nehemiah Nol- 
ley. Sec. 



202 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

Sledge, Sterling & Ehoda Johnson, 8 Jan., 1789. Moses John- 
eon, Sec. 

Smith, Aaron & Eebecca Turner, 28 Oct., 1790. Jesse Grigg, 
consents. Cordell Clifton, Sec. 

Smith, Benjamin & Dolly Mayes,, widow, 27 Jan., 1802. Peter 
Pelham, Sec. 

Smith, David R. & Dorothy J. Wilkinson, 14 May, 1808. John 
Pettway, Sec. 

Smith, John & Mary Maclin, 31 Aug., 1789. James Maclin, 
father, consents. William Smith, Sec. 

Smith, Lewis & Julia Nolley, 13 May, 1786. Nehemiah Noliey, 
Sec. 

Smith, Bichard & Ann Fisher, 19 Feb., 1787. D. Fisher, 
father, consents. James Dennison, Sec. 

Smith, William & Sally Cato, 24 Sept., 1795. John Cato, Sec. 

Smith, Williamson & Rebecca Smith, 17 May, 1790. David 
Smith, father, consents. William Smith, Sec. 

Starke, Belfield & Lucy L. Robinson, 22 Oct., 1805. George 
Mason, Sec. 

Stewart, Benjamin & Phatha Dupree, 7 March, 1798. Joshua 
Mayes, Sec. 

Stewart, Charles & Elizabetli Grigg, 29 Sept., 1803. Frederick 
Grigg, father, consents. Randolph Grigg, Sec. 

Stewart, Dempsey & Lucy Berry, 4 Feb., 1786. Connon Combs, 
Sec. 

Stewart, Munford & Deborah Trunnel, 3 Sept., 1806. Joshua 
Clark, Sec. 

Stewart, Richard & Mourning Charles, widow, 22 June, 1786. 
Batte Peterson, Sec. 

Stewart, William & Mary Artis, 3 Jan., 1792. John Jeter, Sr., 
Sec. 

Sturdivant, William & Frances Loftin, 16 Jan., 1802, Martha 
Loftin, mother, consents. Edmund Loftin, Sec. 

Span, Willis & Ann Mabry, 8 May, 1786. Robert Mabry, Sec. 

Spain, Richard & Rebecca Mabry, 13 Jan., 1790. Ingram 
Blanks, Sec. 



Registek of Maeeiage Boxds 203 

Spencer, Robert, Jr., & Mary Mabry, 24 Jan., 1793. Evans 
Mabry, See. 

Swanson, Frederick & Winny Adkins, 22 June, 1787. Edward 
Freeman, Sec. 

Sykes, William & Burchett L. Turner, 21 Ma, 1790. Simon 
Turner, Sr., father, consents. Green Turner, Sec. 

Tarver, Andrew & Ann Young, 10 Oct., 1785. Ann Young, 
mother, consents. Absalom Harris, Sec. 

Tatum, Henry & Elizabeth Atkinson, widow, 23 Oct., 1798. 
Paul Tatum, Sec. 

Thacker, Joel & Eebecca Lanier, 11 Jan., 1793'. Collins Lanier, 
Sec. 

Thomas, John & Frances Tyus, 19 April, 1790. Lewis Tyus, 
Sec. 

Thompson, Solomon & ISTancy Jordan, 7 May, 1799. B. Spence 
& Thos. Williford, Sec. 

Thornton, William & Frances Goodrich, 12 June, 1804. Wil- 
kins Goodrich, Sec. 

Thompson, Lodowick & Delilah Womack, 18 March, 1793. 
Richard Gilliam, Sec. 

Thompson, Solomon & Mary Parks, 26 April, 1787. Joseph 
Parks, Sec. 

Taylor, John R. & 9 Dec, 1805. Isaac R. 

Walton, Sec. 

Tillar, James & Martha Dupree, 11 March, 1805. Thomas 
Dupree, Sr., Sec. 

Tillman, Roger & Martha Turner, 13 Oct., 1788. John Good- 
rum, Sec. 

Tooke, Thomas & Delin Howard, 30 April, 1808. John Clack, 
Sec. 

Tomlinson, Benjamin & Nancy Edlow Watson, widow, 28 June, 
1796. William Gilliam, Sec. 

Tomlinson, Lucas & Martha Shehorn, 28 July, 1791. Wilson 
Shehorn, Sec. 

Tomlinson, William S. & Nancy Lucas, 24 May, 1808. Edmond 
Lucas, father, consents. Robert M. Land, Sec. 



204 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Tomlinson, William & Elizabeth Stewart, 36 Sept., 1783. Law- 
rence House, Sec. 

Tucker, David, Jr., of Brunswick Co., & Elizabeth Washing- 
ton, 27 March, 1794, Edward Collier, Guardian, consents. John 
Goodwyn, Sec. 

Turner, Donaldson & Mary Brown, widow, 8 May, 1794. 

Turner, Etheldred & Patience Eives, 1 March, 1797. Bride 
sister of Timothy Eives & about 25 years of age. Donaldson 
Turner, Sec. 

Turner, John & Elizabeth Williamson, 3 Jan., 1791. Jesse 
Grigg, Sec. 

Turner, John W. & Eoweua Eowell, 15 March, 1808. Isaac 
Rowell, Sec. 

Turner, Joseph & Anne Peterson, 19 Feb., 1785. Batte Peter- 
son, father, consents. William Sykes, Sec. 

Turner, Miles & Charity Mangum, 25 Dec, 1794. Henry 
Mangum, father gives consent, & is Sec. 

Turner, Person & Mason Taylor Peterson, 16 Feb., 1796. John 
Sykes, Sec. 

Turner, Person & Nancy Turner, 9 Sept., 1797. Blunt Turner, 
guardian, gives consent to marriage of "JSTancy Turner, dau. of 
John Turner, dec'd," her mother, Priscilla Turner, also gives con- 
sent. John Wall, Sec. 

Turner, Peter & Drusilla Smith, 20 Jan., 1783, Andrew Jeter, 
Sec. 

Turner, Simon & Nancy Bynum, 3 March, 1797. Brittin By- 
num. Sec. 

Turner, Simon & Polly Peters, 8 Feb., 1800. John Peters, 
father, consents. Sugars Turner, Sec. 

Turner, Sugars &.Eebecca Delony, 30 May, 1804. Peter Pel- 
ham, Sec. 

Tyus, Edwin & Nancy Whittington, 23 Nov., 1797, Frederick 
Whittington, father, consents. William Price Walker, Sec. 

Tyus, William G. & Eebecca Lundy, 2 June, 1803. William 
Lundy, father, consents, Benjamin Gowing, Sec. 

TJnderhill, Henry & Frances Harrison, 2'3 Dec, 1790. Mat- 
thew Davis, Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 205 

Underhill, John & Rebecca Atkins, 6 April, 1797. Patty At- 
kins, mother, consents. Jesse Atkins, Sec. 

Underwood, Nathaniel & Nancy Underwood, 13 May, 1806. 
Ingram Blanks, Sec. 

Vaughan, Fielding & Frances Eives, 26 Sept., 1787. Eliza- 
beth Rives, mother, consents. Robert Rives, Sec. 

Vaughan, Randall & Sarah Harris, 3 June, 1794. 

Vaughan, Thomas & Lucy Harrison, 20 Aug., 1789. William 
Vaughan, Sec. 

Vincent, Benjamin & Betsy Goodrich, 23 Aug., 1787. Joshua 
Rives, Sec. 

Vincent, Edmund & Polly Wall Vincent, 15 Jan., 1799. Peter 
Vincent, Sec. 

Vincent, Joseph & Sarah Clark, 8 July, 1795. Thomas Vin- 
cent, Sec. 

Vincent, Michael & Nancy Webb, 6 May, 1790. Micajah Webb, 
Sec. 

Vincent, William & Margaret Newsom, 28 June, 1787. Holt 
Clanton, Sec. 

Vines, Jones & Laurana Wrenn, 20 Sept., 1790. Anne Wrenn, 
mother, consents. Henry Winfield, Sec. 

Wall, Amos & Sally Murrell, 17 May, 1789. Braxton Robinson, 
Sec. 

Wall, James Augustus Wall, & Rebecca Jeffries, 3 Sept., 1808. 
Mary Jeffries, mother, consents. 

Wall, John & Polly Turner, 15 Sept., 1784. John Turner, 
father, consents. David Putney, Sec. 

Wall, Willis & Nancy Nolley, 27 Dec, 1787. Hannah Nolley, 
mother, consents. Braxton Robinson, Sec. 

Waldript, Graffan & Sally Barnes Rivers. William Rivers, 
father, consents. Williamson Rivers, Sec. Bond dated 13 Feb., 
1793. 

Walker, Benj. H. & Tilly Wyche, 12 Jan., 1801. Henry Wyche, 
father, consents. David Walton, Sec. Bride over 21 years of 
age. 

Walker, John F. & Elizabeth Webb, 24 Sept., 1805. Francis 
Hill, Sec. 



206 Tylek's Quartekly Magazine 

Walker, William & Jane Cato, 11 Dec, 1786. John Cato, Sec. 

Walton, Daniel & Sally Webb, 7 Sept., 1793. Micajah Webb, 
father, consents. William Goodrich, Sec. 

Walton, David & Eebeeca Wyche, 28 Feb., 1788. William 
Wyche, Sec. 

Walton, Gresham & Nancy Edlow Watson, 3 Jan., 1793. Lewis 
Grigg & Edith Grigg, consents. Edward Perry Eeese, Sec. 

Walton, Isaac & Elizabeth Allen, 22 Nov., 1787. William 
Allen, father, consents. Edward Ferguson, Sec. 

Walton, Isaac R., Sr., & Polly Lanier, 12' Jan., 1807. Tabitha 
Lanier, mother, consents. Edward Branscomb, Sec. 

Walton, Isaac E. Jr., & Eebeeca Randolph, widow, 24 May, 
1800. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Walton, Littleton & Sally Phillips, 21 Dec, 1789. Braxton 
Eobinson, Sec. 

Watkins, Eobert & Sarah Dean, 12 Mar., 1787. Michael Wil- 
"kins. Sec. 

Watkins, Robert & Nancy Jones, 10 Feb., 1796. Thomas Jones 
& Eebeeca Jones, parents, consent. Abraham Artis, Sec 

Webb, Warren & Sidney Walton, 14 Mar. 1803. Isaac Walton, 
father, consents, & is Sec. 

Webb, John, Jr., & Jane Vincent, 1 April, 1790. Eebeeca Vin- 
cent, mother, consents. Charles Webb, Sec. 

Webb, Kinchen & Patsy Harris, 26 Sept., 1798. Gideon Harris, 
father, consents. Thomas Allen, Sec. 

Whitfield, John & Jane Allen, 30 Aug., 1808. David Walton, 
Sec 

Whittington, Lewis & Celia Sills, 17 Feb., 1803. Eobert Rives, 
Sec 

Whittington, William & Sarah Barlow, 4 Feb., 1788. Selah 
Barlow, mother, consents. John "Wliittington, Sec. 

Williams, Thomas & Martha Grigg, 10 Nov., 1789. Carrol 
Grigg, Sec. 

Williams, William & Eebeeca Hinton, 28 Jan., 1808. James 
Jordan, Sec. 

Williams, William & Alcy Walton, 9 May, 1808. Isaac E. 
Walton. Sr., Sec. 



Register of Marriage Bonds 207 

Williamson, James & Mary E. Turner, 22 July, 1808. Simon 
Turner, Sr., consents. Edward Mabry, Sec. 

AVilliamson, John & Mary Parham, 15 Feb., 1793. James 
Parham, Sec. 

Williamson, Edmund & Xancy Vincent, 16 Dec, 1707. Up- 
shur Jordan, Sec. 

Williamson, Tudali & Lindsay Adams, 14 Jan., 1807. John 
Adams, Sec. 

Williamson, Turner & Judith Brown, 24 Oct., 1787. P. Good- 
win, consents. 

Wilkins, John & Frances Powell, 28 Sept., 1807. Sarah 
Powell, mother, consents, Crawley House, Sec. 

Wilkinson, Robert & Mary Camp, 4 Dec., 1804. John Camp, 
father, consents. Philip Claiborne, Sec. 

Wilson, Fisher & Xancy Eppes, 7 Sept., 1808. Williamson 
Bonner, consents. Sterling Howell, Sec. 

Wilson, John & Mary Chambliss Hicks, 6 Nov., 1794. Robert 
Hicks, Sec. 

Wilkinson, John & Patsy ^Vhittington, 1 May, 1702. Sterling 
Cato, Sec. 

Windham, John & Sally Vincent, widow,- 31 Aug., 1797. Wm. 
Fox, Sec. 

Wingfield, Edward, of Brunwick Co., & Frances Smith, 19 Dec, 
1785. David Smith, father consents. William Smith, Sec. 

Wotten, Stephen & Fanny Scott, 26 Dec, 1789. Drewry 
Jeffries, Sec. 

Woodroof, Benjamin & Elizabeth Bass, widow, 23 May, 1786. 
John Peebles, Sec. 

Woodroof, Benjamin & Jinsey Peebles, 31 Dec, 1794. Nath. 
Woodroof, Sec. 

Woodroof, John & Jenny Chambliss, 13 Dec, 1807. Boiling 
Chambliss, Sec. 

Woodroof, John & Susan Smith, 12 Oct., 1801. John Wyche, 
Sec. 

Woodroof, William & Mary Shehorn, 14 Oct., 1790. Wilson 
Shehorn, father consents. Avent Massey, Sec. 



208 Tyler's Quaetekly Magazine 

Woodroof, William & Nancy Ferguson, 29 Jan., 1796. Wil- 
liam Ferguson, father, consents. Isaac Branscomb, Sec. 

Wyatt, Hubbard, Jr., & Betsy S. Avery, 31 Dec, 1805, daugh- 
ter of Billy H. Avery, of Prince George Co., Va. Robert Green- 
way, Sec. 

Wynne, Green & Hannah Tyus, 22 Dec, 1785. Lewis Tyus, 
father, consents. William Green, Sec 

Wyche, Henry & Elizabeth Walton, 9 June, 1800, Isaac Eow 
Walton, Jr., Sec. 

Wyche, Henry & Nancy Cook, 13 April, 1807. Foster Cook, 
Sec 

Wyche, Peter & Susanna Eosser, 22 Nov., 1800. John Eosser, 
father, consents. David Walton, Sec. 

Wyche, William & Elizabeth Malone, 27 Aug., 1789. Peter 
Wyche, Sec. 

Wrenn, Alexander & Lucy Lawrence, 21 Dec, 1785. Carroll 
Grigg, Sec. 

Wrenn, Bates & Nancy Barlow, 15 Dec, 1787. Henry Wrenn, 
Sec. 

Wrenn, Henry & Sarah Harrison, 25 Oct., 1787. Jordin Eich- 
ardson. Sec. 

Wrenn, Henry & Lucy Porch, 27 Feb., 1794. Jephthah Porch, 
father, consents. Nathan Jackson, Sec. 

Wrenn, Jones & Cecily Mabry, 5 Oct., 1790. Lewis Grigg, Sec 

Yates, Benjamin P. & Sophia Stith, 17 Dec, 1805. Eobert 
Turnbull, Guardian, of Brunswick Co., consents. Isham E. 
Trotter, Sec 

Young, Henry & Clark Evans, 5 Feb., 1803. William Evans, 
guardian, consents & is Sec 

Young, Tarpley & Lucy Wrenn, 18 April 1791. Matthew 
Davis, Sec 

Young, William & Sally Hart Cook, 22 June, 1797. Henry 
Cook, father, consents & is Sec 

Additional Bonds. 

Allen, Howell & Mary Edwards, 29 Nov., 1785, in Brunswick 
county. 



Register of Marriage Boxds 209 

Bass, McLin & Elizabeth Watson, 18 Oct., 1792. 

Bradley, Mical & Mary Morton, 15 July, 1791, in Brunswick 
Co. 

Burnett, Dugger & Branscomb, 8 Jan., 1801. 

Brewer, John & Mary Mitchell, 28 Nov., 1787. 

Cain, George & Priscilla Bass, 23 Aug., 1787, in Southampton 
Co. 

Camp, Green & Sally Broadus^ 4 Dec, 1800. 

Cocke, Howell Heath & Mar}' Woodly, 30 Jan., 1788. 

Cooper, Jesse & Sarah Applewhite, 23 Aug., 1786, in South- 
ampton Co. 

Emmery, Thomas & Keziah Bishop, 15 April, 1787. 

Ewell, Abel & Sarah TVTiitehorn, 7 Marcn, 1786. 

Ferguson, Edward & Elizabeth Hunter, 5 Nov., 1787, in Bruns- 
wick Co. 

Garner, Presley & Betsy Avent, 30 March, 1786, in Bruns- 
wick Co. 

Goodrum, John & Eebecca Parham, 29 Nov., 1797. 

Green, Sterling & Amy Eaves, 24 Sept., 1787. 

Harris, Henry & Mary Drew, 4 Oct., 1787, 

Hines, Jacob & Mason Hearin, 14 March, 1804. 

Jarratt, John & Lucy Randolph, 23 April, 1789. 

Jeffries, Thomas & Selona Heathcock, 28 Oct., 1789. 

Kerby, Thomas & Eebecca Bass, 25 Jan., 1787, in Southamp- 
ton Co. 

Lifsey, "\niliam & Fanny White, 21 March, 1787. 

Little, William & Betsy Bass, 6 Dec, 1785, in Southampton Co. 

May, William & Sally Wrenn, 8 July, 1795. 

Maclin, Edmund & Elizabeth Pettway, 27 Dec, 1798. 

Mason, Peyton & Martha Ann Person Turner, 2 Jan.^ 1809. 
Simon Turner, Sr., father, consents. Edmunds Mason, Security. 

Morris, Chislon & Tabitha New, 30 Dec, 1794. 

Newett, Sammons & Claramond Lawrence, 18 Feb., 1787. 

Peebles, Edmund & Harriet Harrison, 20 Feb., 1786, in Sussex 
County. 

Pearson, Mossis & Nancy Brewer, 27 Jan., 1788. 

Phillips, Thomas & Ann Clarke, 10 Nov., 1787. 



210 Tyleb's Quarterly Magazine 

Prince, John & Elizabeth Freeman, 24 Sept., 1787, in Bruns- 
wick Co. 

Eawlings, Hambleton & Susanna Clifton, 25 Dec, 1797. 

Eichardson, Samuel & Charlotte Woodruff, 10 April, 1791. 

Robinson, John & Polly Webb, 18 Dec, 1800. 

Robinson, Littleberry & Sally Eobinson, 13 Dec, 1790. 

Saunders, John & Peggy Pentecost, 2'8 Dec, 1785, in Bruns- 
wick Co. 

Sims, Howell & Lucy George, 30 Nov., 1785, in Brunswick Co. 

Slate, Robert & Sally Turner, 13 Nov., 1785. 

Smith, Henry & Betsy D. Turner, 22 Sept., 1791. Simon 
Turner, Sr., father, consents. 

Tarver, Andrew & Elizabeth Heartwell, 28 Jan., 1791, in 
Brunswick Co. 

Turner, Henry & Milly Brittle, 29 Sept., 1786, in Southampton 
Co. 

Wall, Willis & Polly Camp, 7 Jan., 1791. 

Walton, Drewry & Grace Ingram, 26 Sept., 1785, in Bruns- 
wick Co. 

Watson, Gursham & Nancy Watson, 3 June, 1807. 



LANIER FAMILY— SOME CORRECTIONS OF ARTICLE 
IN LAST NUMBER. 

To the Editor of Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Maga- 
zine : 
I have read with much interest what is contained in No. 2, Vol. 3, 
of your Quarterly concerning John Lanier and his descendants. You 
have placed the numerous members of this family under many obliga- 
tions. I regret that I did not know that you contemplated making 
this publication, for I could have helped you to avoid a few errors 
that I see. On page 134 you mention Sampson Lanier and his wife, 
Elizabeth Chamberlain, and on the following page you say that no 
mention is made in the records of Brunswick County of a son named 
Lewis Lanier. My great grandmother, Agnes Lanier, who married 
William Davis in Brunswick County on August 29, 1769, was a sister 
of Lewis Lanier and a daughter of Sampson and Elizabeth. The pro 



Pollard Family 211 

bate records of Brunswick County show that on April 23, 1763, William 
Lanier was appointed Guardian for Lewis and Agnes Lanier, orphans 
of Sampson Lanier, deceased. They also show that prior to this, 
Lemuel Lanier was appointed guardian for Lewis and Agnes and de- 
scribed them as orphans of Sampson Lanier. Burwell Lanier, after 
he had reached his majority, acted for some time as guardian for 
Lewis and Agnes. The same records that prove Winnifred, Buckner, 
Martha, and Anne to be the children of Sampson and Elizabeth show 
that Agnes and Lewis were also their children. The children all re- 
ceived the same from the estate, except Buckner who was the oldest son 
and inherited the land, there being no will. The error started with 
Mr. Nelson who was employed by the descendants of some of the other 
children. His notes show that Lemuel Lanier was appointed guardian 
for Lewis and Agnes, orphans of Sampson, deceased, but he evidently 
didn't investigate the matter any further. 
Yours truly, 

W. 0. Davis. 



POLLARD FAMILY* 

Mrs. Charles W. Dixon to Henry R. Pollard 

Douglas, Arkansas 

Oct 3, 1921 
My dear Mr. Pollard: 

I saw your name and address in the Virginia Magazine of History 
d Biography, and that is why I take the liberty of writing you and 
I trust you will pardon my intrusion. My ancestor, James Gaines, 
Jr., the son of James Gaines, Sr. and Mary Pendleton, (James Sr. 
died in 1781, & Mary in 1803) married Mildred Pollard in Virginia. 
As I do know that they had children born between 1760 and 1770, 
& a son, Abner, was born in 1766, I fee\ that you, perhaps, have a 
history of the fine old Pollard family and can be of some assistance to 
me, if you have the time, — & rest assured, I shall be most grateful 
for any information you may give me. I want the history of the 
Pollard family from Mildred Pollard back as far as it goes in that line. 
Also date of her birth, marriage & death, including date of James 



•For information In regard to Pollard Family, see William and 
Mary Quarterly, Vol. VIL 102, 103, 104; X, 202; XV, 64-69. 



212 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Gaines, Jr., birth & death. There is a tradition that he fought in 
the Revolution — ^have you any record of this in your record. 

My husband is a member of the N. C. Society in Genealogy for the 
sake of our only son. 

Abner Gaines, son of Mildred and James, Jr., b. 1766, married 
Elizabeth Matthews, & moved from Charlotte Co., Va., when Maj. 
John Pollard Gaines (their son) was a boy. Hoping to have an early 
reply, and that you will not hesitate to notify me as to the charges 
for this if there are any. 

Yours very truly, 

Mrs. Chas. W. Dixon. 

Henry R. Pollard to Mrs. Charles W. Dixon. 

31 October, 1921 
My dear Madam: — 

Your favf^r of the 3rd inst., was duly received but on account of 
the pressure of business I have not been able to give due considera- 
tion of how your inquiries had best be answered, confronted as I am 
with so little informatiofa which would enable me to give a satisfac- 
tory reply or one that would aid you in the quest you are in pursuit of. 
After considering the matter, I concluded that the best I could do 
would be to send you a copy of the History of King and Queen County, 
Virginia, written by my cousin and brother-in-law. Rev. Alfred Bagby, 
D. D., of this City and though he is now in his 93rd year, his mental 
faculties are unabated and his memory in many things reliable far be- 
yond what would be expected of one of his age. This book, which I 
send you by parcel post, contains much information concerning the 
history of your ancestors and in order that you may readily refer to 
what I think affords that information, at least in part, I have taken 
the time to re-examine it and make notation of the names and family 
connections which relate to the descendants of the intermarriage be- 
tween Joseph Pollard and his wife Priscilla, who was Miss Holmes of 
Caroline County, and of that marriage there were nine children, two 
sons and seven daughters. One of the latter, Mildred, spoken of fre- 
quently as Milly, intermarried with Col. Edmund Pendleton, a nephew 
of Judge Edmund Pendleton, who left no descendants, each of whom 
figured prominently in public affairs immediately before and after the 
Revolutionary War. Edmund Pendleton was a Colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War and was an intimate friend and advisor of Washington 
in military affairs, and his descendants of the marriage mentioned 
are numerous and I have practically no knowledge at my command 
as to their names or prominence except that furnished by the volume 



PoLLAED Family 813 

referred to above. Their descendants are frequently mentioned in 
that book and I have made notation of the pages on which those refer- 
ences are made, and they will be given in an addenda to this letter. 
The cost of the book on sale in this City is $3.50, which you can remit 
by postoflBce order to Rev. Alfred Bagby, D. D., 2206 Monument Avenue, 
together with the postage which you will be able to ascertain from the 
wrapper. 

I never had the pleasure of meeting with any of the Gaines iamily, 
but I frequently heard my father and mother speak of this family 
as people of great worth and as leading citizens of the County of 
King and Queen, Va. John Gaines was an intimate lawyer friend of 
my father, who was also a lawyer, and his brother, Harry Gaines of 
Woodlawn, where he lived and where his wife, who was Miss Muse, 
conducted a very popular female seminary which my mother. Miss 
Juliet Jeffries, attended as a pupil and to whom she was much at- 
tached. See History of the Gaines Family by Rev. Chas. R. Ryland, 
D. D., on page 335-6 of the book, and in the same connection see data 
concerning the Fleet family on page 334, and concerning the Garnett 
family on page 337. 

The only descendant of Col. Edmund Pendleton whom I intimately 
knew was Mrs. Anne Woolfolk, who before her marriage was Anne 
Turner and whose mother was a granddaughter of Col. Edmund Pen- 
dleton. I knew her practically all her life. She was a native of Caro- 
line County and was universally recognized as one of the most, if not 
the most, popular young woman in her native and adjoining counties. 
She left no issue. I have her picture, taken at the age of about seventy, 
which bespeaks her beauty even at that age. She died in this City 
about three years ago and was an intimate and loved relative of ours, 
and Mrs. Pollard was especially devoted to her and had her frequently 
as a visitor in our family. Mrs. H. R. Pollard, Jr., my oldest son's 
wife, was at her bedside when she died as a devoted and intimate 
friend. If you wish this picture copied and sent you I can do so but 
I am really afraid to trust such a treasure to the mails. 

For information concerning my own life, the volume sent largely 
sets it forth and it need not be repeated here except to say that I am 
now at the age of 76 years, or will be on the 28th proximo, and am still 
serving as City Attorney of Richmond, having served as such since the 
year 1898. 

With assurances of high esteem, I remain 

Sincerely yours, 

H. R. Pollard. 



214 Tylee^'s Quarterly Mag^izine 

Memoranda of page references in History of King and Queen 
County of Virginia, by Rev. Alfred Bagby, D. D., to Genealogy con- 
cerning the Pollard, Pendleton, Gaines and other families. 

22, 49, 51-2, 55, 71, 72, 77, 82, 83, 87, 103, 121, 132, 135, 140, 141-2-3-5, 
155, 165, 173, 177, 242-3, 249, 291-3, 298, 306, 310, 323, 333-4-5-6-7, 341, 
342, 345, 356, 359, 363, 366, 367, 371, 378, 379, 380, 381, 385, 386, 389, 398. 

Since writing the above, I find that President Madison in his last 
message to congress concerning the conduct of certain military opera- 
tions in the War of 1812 refers to Brigadier General Gaines, whom I 
have no doubt was a descendant from ancestors of King and Queen 
County, Va., but I have no definite information at hand by which 
this fact can be sustained. H. R. P. 



MR. LEIGH AND THE VICE PRESIDENCY.* 

To the Editor of the Virginia Magazine: 

You will pardon, I hope, a correction of the statement made in 
your note 25 of the very interesting article entitled "Letters from 
"William and Mary College," published in your April number. 

The autobiography of the late Senator George P. Hoar is quoted 
to show that the Vice Presidency in 1839 was offered by the Whig 
Convention at Harrisburgh, in the first instance, to Benjamin Watkins 
Leigh, and that John Tyler received it after Leigh's declination of the 
offer. This is a misstatement which is proved by a letter of Mr. Leigh 
himself, highly honorable to his sense of fairness. 

After Mr. Tyler vetoed the Bank bills in 1841, the Whigs— espe- 
cially the Northern Whigs— knew no limit in their abuse of him. 
Every means was had to detract from him, and so this story among 
others was devised, only some had it that the nomination was of- 
fered to half a dozen other persons besides Mr. Leigh, and that when 
the Convention could find no other to accept the nomination, they 
unfortunately stumbled on John Tyler. 

Mr. Leigh was a strong party man, but withal an honorable gen- 
tleman, and the following is what he says substantially in his letter 
(Niles' Register, Vol. 61, p. 232.) 

The Whig Convention met at Harrisburgh on December 4, 1839, 
and was organized in the usual way. A grand committee was ap- 
pointed consisting of one or more delegates from each State Delega- 



•This letter was published in the Virginia Magazine, XXIX, No. 
3. pp. 357-359. (July number, 1921.) 



Me. Leigh and the Vice-Pkesidency 215 

tion. Before voting they were to consult their respective delegations 
and receive Instructions. 

For the presidency Mr. Clay had a plurality of the Grand Com- 
mittee, but he never could get a majority, and finally his enemies, 
chiefly Northern delegates who hated him for his compromising the 
tariff in 1833, succeeded in securing the nomination of General Harri- 
son. When next the Grand Committee canvassed for Vice President, 
Maine or New Hampshire led off with nominating John Tyler. Massa- 
chusetts, where the opposition to Mr. Clay was greatest, nominated 
Benjamin Watkins Leigh, who was the Committeeman from the Vir- 
ginia delegation. Mr. Leigh rose and declined the nomination and 
asked the Massachusetts Committee to go back and get their delega- 
tion to release them. But says Mr. Leigh the request was not at 
all necessary: "For the several Committees from the other delegations, 
that from Virginia alone excepted, acting under instructions given 
'before I had said a word, and therefore uninfluenced by my declining 
the nomination, announced in order as they were called the votes of 
their respective delegations. Not another vote was given to Me (Mr. 
Leigh's Capitals). A majority of the whole number of votes and a 
large majority was given for the nomination of Mr. Tyler." 

Mr. Leigh's narrative shows that Mr. Hoar did not know what he 
was talking about. No doubt some of the same kind of intriguery 
was attempted against Mr. Tyler that the Massachusetts delegation 
and their allies tried with so much success against Mr. Clay, Mr. 
Tyler's well known strong states rights views made him even more 
distasteful to the Northern Nationalists, and it is perhaps true that 
they tried to make Crittenden, Tallmadge, Leigh, Bell. Owen, Preston 
and other prominent Whigs their instruments for defeating Mr. Tyler. 
But these movements to Mr. Tyler's injury were mere whisperings in 
dark corners, as evidenced by the admission of one of the conspirators, 
who says that they had to give up William C. Preston "since not a 
single Southern delegate approved the suggestion of his nomination." 

In the single instance of Mr. Leigh was there any open manifesta- 
tion of this opposition, and this was conflned as above narrated to the 
vote of a single delegation in the Grand Committee. 

Mr. Leigh, who represented Virginia on the Grand Committee,* 
did not vote from motives of delicacy, but he states that even before 
the voting was had he was satisfied from informal conversation with 
members, that Mr. Tyler was the favorite, and he represents Gover- 
nor Owen, who was chairman of the Grand Committee, as saying that 



*He was the sole committeeman. 



2L6 Tyler's Quarterly IVIagazine 

Tyler's nomination would be "judicious" for various reasons which 
he gives. 

Mr. Leigh was a man of great ability and would have made a fine 
Vice President, or fine President; but the simple fact is that in refus- 
ing to obey instructions from the State Legislature in 1836, he was 
unpopular in 1839, and as he himself says no one of the Virginia dele- 
gates ever suggested his nomination. On the other hand, John Tyler 
had already been voted for by most of the Southern States for Vice 
President, at the election before this, and as the martyr of instruc- 
tions yielding up his seat as Senator in 1836, and as of much longer 
National Service than Mr. Leigh, he was the most widely known South- 
ern Whig and the most influential, and so continued till as President 
he came into collision with Mr. Clay. This rupture was brought about 
by Clay's reviving in Congress the old National Republican measures 
of Bank Tariff and internal improvements, which the Whigs as 
shown by Dr. A. C. Cole, of the University of Illinois, in his recent 
prize essay on the "Whig Party in the South," had expressly dis- 
claimed in the canvass of 1840. 

L^on G. Tyler. 



MILITIA OFFICERS COMMISSIONED FOR AMHERST 

CO., VA. 

Communicated by Wm. M. Sweeney, Astoria, Long Island. 

Court held June 5, 1769. 
James Nevil, Colonel 
Geo. Stoval Jr., Esq., Lieut. Colonel 
James Higginbotham, Esq., Major. Order Book, p. 498. 

Court held July 3, 1769. 
John Higginbotham, Captain 
Gabriel Penn, Lieutenant 
George Penn, Ensign. Order Book, p. 503, 

Court held August 7, 1769. 
Aaron Higginbotham, Captain 
Charles Tuley, Captain 
Nathaniel Davis, Lieutenant 
Samuel Higginbotham, Lieutenant Order Book, p. 519. 



Militia Officers Commissioned for Amherst Co. 217 

The following is the form that was used in entering all these 
commissions as entered on the Order Book: 

*'At a Court held for Amherst County at the Courthouse the 
seventh day of August 1769, and in the ninth Year of the Keign 
of our Sovereign Lord George the third now King of Great Bri- 
tain &c 

Before his Majesty's Justices, to-wit 

James Nevil James Dillard „ ,. 

Gentlemen 
John Eose Henry Eose 

Aaron Higginbotham produced his Commission to "be a Captain, 
Charles Tuley produced his commission to be a Captain, and 
Nathaniel Davis and Samuel Higginbotham produced their Com- 
missions to be Lieutenants of the Militia of this County who sev- 
erally took the usual Oaths to his Majesty's person & Government, 
and the abjuration Oath, & Eepeated & subscribed the abjuration 
Oath & Test. 

Order Book, 1766-69, p. 519. 

June 27, 1745. 
William Cabell 
Joseph Thompson 
Charles Lynch ) Gent" 

Thomas Ballow 
David Lewis 

Commissioned Captains of Militia. 
July 25, 1745. 
James Daniel ^ 
James Nevels > Gent" 
James Martin ) 

Albemarle County, (Va.) Order Book, 1744-1748. 
Commissioned Captains of Militia. 



218 Tyler's Quarteely Magazine 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. NOTES. 

Washington and Lee: "A study of the names of the men 
comprising our expeditionary forces in France shows that there 
were seventy-nine Eobert E. Lees, seventy-four George Wash- 
ingtons, seven Grants and two Lincolns. Note the standing of 
the two great Virginians." — Cazenove G. Lee, Jr., Washington, 
D. C, in Neiv York Evening Post, August 4, 1921. 

A Lesson in Politics. — After Bacon's Rebellion the Royal 
Legislature, assembled in 1677, imposed a fine of 400 pds of to- 
bacco on any person who by the employment of such terms as 
"rebells," "traitors," &c., should delay the restoration of the Colony 
to its "former condition of peace and love." After the 
American Revolution the Virginia Legislature made haste to repeal 
all the laws banishing the Tories, and Benjamin Harrison, the Gov- 
ernor, directed all prosecutions against persons charged with un- 
friendliness to the State to cease, as the best means of healing the 
sores of the war. The Northern Congress had little of this liberal- 
ity after the war for Southern Independence. 

How the Northern speakers and writers did love the term 
"rebel." It was "rebel" this and "rebel" that, and neither cir- 
cumstance nor place — neither delicacy nor generosity — could in- 
duce them to forego its use for long years after the war. It was 
resented by Southern men not only as historically untrue, but 
as an insult. In this jnatter the Northern people wore the cast off 
shoes of the British, who applied the term during the American 
Revolution to Washington and to Americans generally. Alexander 
Graydon, of Pennsylvania, in his Memoirs, p. 227, says that the 
term was "extremely offensive to his ear, however appropriate it 
might be" (in the particular case of the Americans in 1776). 
He writes: "In the English language it is too much interwoven 
with the idea of a state of criminality to be other than highly 
opprobrious." 

Mrs. Jane Vobe. — Among the residents of Williamsburg well 
known in her day was Mrs. Jane Vobe. She kept an ordinary in 
Williamsburg which was much frequented from 1752 to 1784. 



Historical and Genealogical N'otes 219 

In Governor Benjamin Harrison's Letter Booh, p, 287, she ap- 
pears as the claimant against the State, in the latter year. 

The Players. — A Mr. Rj^on asked permission in 1784 of Gov- 
ernor Benjamin Harrison to introduce into the State a Company of 
Comu^edians. The Governor very willingly gave his consent, de- 
claring his opinion that "a well chosen & well acted play is amongst 
the first of moral lessons and tends greatly to inculcate & fix in 
the mind the most virtuous principles." Executive Letter Booh, 
p. 286. 

Notes from the Virginia Gazette for 1780: (1) Wil- 
liam Cole and John Cole advertise for sale the Estate of Capt 
James Cole, of Goochland Co. (2) Martin Key and John Ware, 
as commissioners for the State, advertise for sale the escheated 
estate of Walter King. (3) Walker Maury's School in Orange Co. 
(4) Notice of fees, by "the practitioners of Physic and surgery*' in 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County: Charles Mortimer, 
John Julian, George French, Robert Wellford. (5) Extraordinary 
meteor seen in Williamsburg after sunset 31 October, 1779. (6) 
A large collection of books, consisting of history, law, novels &c., 
belonging to the Estate of John Semple attorney at law to be sold 
at King William C. H,, July 20, 1780. Catalogue at printing of- 
fice or at Mrs. Semple in King & Queen Co. 

Mill Creek. — This creek in Elizabeth City County seems to 
get its name from a tidal mill established upon it at a very early 
date. There was a grant made to Major Richard Moryson on June 
5, 1645, for 160 acres commonly called "Downs' Field" on the 
Strawberry Bank. The tract began at the 'Tliook out Tree" by 
"Pine (Point) Comfort Creek" (Mill Creek) side "near the round 
mill." {William and Mary Quarterly, IX., pp. 90.) 

Capt. Thomas Claiborne. — The wife of Capt. Thomas Clai- 
borne, son of Col. William Claiborne, the Secretary of State, was 
Sarah Fenn, of Middle Plantation, daughter of Samuel Fenn. 
{Hid., Ill, p. 77.) 

After the death of Capt. Thomas Claiborne, in 1701, his widov,-, 
Sarah, married Capt. Thomas Bray, of New Kent. She survived 
him, and later established a scholarship in William and Mary 
College. She died October 18, 1716. {Ihid., XIII, p. 266.) 



220 Tyleb''s Quaetekly Magazine 

Yerby-Stonham or Stonum.— In 1822 two brothers, Wm, and 
Henry Yerby, came to Ark. from Va. and bought land in Phillips 
County. A little later their brother-in-law, Stonum, came. 

Henry Yerby mar. a Miss Dickson. 

William Yerby mar. Delia Nutt. Anne Waddy, half sister to the 
Yerbys, mar. Ed Scanlin or Scantlin. I desire information regarding 
the Yerbys and Stonum. Address Mrs. David Wall, Lee Co., Marl- 
anna, Ark. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Bulletin, No. 1, Fauquier Historical Society, published August, 1921. 
Old Dominion Press, Inc., Printers, Richmond, Va. 
We hail this pamphlet with great satisfaction as the initial num- 
ber of what promises to be a decided contribution to the literary acti- 
vities of the State. The table of contents shows a fine selection ol 
interesting articles. The first of these is very properly an account 
of the aborigines of the county, first published in this magazine for 
July, 1920. Then follows an account by H. C. Groome, of the Northern 
Neck, of which Fauquier was a part. This is decidedly the fullest and 
most satisfactory history of the Northern Neck which has appeared. 
The remaining papers are scarcely inferior in interest: "18th Century 
Maps"; "Prices to be charged by Keepers or Ordinaries, 1760"; "Plan 
of Warrenton"; "Robert Eden Scott"; "Marriage Bonds"; "North 
Wales"; "Six Weeks in Fauquier." The Bulletin contains 108 pages 
and its mechanical execution is faultless. 

Ole Marster and Other Verses. By Benjamin B. Valentine, Richmond. 
Va. Whittet & Shepperson, Printers. 1921. 
Probably no other writer — certainly no other poet — has so 
aptly caught the spirit of the old Plantation Negro as Benjamin B. 
Valentine, whose labors "will always live in a world which he has 
himself left." The "Foreword," written by Mary Newton Stanard, is 
a just commentary upon both the author and the book. Mr. Valentine 
would himself have been an ideal "Ole Marster," who regarded his 
negroes as something far more than slaves, something more than ser- 
vants, but as friends whom he loved, dependent members of his family 
whom he cherished, and for whom he was ready to perish rather than 
evil should befall. His negro dialect is undoubtedly excellent, and 
his different poems illustrate admirably the quaint way in which the 
negro viewed things happening about him. So, besides the humor and 



Ix ]\[emobiam 221 

the quaintness, they afford a philosophy of life which is unique and 
suggestive of a condition that may have had its objections and abusea, 
but was relieved by a happiness and cheer that has never been sur- 
passed. That was slavery as it existed in old Virginia. 



IN MEMORIAM. 
ANNIE TUCKER TYLER. 

Died, in the sixty-seventh year of her age, at St. Luke's Hospital, 
Richmond, Va., on Wednesday, November 2, 1921, at 10 o'clock A. M., 
after an illness of several months, ANNIE TUCKER TYLER, wife of 
Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, and daughter of the late Colonel St. George Tucker, 
of the Confederate Army, poet and novelist, and of Elizabeth Gilmer, 
daughter of T'homas Walker Gilmer, Governor of Virginia, and for 
some time Secretary of the Navy of the United States. Her father ■vras 
well known as author of "Hansford, A Tale of Bacon's Rebellion," and 
as author of the "Cross of the South," a stirring lyric, which was very 
popular in the South at the beginning of the war for Southern Inde- 
pendence. 

However, it was not the lineage from which she sprang that en- 
nobled this much-lamented lady, but her own character. Never lived 
a person who had sweeter and more lovely traits. As wife of one who 
had charge of William anH Mary College, as president, for many years 
In its days of tri"l and struggle, she was endeared to hundreds of 
young men who attended the courses of that ancient and honorable 
institution. During that time, of how many entertainments for the 
college circle was she the guardian genius, and of how many visitors 
from all over the world was she the sweet and genial hostess. Her 
interest in the College never failed, and among other evidences of 
this is the English ivy on the main College building and the Presi- 
dent's house, developed from scions transplanted by her from the ivy 
in the Jamestown churchj'ard. 

Mrs. Tyler was formerly president of the Williamsburg Chapter 
of the Daughters of the Confederacy, and was at the time of her death 
a member of the Governing Board of the Colonial Dames of the State 
of Virginia, a member of the A. P. V. A., and other useful and patriotic 
organizations. To her was principally due the erection of the monu- 
ment to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederacy, which stands to- 
day on the Palace Green in Williamsburg. 



222 Tyler''s Quaeteely Magazine 

During her long Illness her room at St. Luke's Hospital was a 
flower-garden, made so by the devotion of her friends. She loved 
flowers as the emblems of immortality, and with the certainty of 
death before her she said, "I am seeing the flowers on my grave 
before I die." 

Attacked by disease when she never appeared so well or bo happy, 
she confronted the inevitable with a calmness that was simply mar- 
velous to those who iove life, and she had every reason to be as one 
of these; for, beloved by her husband, children and friends, and sur- 
rounded by many of the good things of earth, it seemed especially hard 
for her to leave them. But she looked death nobly and bravely in 
the face and never questioned or complained. Was it her faith in a 
future life that sustained her? As she drew nearer to the end she 
was weak and passed most of the time in a semi-unconscious condition, 
but in the dead hour of the night, shortly before her death, while her 
husband was watching by her side, she cried in a strong, clear voice, 
"Oh, Jesus, take me to Thy arms. Oh, God, care for Thy child!" It 
was touching to observe how, almost to the very last day, when any 
of her dear friends entered the room, she would rouse from her 
comatose state and greet them by name and with a warmth of her old 
cordiality. Her sufferings were intense, but they were greatly re- 
lieved by the sympathy of her visiting friends, and the tender care 
of her physicians and nurses. At last, after an interval of peace, she 
passed into eternal rest with just a sigh. 

The esteem in v^^hich she was held was attested by numerous let- 
ters of sympathy after her decease, received from members of Con- 
gress, former Governors, judges of courts and others in public promi- 
nence; from the president and faculty, students and alumni of William 
and Mary College, and from many of her numerous acquaintances. 

Her remains were taken from St. Luke's Hospital to the home of 
Charles G. Bosher, 422 East Franklin Street, where her face, freed 
from its suffering and care and seeming among the roses that sur- 
rounded It like that of some beautiful queen, was viewed by many 
friends. 

The final services took place on Thursday, at 4 o'clock P. M., at 
Holy Trinity Church, under the ministration of Rev. J. J. Gravatt, 
assisted by Rev. E. R. Jones, rector of Bruton Church, Williamsburg, 
which she had attended so many years during her stay in that city. 
The floral offerings were beautiful and even magnificent. She was 
interred in the T^yler section in Hollywood the same afternoon. 

L. 



PAGEANT NUMBER 

Virginia Histokical Pageant, May 22 to May 28, 1922 
Richmond, Virginia 



Vol. III. No. 4. 



APRIL, 1922. 



onb 




f% 



#emalostcal iHasa^tne 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office in Richmond, Va., according 
to act of Congress. 



Zvltfi ©uarterlp ^isitorical anb 
(Senealosical jWasajine 

Vol. III. APRIL, 1922. No. 4. 

NOTICE 



Annual subscription, $4.00. Single numbers, $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary Quarterly, of which I was 
proprietor, have become very scarce, single copies, as far as had, may be ob- 
tained from me at $2.00 apiece. 

^ LYON G. TYLER, Editor 
711 Travelers Building, . _ . Richmond, Va. 



CONTENTS 



Poem, "Jamestown on the James" 226 

Virginia First 227 

The Virginia Dynasty 238 

Leadership of Virginia 246 

General Warrants 252 

Recordation of Deeds and Wills 253 

The Ashbnrton Treaty, 1842 ' . . 255 

Old Times in Virginia 257 

"A Trewe Relacyon"— Virginia from 1609 to 1612 250 

Sydnor Family and Its Connections 282 

Norton Correspondence 28 < 

ni.<5torical and Gf^nealoaicnl Xotes 208 



PAGEANT NUMBER 

ViBGiNiA Historical Pageant, May 22 to Mat 28, 1922 
Richmond, Virginia 



Vol. III. No. 4. 



APRIL, 1922. 



Spier's! dSuarterlp historical 

anb 




(Genealogical JHaga^ine 



Editor: LYON G. T\XER, M. A., LL. D. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office in Richmond, Va., according 

to act of Con?;res3. 



Virginia First 



Dr. Lyon G. Tyler 




The Ships that Brought the Founders 

of the Nation 

Jamestown, 1607 



PublisJied by 
The Colonial Dames of -America 

in the 
State of Virgia'ia 



First Edition, October, 1921 

Second Edition (revised), November, 1921, 

(Reprint) 



James^tottin on tlje James^ 



First honors due to Jamestown — Old Jamestown on the James, 
Where our Fathers came a-saiUng — a-saihng from the Thames, 
In a Trinity of good ships — of Destiny in deed, 
Sarah Constant as the flag ship, the Discovery and Goodspeed. 

The birth-place of Virginia — The Mother Colony, 

The birth-place of our Freedom, Independence, Sovereignty; 

The birth-place of Democracy by Legislative claims. 

The birth-place of the Nation — is Jamestown on the James. 

They reached there May the thirteenth in the year of sixteen seven, 
Thus priority of settlement to the famous spot is given. 
Next day they made their landing on Jamestown's sacred sod, 
Wlien Robert Hunt with pious words made thankful prayer to God. 

The Thames and Jame^ — Their waters — are one within the Sea, 
Their Shores are one by Kindred-tie, and will forever be; 
The English-tongue, our common tongue, weighed anchor in the Thames; 
The English-tongue, our common tongue, drop'd anchor in the James. 

Then let us sing of Jamestown — of Jamestown on the James, 
Where our Fathers came a-sailing — a-sailing from the Thames; 
The birth-place of the Nation that sweeps from sea to sea. 
The birth-place of Democracy — the People's Sovereignty. 

Sterling Boisseau, Richmond, Va. 



VIRGINIA FIRST. 

I. 

The name First given to the territoiy occupied by the present 
United States was Virginia. It was bestowed upon the Country 
by Elizabeth, greatest of English queens. The United States of 
America are mere words of description. They are not a name. 
The rightful and historic name of this great Republic is "Vir- 
ginia." We must get back to it, if the Country's name is to have 
any real significance. 

II. 

Virginia was the First colony of Great Britain, and her suc- 
cessful settlement furnished the inspiration to English coloniza- 
tion everywhere. For it was the wise Lord Bacon who said that, 
"As in the arts and sciences the first invention is of more con- 
sequence than all the improvements afterwards, so in kingdoms 
or plantations, the first foundation or plantation is of more dignity 
than all that followeth." 

III. 

On May 13, 1607, the pioneers brought over by the Sarah Con- 
stant, the Good Speed, and the Discovery arrived at Jamestown 
on James River, and Founded the Republic of the United States 
based on English conceptions of Justice and Liberty. The story 
of this little settlement is the story of a great nation expanding 
from small beginnings into one of more than 100,000,000 people, 
inhabiting a land reaching finally from ocean to ocean and abound- 
ing in riches and power, till when the liberties of all mankind 
were endangered the descendants of the old Jamestown settlers 
did in their turn cross the ocean and help to save the land from 
which their fathers came. 

IV. 

Before any other English settlement was made on this conti- 
nent, democracy was bom at Jamestown by the establishment of 



228 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine 

England's free institutions — Jury trial, courts for the adminis- 
tration of justice, popular elections in which all the "inhabitants" 
took part, and a representative Assembly which met at Jamestown, 
July 30, 1619, and digested the first laws for the new common- 
wealth. 

V. 

There at Jamestown and on James Biver was the cradle of the 
Union — The first church, the first blockhouse, the first wharf, 
the first glass factory, the first windmill, the first iron works, the 
first silk worms reared, the first wheat and tobacco raised, the 
first peaches grown, the first brick house, the first State house, 
and the first free school (that of Benjamin Syms, 1635). 

VI. 

In Virginia was the First assertion on this continent of the 
indissoluble connection of representation and taxation. 

In 1634 a law was passed inhibiting the governors from laying 
any taxes on the people without the consent of the General Assem- 
bly, and this law was re-enacted several times afterwards. In 1635 
when Sir John Harvey refused to send to England a petition 
against the King's proposed monopoly of tobacco, which would 
have imposed an arbitrary tax, the people deposed him from the 
government and sent him back to England, an act without pre- 
cedent in America. In 1652 when the people feared that Parlia- 
ment would deprive them of that liberty they had enjoyed under 
King Charles T, they resisted, and would only submit when the 
Parliamentary Commissioners signed a writing guaranteeing to 
them all the rights of a self-governing dominion. And when after 
the restoration of King Charles II, the country was outraged by 
extensive grants of laud to certain court favorites, the agents of 
Virginia, in an effort to obtain a charter to avoid these grants, 
made the finest argument in 1674 for the right of self-taxation to 
be found in the annals of the 17th century. Claiborne's Rebellion 
and Bacon's Rebellion prove that Virginia was always a Land of 
liiberty. 



Virginia First 229 

During the 18th century the royal governors often reproached 
tlie people for their "Republican Spirit," until on May 29, 1765. 
the reproach received a dramatic interpretation by Patrick Henry, 
arousing a whole continent to resistance against the Stamp Act. 

VII. 

Virginia Founded Xew England. In 1613 a Virginia Gover- 
nor, Sir Thomas Gates, drove the French away from Maine and 
Xova Scotia and saved to English colonization the shores of Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers were in- 
spired to go to Xorth America by the successful settlement at 
Jamestown. They sailed under a patent given them by the Vir- 
ginia Company of London^ and it was only the accident of a storm 
that caused them to settle outside of the limits of the territory of 
the London Company, though still in Virginia. The Mayflower 
compact, under which the 41 emigrants united themselves at Cape 
Cod followed pretty nearly the terms of the original Virginia 
Company's patent. 

In 1622 the people at Plymoutli were saved from starvation 
by the opportune arrival of two ships from Jamestown, which 
divided their provisions with them. Without this help the Ply- 
mouth settlement would have been abandoned. 

The 41 Pilgrim Fathers established an aristocracy or oligarchy 
at Plymouth, for they constituted an exclusive body and only cau- 
tiously admitted any newcomers to partnership with them in auth- 
ority. As time went on, the great body of the people had nothing 
to say as to taxes or government. 

Citizenship at Plymouth and in all New England was a matter 
of special selection in the case of each individual. The terms of 
the magistrates were made permanent by a law affording them 
"precedency of all others in nomination on tlie election day." 
The towns of Xew England were little oligarchies, not democracies. 
It was different in Virginia. There the House of Burgesses, which 
was the great controlling body, rested for more than a hundred 
years upon what was practically universal suffrage (1619-1736), 
and even after 1736 many more people voted in Virginia than in 



230 Tyler's Quartebly Magazine 

Massachusetts. There was a splendid and spectacular body of aris- 
tocrats in Virginia, but they had nothing like the power and pres- 
tige of the 'New England preachers and magistrates. 

"By no stretch of the imagination," says Dr. Charles M. An- 
drews, Professor of History in Yale University, "can the political 
condition in any of the New England Colonies be called popular or 
democratic. Government was in the hands of a very few men." 

VIII. 

Virginia led in all the measures that established the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Beginning with the French and 
Indian War, out of which sprang the taxation measures tliat sub- 
sequently provoked the American Kavolution, Virginia under Wash- 
ington, struck the first blow against the French, and Virginian 
blood was the first American blood to flow in that war. Then, 
when, after the war, the British Parliament proposed to tax 
America by the Stamp Act, it was the Colony of Virginia that 
rang "the alarm bell" and rallied all the other colonies against the 
measure by the celebrated resolutions of Patrick Henry, May 29, 
1765, which brought about its repeal. 

Later when the British Parliament revived its policy of taxa- 
tion in 1767 by the Eevenue Act, though circumstances made 
the occasion for the first movements elsewhere, it was always Vir- 
ginia that by some resolute and determined action of leadership 
solved the crisis that arose. 

There were four of these crises: 

(1) The first occurred when Massachusetts, by her protest, 
in 1768, against the Revenue Act, stirred up Parliament to de- 
mand that her patriot leaders be sent to England for trial. Mas- 
sachusetts was left quite alone and she remained quiescent. Vir- 
ginia stepped to the front and by her ringing resolutions of May 
16, 1769, aroused the whole continent to resistance, which forced 
Parliament to compromise, leave the Massachusetts men alone, and 
repeal all the taxes except a small one on tea. After the Assembly, 
"The Brave Virginians" was the common toast throughout New 
England. 



Virginia First 231 

(2) The next crisis occurred in 1772. In that year the occa- 
sion for action occurred in the smallest of the colonies, Rhode 
Island, by an attack of some unauthorized persons on the sloop 
Gaspee, which was engaged in suppressing smuggling. The King 
imitated Pariiament by trying to renew the policy of transporting 
Americans to England for trial, but Virginia caused the King 
and his Counsellors to desist from their purpose by her system 
of inter-colonial committees, which brought about a real conti- 
nental union of the colonies for the first time. 

(3) The third crisis occurred in 1774, after a mob of dis- 
guised persons threw the tea overboard in Boston harbor. Though 
Boston did not authorize this proceeding, Parliament held her 
responsible and shut up her port. Virginia thought this unjust, 
and was the first colony to declare her sympathy with Boston, and 
the first, in any representative character for an entire colony, to 
call for a Congress of all the colonies. 

And to that Congress which met September 5, 1774, she fur- 
nished the first president, Peyton Ilandolph, and the greatest ora- 
tors, Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee. 

The remedy proposed by this Congress was a plan of non- 
intercourse already adopted in Virginia, to be enforced by com- 
mittees appointed in every county, city and town in America. 

(4) The fourth crisis began in 1775 with the laws passed by 
the British Parliament to cut off the trade of the colonies, in- 
tended as retaliatory to the American non-intercourse. This led to 
hostilities, and for a year, during which time the war was waged 
in New England, the colonists held the attitude of confessed rebels, 
fighting their sovereign and yet professing allegiance to him. When 
the war was transferred to the South with the burning of Nor- 
folk and the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, this attitude became 
intolerable to the Southerners, and they sought for a solution of 
the difficulty in Independence. 

While Boston was professing through her town meeting her 
willingness "to wait, most patiently to wait" for Congress to act, 
and the Assembly of the Province deferred action till the towns 
were heard from, it was North Carolina, largely settled by Vir- 
ginians, that on April 12, 1776, instructed her delegates in Con- 



232 Tyler's Quaeteely Magazine 

gress to concur with the delegates from the other Colonies in de- 
claring independence, and it was Virginia that on May 15^ 1776, 
commanded her delegates to propose independence. The first ex- 
plicit and direct instructions for independence anywhere in the 
United States were given by Cumberland County, in Virginia, 
April 23, 1776. Unlike the tumultuary, unauthorised, and acci- 
dental nature of the leading revolutionary incidents in New Eng- 
land, such as the Boston Tea Party and the Battle of Lexington, 
the proceedings in Virginia were always the authoritative and 
official acts of the Colony. 

All the world should know that it was Richard Henry Lee, a 
Virginian, who drew the resolutions for independence adopted by 
Congress July 2, 1776, and that it was Thomas Jefferson, a Vir- 
ginian, who wrote "the Declaration of Independence" adopted July 
4, 1776, a paper styled by a well known New England writer as 
'"the most commanding and most pathetic utterance in any age, in 
any language, of national grievances and national purposes." 

IX. 

During the war that ensued Virginia contributed to the war 
what all must allow was the soul of the war — the immortal George 
Washington, whose immense moral personality accomplished more 
in bringing success than all the money employed and all the annies 
placed in the field ; and the war had its ending at Yorktown, only 
a few miles from the original settlement at Jamestown. The 
Father of this great Kepublic was a Virginian. 

X. 

Virginia led in the work of organizing the Government of the 
United States. She called the Annapolis Convention in 1786, 
and furnished to the Federal Convention at Philadelphia which 
met, as the result of this action, its chief constructor — James 
Madison — who has been aptly described as Father of the Con- 
stitution. She furnished the two greatest rival interpreters of its 
powers, Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall, and gave the Union 
its first President, George Washington. 



Virginia Fiest 233 

XI. 

Virginia, through her explorers, generals and presidents, made 
the Union a continental power. 

It was Patrick Henry and George Rogers Clark who effected 
the conquest of the Xorthwest Territory, which eventually added 
five great States to the Union. Meriwether Lewis and William 
Clark made the first thorough exploration of the West. And Lou- 
isiana, Florida and Texas were added to the Union by Virginia 
Presidents — Jefferson, ifonroe^ and Tyler. Nor can it be for- 
gotten that all the far West was the result of the annexation of 
Texas by Tyler, indirectly leading to the Mexican War, whose 
success was assured by two Virginia generals — Zachar}- Taylor 
and Winfield Scott. 

Had the Xew England influences, which were opposed to the 
Annexation policy, dominated, the United States to-day, if it 
existed at all, would be confined to a narrow strip along the At- 
lantic shore. 

XII. 

A Virginia President, James Monroe, gave to the world over 
his name the Monroe Doctrine, which has regulated, to the present 
day, the relations of America to the nations of Europe and the re«t 
of mankind. "America for Americans," he said in substance. 

XITI. 

Virginians created those ideals for which the Eepublic of the 
United States stands to-da}' — democracy, religious freedom, and 
education. 

Democracy: Not only did Virginia have the first legislative 
Assembly, which rested for more than a hundred years on universal 
suffrage, she was the headquarters, after the American Revolution, 
of the great Democratic-Republican party, under the leadership of 
Thomas Jefferson. This party was the champion of the popular 
idea against the aristocratic notions of the Federalists, who had 
their headquarters in New England. By completely destroying the 



234 Tyler's Quartekly Magazine 

Federalist party Virginia sowed the seeds of democracy through- 
out the United States, and the world. All political parties in the 
United States since that time have the same creed as to the equality 
of the citizen. Thomas Jefferson is incomparably the greatest 
living influence in America. He is, in fact, the Founder of Ameri- 
canism, as we understand it. 

Through an act, of which the same great man was the autlior, 
Virginia was the first State in the world to impose a penalty for 
engaging in the slave trade (1778), and in the Federal Convention 
in 1787 her delegates bitterly opposed the provision in the Consti- 
tution supported by the Puritan delegates from New England, per- 
mitting the slave trade for twenty years. New England men were 
great shippers of slaves. 

Beligious Freedom: After the same manner Virginia sowed 
the seeds of religious freedom. All New England, except Rhode 
Island, in Colonial days, was principled against religious liberty. 
Even after the American Revolution the preachers and a group of 
laymen in eacli community grasped all power and the people were 
forced into submission. In 1793 only one in twenty of the people 
in Connecticut exercised the right of suifrage. Even in Rhode 
Island there were, till a late date, laws against Roman Catholics 
voting or holding office, and it took Dorr's Rebellion in 1848 to 
break up the restrictions on the ballot handed down from Colonial 
days. 

The persecuting spirit was not absent in Virginia, but it was 
never so severe or relentless as in New England. And for many 
years before the American Revolution there were no religious quali- 
fications for voting. 

The Declaration of Rights of Virginia, drawn by George Mason 
in 1776, and imitated by all the other States, placed the principle 
of religious freedom, for tlie first time, upon a truly philosophic 
basis. Virginia was then the First State in the world to proclaim 
absolute equality and freedom of religion to the people of all faiths 
— Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, etc. The principle enunciated 
by Mason was enacted into law by Thomas Jefferson, whose bill for 
Religious Freedom in 1785 invested conscience with the wings of 
heaven. 



ViEGINIA FlEST 235 

Education: Finally, it was a Virginian, Thomas JefEerson, that 
furnished the ideals of popular education. The system of schools 
as they existed in Massachusetts in Colonial days did not remotely 
resemble the present ideal. As a system they were under no central 
authority, were not free to the scholar who had to pay for tuition, 
and were primarily directed to the maintenance and upholding of 
the Congregational Church. None but members of that Church 
could be teachers in Massachusetts. In practice, the towns neg- 
lected their responsibilities "shamelessly," and a large percentage 
of the people could neither read nor write. 

Virginia did not go far in her educational system, but in her 
ancient laws for educating poor children, and establishing and 
financing William and Mary College, the colony clearly recognized 
education as a public function. As to the general supply of edu- 
cation, however, the Colony had by far the best libraries and teach- 
ers, and, according to Mr. Jefferson, the mass of education, accom- 
plished through tutors and private schools, "placed her among the 
foremost of her sister States," at the time of the Eevolution. But 
it was the great bill of Thomas Jefferson in 1779, correlating the 
different gradations of schools — beginning with the primary schools 
and ending with the University, that furnished the real ideal on 
which the public school system of the United States rests to-day. 

XIV. 

Before 1861 the Union consisted practically of two nations 
separated by Mason and Dixon's line, differing in habits of thought, 
customs, and largely in institutions. It was only the pressure of 
British taxation that brought these two nations together, and im- 
mediately after the peace in 1783 the separative forces began to 
exert themselves. They were first sharply manifested in New 
England, where plans of secession were discussed as early as 1800. 
So far did this spirit proceed that in 1812-1814 the New England 
States professed the extreme doctrine of States rights, and did all 
they could to paralyze the arm of the Federal Government during 
the course of a war with the greatest power in Europe. As late as 
1844 the Massachusetts Legislature, after declaring that "uniting 



236 Tyleb^s Quarterly Magazine 

an independent foreign state" (like Texas) "with the United States 
was not among the powers delegated to the General Government," 
stated its resolve to be "to submit to undelegated powers in no body 
of men on earth," and in 1845 it announced the doctrine of nullifi- 
cation by declaring that the admission of Texas "would have no 
binding force whatever on the people of Massachusetts." 

But by this time the great increase in the wealth and popula- 
tion of the North, chiefly due to the foreign immigration, caused 
New England to abandon the separative policy and substitute tliat 
of nationality to be preserved by force. The South now being the 
weaker section was compelled into the opposite policy, and finally, 
obeying the dictates of its economic and social forces, seceded from 
the Union and organized a separate government. 

Virginia, who had a sentimental attachment to the Union, at- 
tempted to preserve it by the Peace Conference, but finding that 
impossible, and placed in a dilemma of fighting the northern 
Union or fighting the Southern Confederacy, she allied herself with 
the latter, of which she was really an integral part. In the light 
of the doctrine of self determination, now so generally admitted, 
it appears one of the most astonishing things in history that eight 
millions of people, occupying a territory half the size of Europe, 
with a thoroughly organized government, and capable of fighting 
one of the greatest wars on record, were not permitted to set up for 
themselves. 

By the results of the war, one of the two nations of the old 
Union was wiped out and incorporated into the other. But Vir- 
ginia was the capital of the Southern Confederacy and the battle- 
field of the war, and the veterans of Virginia and the South have 
lived to see the principle of self government and self determination 
for wliich they fought accepted by the world at large. 

In the war for Southern Independence, as in the American 
devolution, Virginia furnished the Ideal Man. In one war it was 
George Washington, and in the other it was Robert E. Lee. Both 
these great men were distinguished by the union of a handsome 
person witli a supremely majestic soul, brave, refined, dignified and 
clean. They were, indeed, kingly men. 



ViKGizs'iA First 237 

XV. 

The contributions of Virginia to science should not be passed 
by in this summary of her priorities. Among the creators of an 
epoch t}ie following may be mentioned particularly. James Eumsey 
first demonstrated in her waters in 1786 the possibilities of steam 
as applied to a river boat. Cyrus Hall McCormick revolutionized 
agriculture throughout the world by his invention of the reapei'. 
Matthew Fontaine Maury about the same time did the same thing 
for ocean navigation. He furnished the plans for the laying of tlie 
Atlantic Cable, and was the father of the modern science of tor- 
pedo and mine laying. In recent days Walter Eeed, of Gloucester 
County, was foremost in discovering the cause of yellow fever and 
rendering that dread disease innocuous. 

During the war for Southern Independence, it was the ironclad 
Virginia (or Merrimac), constructed by two master engineers, John 
L. Porter, of Portsmouth, Va., and John Mercer Brooke, of Lex- 
ington, Va., that showed in an epoch making battle fought in 
Hampton Roads, March 8, 1862, with the Federal wooden battle- 
ships, the superiority of iron ships over wooden ones, no matter how 
gallantly manned and bravely fought. 

Then and there Virginia genius and invention Founded the 
present navies of the world. 

The Monitor, which engaged the Virginia the next day (March 
9, 1862), had no share in this glory. Xaval warfare would have 
been revolutionized if it had ne\ev showed up. The battle of the 
ninth is only interesting as it affords a test of the prowess of the 
two vessels. The Monitor was driven from the field, and ever aftei- 
avoided conflict with the Virginia, though repeatedly challenged in 
Hampton Roads to a new trial of strength. 



THE VIRGINIA DYNASTY. 

The Life of James Monroe. By George Morgao : Boston, Samuel 
Maynard & Company, Publishers. 

Mr. Morgan has written a very valuable work, which should be 
duly noticed by the public for several very good reasons. In the 
first place, it shows a great amount of scholarship, and, in the 
second place, it is an exception to the generality of books written 
by Northern men. The author himself makes a tremendous, but 
just indictment, of the writers of the North, when he says that 
in that region "no historical misjudgment is so common as the 
offhand condemnation of slave state statesmen" — "the very fact 
that they came thence being sufficient warrant to neglect them or 
minimize any merits they may be grudgingly allowed." Here are 
fairness and frankness for you, and such a man is to be admired. 

Mr. Morgan instances tlie late Henry Adams, of Massachusetts, 
whom he states is 'Tiard on Monroe" in his history, and he deftly 
repels many of Adams' ill-founded conclusions, by contrasting 
them with those of his able grandfather, John Quincy Adams, who 
appreciated Monroe and delivered a eulogy upon him. He in- 
stances Edward Everett Hale, another man from New England, 
who felicitated himself upon his ability through Henry Adams' 
"very entertaining history of the United States" to tell the whole 
truth about the "Virginia dynasty," Jefferson, Madison and Mon- 
roe. Hale describes it as a "precious example of failures, follies, 
fuss and feathers and fol-de-rol." 

Upon this Mr. Morgan remarks that "Mr. Hale is a good man 
and a patriot who made his mark, but his ante-bellum history is 
woefully distorted." 

Next he instances Theodore Roosevelt, who, in his literary 
works as in his political career, walked along with a big stick, a 
poor excuse of an historian. This strenuous gentleman of aristo- 
cratic antecedents, in his laudation of the "high-strutting, federal- 
istic and anti-Gallican Gouverneur Morris," calls poor democratic 
Monroe "a frenzied Jacobinical republican," capering like an In- 
dian before the French court. 



The Virginia Dynasty 239 

This is the way it has always been. With the exception of a 
few noble and generous spirits like George Bancroft, John Fiske, 
Gamaliel Bradford, Charles M. Andrews, and now George Morgan, 
the South has received very little mercy at the hands of Northern 
writers, who, because they have the money and through it the ear 
of the world, seem to feel that any statement in regard to South- 
ern men must be either derogatory or positively malicious. Nearly 
all history in the North has been written by persons with politics, 
most out of sympathy with the South. 

We have seen this spirit leach a climax, when men of standing 
in the North, in the face of all the facts in histoiy, wipe James- 
town from the map and make Plymouth in New England the first 
English colony in America and the beginning of the American 
commonwealth. This shameless distortion of the truth has one 
consoling feature, however, that it makes clear the fact, hard to 
believe, that the statements of few Northern writers or speakers 
on matters of history can be accepted without important modifica- 
tions. 

Fortunate for the men from the Southern States who, like 
John Marshall, had a measurably sympathetic connection with the 
men of these northerly climates. They indeed have had a chance 
to have their merits recognized. There is Mr. Beveridge, who has 
written of Marshall a very interesting and valuable life, but, 
with Mr. Beveridge, as with Mr. Henry Adams, Jefferson, Madi- 
son and Monroe were largely theatrical performers, full of Avild no- 
tions incompatible with the safety of the republic. 

One cannot help thinking Mr. Morgan intended his work as an 
answer in some measure to Mr. Beveridge. Without naming him 
to any great extent, he appears to show that he, like other critics 
of the "Virginia d}aiasty," is decidedly too uncharitable. 

In the days of which Mr. Morgan has written, the struggle was 
between the Demoeratic-Eepublican party and the Federalists. 
The latter were completely destroyed, and for many years after 
1816 Federalism was a word of scorn and contiunely. In more 
modern times an effort has been made to give it a good character, 
and the Federalist party is referred to as "the party of law and 
order." And so the attack has been made all along the line on the 



240 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine 

motives, ability and patriotism of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. 

Passing by, however, their minor shortcomings, which these 
modern critics love to emphasis, the great measures of the "Vir- 
ginia dynasty" give direction to the government to-day. The Union 
rests quite certainly upon the strong foundation which they built. 
And to no section of the Union have they proved greater benefac- 
tors than to that section where they have been most abused and 
carped at. 

What were these measures? (1) Mr. Morgan makes the tell- 
ing point that "the prime, tlie vital struggle" of the Virginia 
"dynasty" was in behalf of "American democratic government 
against the aristocratic rule of the few." Here is where the shoe 
most pinches. New England and the Federalists, instead of stand- 
ing for democracy, stood for the rule of the classes, and this 
"slave-holding dynasty" stood for the rights of the people. This 
seeming contradiction has an easy explanation in the fact that 
slavery of the blacks did away in public with all the old distinc- 
tions among white people. These distinctions continued in New 
England because white people there had to do the menial duties. 
In the South tiie suffrage, too, in colonial times had always rested 
upon general laws, while in New England citizenship had bdcn a 
matter of special selection in each individual case. 

(2) The next great measure for which these slave-holders stood 
was annexation of territory. Mr. Beveridge claims that Mr. Jef- 
ferson "did not want Louisiana" and cites his instructions to 
Monroe as a proof, but the evidence set forth by Mr. Morgan is 
that Jefferson and Madison, his Secretary of State, were always 
alive to the importance of Louisiana as affecting the interests of 
the Union, and that, while the instructions to Monroe contemplated 
the acquisition of only New Orleans and Florida, there is noth- 
ing in them to support the idea that Jefferson was hostile to the 
acquisition of Louisiana. On the contrary, he readily accepted 
the work of the Commissioners, of whom Monroe was one, and 
did it against the strenuous opposition of the New England men, 
who fought and continued to fight against any enlargement of the 
territory of tlie Union. They fought against the annexation of 
Florida, and later they threatened nullification against the an- 



The Virginia Dynasty 241 

nexation of Texas, and wanted neither New Mexico nor California, 
Had the policy of the Federalists been accepted, the Union would 
be to-day but a narrow strip along the Atlantic Coast. 

(3) Again the Virginia dynasty stood for European immigra- 
tion. When Mr. Jefferson came in, he found laws on the statute 
books requiring a residence of nineteen years in the country before 
an alien could become a citizen, and these people were so hated by 
the Federalists that the President had been given power to ship 
any back on his mere suspicion of unfriendliness. Mr. Jefferson 
had the law repealed, made the length of residence what it is now, 
and encouraged all he could the admission of immigrants, and no 
other act of his contributed more to the development of the coun- 
try. These people, coming by thousands, filled the waste places, es- 
pecially in the North and West and built up the vast fortunes of 
Boston and New York. No part of the country profited by them 
more than New England, where the old Puritan families exploited 
in their factories the cheap labor thus afforded, like the Southern 
planters exploited their slaves. From these immigrants came 
chiefly the armies that finally defeated the South in 1865. 

(4) Next the Virginia dynasty stood for the protection of the 
flag to every man and everything on board ship. They stood 
against impressment, and declared for the doctrine accepted to-day 
of "Free ships make free goods." Where were the Federalists on 
these matters? On impressment they made all sorts of excuses 
for the British, and Marshall and his fellow Federalist judges de- 
fended in American courts the English view of international law, 
both as to allegiance and search. 

(5) Then this "slave state dynasty" opposed the claim of ^1-at- 
shall and the Federalists for a universal common law jurvidiction 
in the Federal Courts. The recognition of this claim would have 
made every local question cognizable in the national courts, but 
the accepted doctrine now is that the powers of such courts are 
statutory only. 

(6) Marshall and the Federalists wanted to make the Federal 
Supreme Court "the arbiter" on all questions involving sovereignty, 
but here again their plan of action was defeated and has no place 
in our governmental system to-day. Wherever the final arbiter 



242 Tylek/'s Quabterly Magazine 

exists, whether in the States, a eouvention of the States, or tlie 
mass of the people, it necessarily never did, and does not now rest 
in the Supreme Court of the United States, or any other Federal 
Court. There are many questions of vital importance that can 
never get before the Federal Courts for decision. Such, for in- 
stance, has been the tariJff question, which came near bringing 
about war in 1833 and which was the final factor in bringing about 
war in 1861. After signing an order for the withdrawal of the 
troops from Fort Sumter, Lincoln was induced to send troops 
through the pressure of the high tariff governors who came to 
Washington about April 1, 1861. 

(7) Then there was the conscription bill proposed by Madi- 
son's administration in 1814:. It was bitterly denounced as con- 
trary to the constitution, state sovereignty and individual rights 
by the Federalists, including Webster, who made a disunion speech 
against it. It was by a far more dractic bill in these latter days 
that the United States, under a Democratic President, was enabled 
to muster its strength and decide the issues of the World War. 

(8) There is next the slavery question, the moral side of which 
the New Englanders have tried to monopolize, filling huge libraries 
with books of self-laudation and abuse of Southern men as "slave 
drivers," "slave barons," etc. 

As a matter of fact, the three members of the "slave state 
dynasty" were conspicuous for their opposition to slavery and the 
slave trade, greatly in contrast to the New Englanders, whose eager- 
ness for commerce made their moral vision obtuse during all the 
early history of the Union. Against the strong protests of James 
Madison, one of the dynasty, the New England delegates in the 
Convention of 1787 had voted to permit the slave trade for twenty 
years. In that interval thousands of negroes were introduced in 
the country, chiefly by New England ships, and this influx fastened 
slavery on the country. Under Jefferson in 1808 the slave trade 
was prohibited by the national Congress, and under Monroe it was 
declared piracy, and such was the zeal of the latter that he made 
a treaty with Great Britain permitting the mutual right of search 
off the coast of Africa. 

(9) Even for the Embargo and Non-Intercourse laws New 



The Virginia Dynasty 243 

England historians should have a kind word, though they never 
have. Similar measures were adopted by the country, including 
New England, before the Revolution. The Embargo and Non- 
Intercourse laws were hard on New England, but out of this policy 
and the War of 1812 grew the high tariffs on which New Eng- 
landers have luxuriated. They ought to be grateful to the "slave 
state dynasty" for diverting them from commerce to manufactur- 
ing. 

(10) The Virginia dynasty was certainly not always consistent 
in interpreting the powers of the government under the constitu- 
tion, but on the fundamental question of the relation of the states 
to the Union they undoubtedly took the states rights view in con- 
tradistinction to tlie principle of nationalism espoused by John 
Marshall and carried by Lincoln and the Republican party to lengths 
undreamed of by the great Chief Justice. The Virginia Presidents 
clearly recognized that the Union consisted practically of two really 
distinct nations, differing in occupations, institutions and ideals. 
Their union had been brought about originally by the pressure of 
British taxation and the constitution of 1787 had been only pos- 
sible through compromise. The policy recommended by the Vir- 
ginia dynasty was one of confining the government as much as pos- 
sible to foreign relations so as not to awaken the sectional jealousy 
inherent in the nature of the Union. But with extraordinary 
fatuity the Northerners pressed the principle of nationalism which 
meant, of course, sectional rule, and brought about the crises of 
1820, 1833 and 1861. 

Pushed to a conclusion at either of these earlier dates, nation- 
alism would have undoubtedly broken the Union to pieces. It came 
near doing so in 1861 when the North had increased enormously in 
power through immigration, the tariff and other measures of the 
Federal government. Even then, to conquer the South Lincoln had 
to impress the negroes of the South, making the extraordinary con- 
fession that without the 200,000 negro soldiers thus enlisted he 
would hare had to give up the war in "three weeks." 

The result of the war was to destroy the Southern nation and 
there emerged out of the bloody strife but one nation — the Northern 
nation, to whose wishes the South ever since has had to conform all 



244 Tyi^er^s Quaetebly Magazine 

its political and economic activities. But in what kind of strain 
would the eulogists of nationalism and the abusers of the Virginia 
dynasty be talking, had the Union been broken under the aggres- 
sive teachings of the nationalists? Certainly, then, it was a most 
fortunate incident that tlie states rights principle prevailed in the 
earlier days, for it made possible the compromises by which war, 
with very probable fatal results to the Union, was averted both in 
1820 and 1833, when the South was relatively much stronger than 
in 1861. 

(11) Finally that "slave state dynasty" stood for tiie Monroe 
Doctrine. Here again little appreciation is shown. The zealous 
attempt is made to divest Monroe of his true character as tne 
author and to give the credit to a Xew Englander, John Quincy 
Adams, the Secretary of State. Monroe is called a "weak Presi- 
dent" and Adams is exalted, but the truth is, all the glorv' Adams 
ever won came from separating himself from the Federalists, dis- 
owning his own section and identifying himself with this much 
reviled "Virginia dynasty." I do not mean to detract from Mr. 
Adams, who was an honor to the whole country, but he was never 
a leader of men, and his administration (1825-1829) was a con- 
spicuous failure on account of his irritable nature and ferocious 
prejudices that drove everybody from him. Subordinate to Mon- 
roe, he performed his part well, but he was not the author of the 
Monroe Doctrine. 

In a broad construction of its meaning, the Monroe Doctrine ex- 
pressed the stand of the "Virginia dynasty," which was "America 
First." In manifesting friendliness to France, neither Jefferson, 
Madison nor Monroe intended to ally themselves with the world- 
conqueror, Napoleon. What was the situation of the Federalists? 
They took sides with England, which was unfortunately allied 
with the effete monarchies of Europe, who on the downfall of Xapo- 
leon entered into a "Holy Alliance" to repress all reforms and 
"representative governments." When England declared against 
this combination, the "Virginia dynasty," instead of siding with 
France, stood by England's side, and Jefferson wrote in her favor. 

Mr. Morgan, however, seems to agree with Mr. Beveridge in 
characterizing Mr. Jefferson as unfit to deal with menacing condi- 



The Virginia Dynasty 245 

tions. Was this really a fact ? Who was more aggressive than Mr. 
Jefferson in all the period leading to the American Eevolution? 
He was abused as Governor of Virginia, but he had to deal with a 
State which had sent all its arms to the north and the south. Is 
it certain that any one could have done better? Why do Mr. 
Morgan and Mr. Beveridge, after referring to Jay's treaty as "the 
most humiliating" to the United States ever negotiated, justify the 
soldier Washington in approving it, because it postponed war, 
and condemn Mr. Jefferson for the Embargo and Non-intercourse, 
when he had the same object in view? 

Mr. Morgan, in another place in his book, remarks, "We take 
on prejudices early while in this mortal clay," and a statement of 
his, rather unnecessarily brought in, shows that he is not entirely 
free from the prejudices which he imputes to other Northern 
writers when dealing with Southern slaveholders. He refers to 
John C. Calhoun as representing "the dread idea of disunion and 
death on many a bloody battlefield." This is a very cruel statement. 
New England preached disunion long before Mr. Calhoun entered 
public life and he was dead more than ten years before any war 
ensued. The responsibility for "the bloody battlefield" lies with 
Lincoln and his party, who declared that the Union could not 
endure "half slave and half free." To the impasse thus announced 
there were only two solutions possible — secession or war. The 
South wished peaceable secession, and Lincoln would not permit it 
and insisted on war. He made "the bloody battlefield." 

When, however, all is said, we cannot be too grateful to Mr. 
Morgan for writing this book. Mr. Monroe was a man of con- 
summate tact and judgment, and Mr. Morgan's book is a splendid 
defence of one of the ablest patriots of the country against the 
miserable attempts which have been made to detract from his char- 
acter and his ability. Few men, indeed, have trod the paths of 
glory so wonderfully as James Monroe ! It almost seems as if moral 
character counted as nothing with many Nortliern historians, who 
exalt Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton into great ex- 
emplars. Monroe was a contrast to these men in tJie purity of 
his private life. It is a distinct element in his greatness which 
the historian seeking an ideal may justly appreciate. 



LEADERSHIP OF VIRGINIA. 

WTien, after the peace in 1763, George Grenville, Chancellor 
of the Exchequer of Great Britain, took up his plan of taxing 
America, he suggested a new sugar bill to be passed immediately 
and a bill for levying stamp duties in the colonies to be brought in 
a year later. The Chancellor's resolutions to this effect were agreed 
to in Committee of the House of Commons; and on March 10th, 
1764, formally accepted by the House. On April 5th a bill called 
the Sugar Act received the royal approval. Agitation in the 
colonies immediately commenced, but it is to be noted that, while 
opposition in New England developed strongly against the Sugar 
Bill, opposition in Virginia was directed chiefly against the pro- 
posed Stamp Act. 

It is a mistake, therefore, to say that the resolutions proposed 
by Samuel Adams at the Boston Town Meeting May 24th, 1764, 
were a protest against the Stamp Act. On the contrary, they 
were directed against the Sugar bill. This is the character of the 
memorial and instructions drafted by James Otis and adopted by 
the House of Representatives on June 13th. It is also the char- 
acter of the pamphlet written by him on "The Rights of the British 
Colonies," published in the early part of 1764, and of the pamph- 
let by Oxenbridge Thacher on "Sentiments of a British-Ameri- 
can," published two months later. These pamphlets had only 
local significance, and were not known outside of Massachusetts. 
It is likewise the character of the formal address of the Massachu- 
setts Provincial Assembly adopted in October, 1764. It continued 
to be the general tone of all the writings in New England until 
the early part of November, 1764, when, in a leading newspaper of 
Rhode Island, there appeared the first serious consideration of the 
proposed Stamp Act. {Literary History of the American Revolu- 
tion, by Moses Coit-Tyler, II, 61.) "From that time writings ap- 
peared in New England taking notice of the impending measure,"' 
but they were singularly free from grasping its appalling signifi- 
cance. The center of objection in New England continued to be 
the sugar tax, but this was not a measure sufficiently general in its 



Leadership in Virginia 247 

operation to unite the Colonies at tliis stage of the Revolution. 
Palfrey, the New England historian, says that "it is by no means 
improbable that, after all their remonstrances and complaints, 
they (the New Englanders) would have ended by reconciling them- 
selves to the new restrictions on commerce as they had done to the 
Writs of Assistance," and, as a matter of fact, the Sugar Bill con- 
tinued in existence after the Stamp Act had been repealed. On 
the other hand, "the Stamp Act," to quote Palfrey's language, 
"being simply the imposition of an internal tax, presented the 
question of right in a form cleared from all subtlety and qualifica- 
tions." It was chiefly the preamble of the Sugar Bill, describing 
its purpose to raise revenue that distinguished it from the Sugar 
Bill of 1733, which, as a bill to regulate trade, had been submitted 
to by all the colonies. 

Now the new Sugar Bill cut very little figure in Virginia or any 
of the Southern colonies. The New Englanders wanted molasses 
from the West Indies to make rum for African slave trade, but a 
strong sentiment against the continuance of this trade had sprung 
up in Virginia. 

The occasion of alarm in Virginia was almost entirely the 
Stamp Act, in which they showed a much greater prescience than 
the Northern brethren. This was a measure wholly unprecedented 
and came to the fireside of every man on the continent, since it 
proposed a stamp on all wills, deeds and every species of writing. 
It furnished a basis for union of colonial opposition, overriding 
all differences of institutions and climate. Now, it is in the early 
appreciation of what the Stamp Act meant to the continent that 
Virginia undoubtedly leads Massachusetts. 

On June 15, 1764, the Committee of Correspondence, meeting 
at Williamsburg, ordered a letter to be written to their agent in 
London to oppose with all his influence "the laying of any duties 
on us and particularly taxing the internal trade of the colonies 
without their consent," and on July 28th George Wythe and Rob- 
ert Carter Nicholas, who had been appointed to write the letter, 
proposed a draft which was adopted. The importance of the com- 
munication lies in the fact that it is the first earnest discussion 
of the Stamp Act in America. At the succeeding session, begin- 



248 Tyi^eb^s Quarterly Magazine 

ning with October 31st, strong resolutions against the Stamp Act 
were adopted November 14th, 1764, and on December 18th, 1764, 
three remonstrances, addressed to the King, Lords and Commons. 
Nevertheless, the Stamp Act was approved by the King on Feb- 
ruary 17th, 1765, but it was not to go into effect until November 
1, 1765. 

For a long time after its passage, the sentiments of New Eng- 
land were pacific enough. When the Massachusetts Provincial 
Assembly met in May, 1765, Otis recommended a Congress of 
the colonies to be held in October to join in "a united, dutiful, 
loyal and humble representation of their condition to his Majesty 
and Parliam.ent." New England gave unmistakable signs of sur- 
render and Hutchinson, the Chief Justice, wrote to the ministry 
that "the Stamp Act would execute itself without trouble." It is 
an old story, not necessary to be repeated here, that Virginia 
sprang to the front and saved the day through the resolutions of 
Patrick Henry, offered on May 29th, 1765. Otis pronounced them 
"treasonable," but, as Governor Bernard, of Massachusetts wrote, 
"tlie publishing of the Virginia resolutions proved an alarm bell 
to the disaffected." "Two or three months ago," he continued, "I 
thought this people would submit to the Stamp Act." 

In another respect full justice has not been done to Virginia, 
and this is in regard to her stand taken in the inception of these 
troubles as to the powers of Parliament. In 1761 the Massachu- 
setts Assembly admitted the supremacy of Parliament in these 
positive words: "We have maturely considered and beg leave to 
observe that we are far from apprehensive that an act of this Court 
can alter an act of Parliament. . . . Every act we make, repugnant 
to an act of Parliament, extending to the plantations, is ipso facto 
null and void." After the passage of the Sugar Bill in 1764, this 
doctrine was again admitted, both by the Massachusetts Assembly 
and James Otis. The latter declared that "in all possible con- 
tingencies Parliament has the right to levy internal taxes on the 
colonies." With the full knowledge of these sentiments, the town 
of Boston in May, 1765, re-elected Otis to the Assembly and that 
body re-elected Thomas Oliver as Councillor, although he had been 
appointed stamp distributor. 



Leadership in Virginia 249 

When Samuel Adams came t-o represent the spirit of New Eng- 
land, Massachusetts took a bolder stand, but it did not (until a 
much later date), go beyond denying the power of Parliament to 
tax America, after the example in each case had been set by 
Virginia. Now, in Virginia, from the start the position taken 
was not merely "no taxation without representation," but no legis- 
lation without representation. This doctrine had been asserted 
by Eichard Bland in his pamphlet, composed in 1763 and pub- 
lished about July, 1764, entitled "The Colonel Dismounted," 
and written as a reply to Reverend John Camm in the contro- 
versy over the Two-Penny Act in 1758. 

So this act passed in 1758 may be justly looked upon as the 
true prelude to the Revolutionary drama. It directly involved the 
question of local taxation and asserted this right against the King's 
authority, just as the resolutions of Patrick Henry in 1765 as- 
serted the same right against the Parliament. The agitation over 
the Two-Penny Act prevailed for years and involved tlie whole 
colony of A^irginia. It mingled with the agitation over the Revenue 
Act of 1767, excited great interest in England, and powerfully 
swelled the tide of opposition in Virginia. 

On the other hand, the affair of the writs of assistance in Massa- 
chusetts was a mere local matter and of short duration. The Su- 
preme Court decided the issue against Otis, and the people of Mas- 
sachusetts, according to Palfrey, became entirely reconciled to the 
issuance of writs. (History of New England, V. 279.) It had 
connection with the enforcement of the Sugar Act of 1733, which 
was a trade measure and not a revenue measure ; and Otis' speech in 
1761 was not known outside of Massachusetts. No copy of it has 
been preserved and the importance attributed to it later is largely 
due to John Adams, avIio many years after its delivery galvan- 
ized it into historic importance. Otis spoke merely for the rights 
of the British subject against general warrants, which were contrary 
to the spirit of Magna Carta. Whatever credit Otis desrves for 
his speech in 1761 is largely discounted by his subsequent back- 
down on the stamp act and revenue act, resistance to which he pro- 
nounced "treason." 

In the hot discussions over the lawfulness of the Two Penny Act 



250 Tyi^eb's Quarterly Magazine 

Col. Landon Carter, in 1759, and Richard Bland, in 1760, assumed 
the ground that the royal instructions forbidding any change of the 
law respecting taxation to pay the ministers could not stand in the 
way of "the salus populi," and in 1763 Patrick Henry declared 
that by disallowing the new act which had received the approval of 
his Governor (Fauquier) the King had "forfeited the allegiance of 
the people of Virginia." (William and Mary College Quarterly. 
XVIII, 149, 150.) 

Bland's pamphlet, however, "The Colonel Dismounted," written 
the latter year, contained the fullest expressions of the controversy. 

In this paper Bland denied that Parliament has any right to 
make any laws for Virginia and asserted that Virginia's code or 
law consisted of the common law, statutes of England made before 
the settlement of Jamestown and the statutes of her own General 
Assembly. He declared that any interference of England "may 
be opposed." (See Bland's "Constitutional Argument," Wm. & 
Mary Coll. Quarterly, XIX, 31-42.) 

In the resolutions adopted by the Assembly November 14, 
1764, the same groimd is taken as to local legislation, and one looks 
in vain for any admission like that of Massachusetts that Parlia- 
ment is supreme. 

After the passage of the Stamp Act, we find the same position 
assumed in the resolutions of Patrick Henry, May 29th, 1765. 
The fourth resolution in the series then offered asserted that "his 
Majesty's liege people of this most ancient colony have uninter- 
ruptedly enjoyed the right of being thus governed by their own 
Assembly in the article of their taxes and internal police and that 
the same hath never been forfeited or in any other way given up, 
but has been constantly recognized by the King and people of Great 
Britain." 

From this it was an easy step for Richard Bland in the early 
spring of 1766 to proceed to a position, probably never quite taken 
by himself in his "The Colonel Dismounted." In a pamphlet en- 
titled, "An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies," which, 
unlike all previous pamphlets, had a circulation both in America 
and England, he announced the doctrine that the British colonies 
in America were united to the Empire only through the British 



Leadership in Virginia 251 

crown and not at all through the British Parliament, and to the 
acts of the latter they owed no more obedience than did the King's 
Dominion of Hanover. 

Dr. Moses Coit Tyler, in his "Literary History of the American 
Eevoliition," declares the doctrine thus advanced "a prodigious in- 
novation." But it was afterwards accepted by the American public, 
and became the ground on which the union with Great Britain was 
dissolved. In language still bolder than Bland's Jefferson expressed 
similar views in 1774 in his "Summary View of the Eights of the 
British Colonies." 

And yet, too much stress is not to be laid on Dr. Moses Tyler^s 
words. "A prodigious innovation" Bland's doctrine may have been in 
New England, but it was not so in Virginia. It was not really a new 
doctrine there that the colony was solely dependent on the Crown. 
As early as April, 162'4, the Virginia Company of London appealed 
to Parliament, but King James told the House of Commons that 
Virginia affairs were none of their business, and the petition was 
withdrawn. Then, in 1676 a charter was obtained from King 
Charles II, in which it was declared that Virginia should have an 
immediate dependence upon the crown under the government and 
rule of such governors as should be appointed from time to time. 
(Hening's Statutes at Large, II, 533.) Next, in 1759 Eeverend 
Andrew Burnaby, an English traveler, wrote that "many of the 
Virginians consider the colonies as independent states not connected 
with Great Britain otherwise than by having the same common 
king and being bound to her with natural ties of affection." Finally 
this may be added. On November 11, 1773, when the doctrine of 
entire independence of Parliament had been practically accepted 
throughout the united colonies, a writer in the Virginia Gazette, 
calling himself "Hampden," reminded "the Parliament of Vir- 
ginia" (meaning its General Assembly) that "you claim the honor 
of being the first of the colonies that asserted its exclusive legisla- 
tive power." 

That some English Statutes of later date than 1606 had passed 
current in Virginia was not deemed by Bland fatal to this claim of 
independence of Parliament. "She submitted," he says, "as a weaker 
ressel," but "power abstracted from right cannot give a first title 



252 Tylee's Quabteely Magazine 

to dominion" and "though submitted to because of a necessity, may 
be resisted whenever the sufferer obtains strength enough to do so." 
(See "Virginia Leadership in the Revolution," in William and 
Mary College Quarterly, XVIII, 145-164, and XIX, 10-28, 219- 
262.) 



GENERAL WARRANTS. 

It is interesting to note that on January 10, 1627, the General 
Court of Virginia, consisting of the Governor and his Council, 
noting the inconveniences which had happened by the granting of 
general warrants, ordered that no more should be issued, but a 
group of named persons inhabiting in any single plantation might 
be included in any single warrant. (Virginia Magazine, XXVII, 
p. 145.) This was 134 years before James Otis spoke against writs 
of assistance which permitted general warrants for the search of 
any building suspected of holding smuggled goods. The Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts overruled Otis and writs of the kind were 
freely issued in that Colony down to the Boston Port bill. 

It was different in Virginia, where in 1769 Governor Botetourt 
and his Council declared such writs of assistance as illegal and con- 
trary to Magna Carta. 

It may be worth mentioning in this connection that it was not 
till April 23, 1766, that the English House of Commons, at the 
close of a long struggle, to which Wilkes' criticism in No. 45 of the 
North Briton gave rise, declared general warrants illegal. 

When George Mason drew his "Declaration of Rights" in 1776, 
which was imitated in all the other colonies, he made section X 
declare "That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger 
may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of 
a fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or 
where the offence is not particularly described and supported by evi- 
dence, are grievous and oppressive, and ought not to be granted." 



Recokdation of Deeds and Wills 253 

Nevertheless, in our day and generation, when past history is 
known only to a few, we see a marked return to the evils against 
which our ancestors struggled. The prohibitionists want general 
warrants to enforce the laws against the sale of liquor. The good 
church people want a board of censors to repress immoral repre- 
sentations in the motion pictures, and legislation more or less in 
restriction of the press is considered at each meeting of the Legis- 
lature. This is all wrong. If the present laws are not effective, 
the remedy should be sought in increased penalties both on of- 
fenders and on the officers who are negligent of their duty. The 
remedies proposed are against Magna Carta and our Declaration 
of Rights and they afford a precedent, which, if invoked in a bad 
cause, might lead to the gravest consequences. 



RECORDATION OF DEEDS AND WILLS. 

The instructions given by the Virginia Company of London 
to Sir George Yardley in 1618 required him and his Council to 
assign to the inhabitants of Virginia their shares of land accord- 
ing to designated rules. These basic deeds were called land grants 
and the evidence of their registration is preserved in the Land 
Office in Richmond. An early book appears to be lost, for these 
land books start with the year 1623^ which leaves a gap of four or 
five years. It is in evidence that many persons received land be- 
fore 1623 and there is no reason to suppose that they were not 
recorded (Brown's First Republic, p. 605). The transfer of some 
of these lands is sometimes entered in the same books. 

The Council Journal from 1607 to 1622 has been lost and what 
remains is defective, but on October 13, 1626, is this order: 

"It is ordered yt a publication shall be sent to all plantations yt 
as soon as may bee after the Death of any man there may be an in- 
ventory taken of all his estate & goods whatsoever & yt such wills 
and testaments shall be proved as soone as may be & yt it be not de- 
ferred beyond ye next quarter Court at ye ffarthest upon penaltye of 
censure of ye Governor and Counsell as in a matter yt divers times 
may prove of great inconvenience as has been apparent by many ex- 



254 Tylek^s Quarterly Magazine 

amples. And it is farther ordered yt all such as have not proved any 
Wills or neglected to deliver forthw'th the Inventoryes of ye goods of 
persons deceased within one year last past doe prove ye said wills and 
deliver in ye Inventoryes at or before ye next quarter Court held at 
James Citty upon ye penalty aforesaid. 

"It is ordered at this Court yt all sales of lands and deeds of gifts 
of lands made and agreed on between partyes w'thin this Colonye be 
brought into ye Court at James Citty & there recorded and enrolled 
within one year and a day next after ye date thereof." (See Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography XXVI. p. 242.) 

It is apparent from the language of the order regarding wills 
that the proving of wills and taking of Inventories had 
been usual in the past, but some irregularities had resulted which 
needed to be corrected. Now, as in England the proof 
of a will was accompanied by recordation, this was undoubtedly 
the case in Virginia. Previous to this entry, but at tlie same 
court, it was ordered in regard to Mr. Richard Bennett, "who de- 
ceased about the 28th of August last," without a will, that "ye 
severall Inventoryes of ye goods, & a receipt of all books and ac- 
counts" be "recorded in ye Court." Many proofs of wills occur 
in these Council notes, previous to the general order cited. 

June 6, 1625, a contract was recorded in the Council minutes. 
{Ibid., XXV, 36.) 

In 1634 counties were formed with county courts. Only the 
records of one of them are preserved from the first court- 
Northampton County — and the registry of deeds and wills in this 
county proves that it was common to all. In York County, where 
the earliest records are not preserved, a will is recorded in 1637. 

In Massachusetts the first act requiring general registration was 
in 1634. Plymouth had practically no records till 1633, when its 
first court book begins. In 1620 the settlers at Plymouth were 
given a plot of land each, but there was no actual record of this 
till 1627. (See Plymouth Records.) As this may be considered 
a basic grant, it w^as subsequent to the basic grants in Virginia 
(the Land Grants) and its recordation subsequent to the general 
order as to deeds (October 13, 1626). 

In Virginia it is probable that wills and inventories were 
recorded from the very beginning (1607), and that deeds began to 



The Ashburton Treaty^ 1842 255 

be recorded after 1619, M^hen lands were laid out for the settlers. 
There is nothing too ridiculous for some writers to assert, and 
Douglas Campbell's book, "The Puritan in Holland, England 
and America" is a good example of this. The claim that he makes, 
among other absurd things, that the recordation of deeds and wills 
was brought to America from Holland by the Puritan settlers has, 
like many other claims for New England, no foundation. The 
settlers, being Englishmen, reproduced both in Virginia and New 
England the institutions of their homeland, and the system of the 
registration of deeds is the outgrowth of Englisli statutes and 
customs. For by 27 Henry 8th, Chap. 16, in order to be valid all 
deeds of bargain and sale had to be recorded. The government of 
Virginia adopted a system of allowing a Avife to Join in a deed on 
privy examination, which was kept up till a few years ago. This 
was following a custom of London, and was nothing new. (See 
Charles V. Meredith's review of Mr. Campbell's book in Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography, I, 100-104.) 



THE ASHBURTON TREATY, 1842. 

Letter of Mrs. Julia G. Tyler. 

Mr. Curtis 
Dear Sir, 
I had Just replied to a letter from Prof. Horsford desiring me 
if possible to furnish you with the notes of Mr. Webster to Prest. 
Tyler relating to the Ashburton Treaty, when I reed, through Mr. 
Choate the expression of your wish on the same subject. Nothing 
would give me greater pleasure than to be able to enclose you the 
notes referred to, but all the papers of my Husband, public and 
private, left to my care at his death, were destroyed in the burning 
of Rich'd, where I had stored them for safe keeping on leaving 
Virginia in a perilous manner during the War. 

It may be, however, that his sons who were his private sec'ies 
for some time have preserved some interesting notes. I have 



256 Tylee's Quarterly Magazine 

written them making enquiry. I shall probably hear in reply in a 
few days. 

I have it in my power to say that Mr. Tyler always expressed 
the warmest admiration for Mr. Webster — not only on account of 
his great talents, but because of their harmonious association in 
the cabinet. Mr. Webster as Sec'y of State never forgot the rela- 
tion in which he stood to the President and never acted indepen- 
dently of him. Thus, in regard to the Ashburton Treaty, every 
])art of the correspondence passed under the Prest's supervision 
Mr. Webster before communicating with Lord Ashburton always 
rec'd. his views & brought his letters to him to revise as he wished. 

Perhaps the original drafts may have been preserved among 
Mr. Webster's papers & by tlieir marginal additions or interlinea- 
tions in the President's handwriting prove my memory to be cor- 
rect of our conversations on the subject. Mr. Webster in his notes 
to the Pres't cordially acknowledged his valuable aid. It was 
these notes that Mr. Horsford must have seen (& writes me he 
mentioned to you) when visiting us at Sherwood Forest. 

I hope, dear sir, I have not seemed to laud Mr. Tyler at the 
expense of Mr. Webster. It is far from my intention, but, as a 
true historian, I am sure you wish to do justice to their combined 
noble intellects & generous natures. 

I thank you for the kind & appreciative terms in which you 
refer to my Husband in your note to Mr. Choate. I am yours. 
With great respect, 

J. G. Tyler. 
Envelope addressed to D. Gardiner Tyler, 
Lexington, Virginia. 

Endorsed: Copy of letter to G. T. Curtis. 



•Prof. E. N. Horsford, formerly of Harvard University, who mar- 
ried successively two sisters — Misses Mary and Pliebe Gardiner, first 
cousins of Mrs. Tyler. 

Note. — The above is a copy of a letter written to George Ticknor 
Curtis, and enclosed by Mrs. Tyler to her son, now Judge D. Gardiner 
Tyler, then a student at Washington College, Lexington, Va. This 
identifies it as written when Mr. Curtis was engaged in preparing his 
life of Daniel Webster. For an account of the Ashburton Treaty and 



OLD TIMES IN VIRGINIA. 
Communicated by Dr. A. J. Morrison. 

A correspondent in Middle Virginia, writing for Edmund 
Ruflfin's Farmers' Register (article copied in American Farmer, 
Baltimore, May, 1834), said of those modern times: "A new era 
seems to be commencing in Virginia, whetlier for good or ill, time 
must determine. The simple grandeur of the Ancient Dominion 
has departed — perhaps forever — and cannot long be enjoyed by 
any country. With very little trade, but that free and simple, 
and with a hard money currency, the days of the wooden trencher 
and pewter plates and dishes were glorious days — when every man 
understood and minded his own business. Now many a planter 
furnishes a carriage for his wife and daughter to ride in costing 
more than the legacy he could bequeathe to each of his children. 
Towns, villages and manufactories are beginning to be erected — 
internal improvements are much talked of, and every man is a 
politician. If things progress as they have done for a year or two 
past, we shall soon have consumers enough within our own terri- 
tory, and agriculture will be much encouraged." 



the agency especially of President Tyler, apart from his Secretary of 
State see Wm d Mary Quarterly, XXV, 1-8. This shows (1) that Mr. 
Tyler long preceded Mr. Webster in his acceptance of the basic idea 
that the North Eastern boundary was determinable only by com- 
promise. (2) That what was known as the "Cruising Convention" 
for the suppression of the slave trade was placed in the treaty at his 
suggestion. (3) That it was due to his correction of the letter of 
Lord Ashburton, as first submitted to him, that the principle was 
saved which secured full damages under the Convention of February 
8, 1853, for the slaves aided by the British authorities at Nassau in 
escaping from the Creole. (4) That it was due to him that the three 
subjects of the negotiations were submitted in one treaty for the rati- 
fication of the Senate, against the opinion of Mr. "Webster, who wanted 
them submitted separately. (5) That it was largely due to his happy 
tact and manners that the New England Commissioners and Lord 
Ashburton, representing the British government were made to har- 
monize and deadlocks prevented — a fate which had overtaken all other 
negotiations on the boundary question from Washington's administra- 
tion down. 



258 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

In this connection it is of interest to read a letter or two from 
Tidewater, giving some idea of the wonderful wheat farming of 
that region seventy-five or eightj^ 3'ears ago. Benjamin Ogle Tay- 
loe reported in John Skinner's Journal of Agriculture, Jul}', 1846 
(Vol. II, p. 57), that there had been a great improvement in farm- 
ing methods below Fredericksburg. But, added Mr. Tayloe, a 
former proprietor of "Mt. Airy" had occasionally sent in one year 
thirty thousand bushels of wheat to market at near two dollars a 
bushel. And for 1846 Mr. Tayloe said that on his "Nanjemoy" 
plantation he had 500 acres in wheat, earl}^ sowed and turning out 
above the average. He had sowed before the middle of September. 

Late in 1847 Robert B. Boiling, of Charles City County, wrote 
to Mr. Skinner about the wheat crop {Journal of Agriculture, III, 
461). He said that the past season his own wheat on 500 acres 
had averaged twent\'-three bushels; and that Hill Carter of "Shir- 
ley" ; William Harrison, of "Brandon," and John Selden, of "West- 
over," had averaged thirty-one bushels on fields of 100 to 200 acres. 

Naturally, those were the days when the Richmond mills v»-ere 
so conspicuously in the South American trade. It was shortly be- 
fore the Revolution that Virginia began to make wheat a money 
crop. 



"A TEEWE RELACYON" 
N^IRGINIA FROM 1609 TO 1612 

Students of Virginia history will be gratified to know that a copy 
of George Percy's manuscript in regard to events occurring in Vir- 
ginia between the years 1609 and 1612 has been obtained from Eng- 
land and placed in the State Library. With the permission of the 
Librarian it is published here for the first time. 

Efforts to obtain a copy of this old document had been made sev- 
eral times during the last forty years. In 1884, when Dr. Edward D. 
Neill was preparing to publish his "Virginia Vetusta," he ascertained 
that a writing of interest purporting to be "A trewe relacyon of the 
pcedeinges," by George Percy, was in the library of the then Lord 
Leconfleld, at "Petworth House," in Sussex. 

Dr. Neill wrote to Lord Leconfield and asked for a copy of tho 
manuscript to be incorporated in the volume he proposed to publish. 
The first three pages and the last three were carefully copied and 
forwarded to Dr. Neill with expressions of regret that the Intervening 
thirty-eight pages could not be found. However, Neill published the 
fragments that were sent him and the dedicatory letter addressed 
by George Percy to his brother, the Earl of Northumberland. 

Some twenty years later Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, then President of 
William and Mary College, feeling sure that all the sheets of the 
Percy manuscript must be somewhere in the "Petworth House" col- 
lection, and that they had not really been lost, but were merely mis- 
placed, wrote and asked that a copy be made and sent to him. But 
Lord Leconfield at that time, apparently misconstruing the request 
for a "copy" into a request for the original document replied that 
he was not willing to part with it. 

Not long ago Dr. Tyler renewed his efforts and finally succeeded, 
through the friendly offices of Ambassador George Harvey, in obtain- 
ing the consent of the present Lord Leconfield to have a copy of the 
entire manuscript made and this copy was received February 8, 1922, 
by Dr. Tyler and handed over to the Virginia State Library. 

George Percy, as is well known, was three times at the head of 
the affairs of the colony during the periods of the first and second 
charters. So any observations made by him on the Virginia of his 
period are of necessity of interest and of value to historians. The 
manuscript throws a new light upon certain phases of Virginia history, 
and is at places somewhat critical of Capt. John Smith; and gives a 
fresh point of view. 

The present Lord Leconfield, to whose kindness Virginia is In- 



260 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

debted for the copy of the Percy manuscript is Charles Henry Wynd- 
ham, Third Baron Leconfield, who was born in 1872, and succeeded to 
the title and to "Petworth House" estate in 1901. 

In his letter to Dr. Tyler, Ambassador Harvey says: 
"It gives me the very greatest pleasure to send on to you, with this 
letter, a copy of the George Percy manuscript, which I have had made 
through the help and good offices of Lord Leconfield. I trust you will 
permit me to present it through you to the Library Board of the 
State of Virginia, which holds such a warm place in my memory and 
affections." 

To the right honorable the Lorde Percy 
My Lorde 

This Relacyon I have here sente your Lordshipp is for Towe 
respectts. The one to Sheowe how nuitche I honnor yo" and desyre 
to doe yo" service. The other in Regard thatt many untrewthes 
concerneinge Tlieis proceedeinges have bene formerly published 
■wherein The Anther hathe nott Spared to Apropriate many de- 
scrtts to himselfe w'h he never ^formed and stuffed his Relacyons 
w*h so many falseties and malicyous detractyons nott onely of this 
^te and Tyme w^'h I have selected to Treate of Butt of former 
ocurrentes Also So thatt I coulde nott conteine my selfe butt 
expresse the Trewthe unto your Lordshipp concerninge Theis Af- 
fayers. And all w^h I ayme att is to manyfeste my selfe in all 
my Actyons bothe nowe and Always To be 

Your Lordshipps humble and 
faithfull Servante 

G. P. 
A Trewe Relacyon of the ^cedeinges and 
Ocurrentes of Momente W^h have hapned 
in Virginia from th-) Tyme S"" Thomas 
Gates was shippwrackte uppon the Ber- 
MUDES an° 1609 untill my depture outt of 
the Country Wh was in an** Dfii 1612 

If we Trewley Consider the diversety of miseries mutenies and 
famishmentts w^^h have Attended upon discoveries and plantacyons 
in theis our moderne Tymes we shall nott fynde our plantacyon in 
Virginia to have Suffered Aloane. 



''A Tbewe Relacyon'^ 261 

Ladoniere had his share thereof in Florida nextt neighbour 
unto Virginia where his sowldiers did fall into mutenies and in 
the ende weare allmoste All Starved for wante of foode. 

The Spanyards plantacyon in the Eiver of plate and the 
streightes of Magelane Suffered also in soe niutche thatt haveinge 
eaten upp all their horses to susteine themselves w%all, mutenies 
did Aryse and growe Amongste them for the w'h the generall 
Diego Mendosa cawsed some of them to be executed Extremety 
of hunger in forceinge other secrettly in the night to eutt downe 
Their deade fellowes from of the gallowes and bury them in their 
hungry Bowelles. 

The plantacyon in Carthagena was also Lamentable thatt 
wante of wholesome foode where w^h for to mainteyne Lyfe weare 
inforced to eat Toades snakes and sutche lyke venemous v/ormes 
sutche is the sharpnes of hunger. 

To this purpose many other examples mighte be recyted butt 
the relacyon itt selfe beinge briefe I have noe intente to be Tedyous 
butt to delyver the Trewthe briefly and plainely the w^h I doutt 
nott butt will rather Lyke then Loathe the Reader nor doe I pur- 
pose to use any elloquentt style or phrase the w^'h indede in me 
is wanteinge Butt to delyver thatt trewly w^h myself and many 
others have had bitter experyense of: Many other woes and 
miseries have hapned unto our Collonie in Virginia bothe before 
and Since thatt Tyme w^h now I doe intende to Treate of Haveinge 
selected this pte from the reste for towe Respecttes first in regard 
I was moste frequente and acquaynted w*h theis ^cedeinges being 
moste pte of the tyme presydent and governour next in respect 
the leaste pte hereof hathe not bene formerly published. In the 
yere of our Lorde 1609 S"" Tho : Gates and S'' George Somers acom- 
panyed w*h dyvers gentlemen sowldiers and seamen in nyne good 
Shippes did beginne their voyage for Virginia the towe Knightes 
beinge in the Admirall whereof Christopher Newport was Cap- 
tayne And haveinge sayled w% ^sperous wyndes many Leauges 
at lenghte did fall upon the Bermudes where meteinge w*h A 
vyoelentt storme the Admirall wherein the towe Knightes were 



262 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

inbarqued suffred wracke nevertheless hoyseinge outt their boate 
safely Landed the 2 knightes and the Eeste of thatt Company upon 
the Bermudes of whome I will forbeare to Treate of further untill 
their Arryvall in Virginia. 

The other 8 shippes shorttly after Aryved in Virginia where 
the passengers beinge noe soener well landed butt presently A 
disceneyon did growe betwine them and Capte : Smithe then 
presydentt, but after some debate all was quyeted and pacifyed 
yett Capte : Smithe feareinge the worste and thatt the seamen and 
thatt factyon mighte growe too stronge and be a meanes to depose 
him of his govermentt so Juglcd w4i them by the way of feasteinges 
Expense of mutche powder and other unnecessary Tryumphes That 
niutche was Spente to noe other purpose butt to Insinewate w^h 
his Reconcyled enemyes and for his owne vajTie glory for the w^h 
we all after suffred. And thatt w^h was intollerable did give Leave 
unto the Seamen to carry away whatt victewalls and other neces- 
saryes tbey wolde doeinge the same more safly inn regard the 
contentts thereof was in the Admirall w'h was caste away. 

Nott long after Capte: Smithe sentt Capt: Martin and my 
selfe w*h threskore people to goe for Nansemunde Capte: Mar- 
tins Leftenantt leadinge moste of the men overland and we towe 
w*h the Reste followed them by water where beinge Aryved we 
inquyred of the Indyans of our men butt they acordinge to their 
subtelltyes wold not acquaynte us therew*h whereupon I requested 
Capte: Martin thatt I mightt goe Ashoare to discover the trewthc 
to the w^h he wolde nott condiscende Neverthelesse the nightx? 
beinge stormy and wette I wente on Lande w% my Company 
where I fownde our men by goode fyers in Saffety whereof I ad- 
vertyzed Capte : Martin the nextt morneinge who presently w^h 
his company did come Ashoare unto us where after some consulta- 

cyon helde we sentte "2 messengers to the kinge of Mance- 

monde To Barter w'h him for an Island righte opposite ageinste 
the mayne we weare uppon for Cop^ hatches and other comodeties. 
Butt our messengers stayeinge Longer then we expected we feared 
thatt w'^h after hapned. So Capte : Martin did Apointe w*h 
halfe of our men to take the Island ^ force And beinge upon the 



"A Trewe Relacyon^' 263 

way we espyed A Canoe wherein we weare ^ swaded our messengers 
to be butt they ^ceaveinge us retoumed backe from whense they 
came And we never sett eye upon our Messengers after. Butt 
understood from the Indyans themselves thatt they weare sacri- 
fysed And thatt their Braynes weare cutt and skraped outt of 
their heades w% mussell shelles beinge Landed and acquaynted 
w'h their Trechery we Beate the Salvages outt of the Island burned 
their howses Ransaked their Temples Tooke downe the Corpes of 
their deade kings from of their Toambes And caryed away their 
pearles Cop^ and braceletts, wherew% they doe decore their kings 
funeralles. 

In the meane Tyme Salvages upon the Mayne did fall into dis- 
cencyon w% Capte: Martin who seised the kings sonne and one 
other Indyand and broughte them bownde unto the Island where 
I was when a shipp Boye takeinge upp a Pistoll aecidentyallie 
nott meaneinge any harme The pistoll suddenly fyered and shotte 
the Salvage prisoner into the Breste. And thereupon whatt w*h 
his passyon and feare he broake the Cordes Asunder where w*h 
he was tyed and did swimme over unto the mayne w*h his wound 
bleedinge And there beinge great store of maize upon the Mayne 
I cowncelled Capteyne Martin to take possesyon thereof the w^h 
he Eefused pretendinge thatt he wolde nott putt his men into 
hassard and danger. So haveinge seene Capte : Martin well 
settled I Eetourned w% Capte Nellson to James Towne ageine 
Acordinge to apoyntementte. 

Shorttly after Capte: Smithe sente Capteyne Francis West 
w*h one hundrethe and fortye men upp to the falles w*h sixe 
monthes victewells to inhabitt there. Where beinge Reasonable 
well settled dyvs of his men stragled from their foarte. some of 
them comeinge hoame wownded. others never returned to bringe 
any Tydeings butt weare cutt of and slayne by the salvages. So 
thatt in small ^cesse of Tyme Capteyne Smithe did take his 
iorney upp to the falles to understand how things weare there 
ordered when presently after his comeinge thether A greate devi- 
syon did growe amongste them Capte: Smithe ^ceaveinge bothe 
his authorety and ^son neglected incensed and Animated the Sal- 



264 Tyler^s Quarterly Magazine 

vages agenste Capte : West and his company Reporteinge unto 
them thatt our men had noe more powder lefte them then wolde 
serve for one volley of shott And so Capte: Smithe Eetouringe 
to James Towne ageine fo\vnd to have too mutche powder aboutt 
him The w^h beinge in his pockett where the sparke of A Matche 
Lighted very shrewdly burned him. And comeinge in thatt case 
to James Towne Capte Eattliefe Archer and Martin prac- 
tysed ageinste him and deposed him of his governmentt Smithe 
beinge an Ambityous unworthy and vayneglorious fellowe At- 
tempteinge to take all Mens Authoreties from them for bothe Rat- 
LiEFE Archer and Martin being formerly of the Cowncell Smithe 
wolde Rule all and ingrose all authorety into his owne hands 
Althoughe indede there was noe other certeine apointed gover- 
mentt then Sir Tho: Gates had commissyon for who was then in 
the Bermudes onely a yerely presidenttshipp to governe by the 
advyse of the Cowncell. Butt Smithe ayweinge att A soveraigne 
Rule w^houtt the Assistance of the cowncell was iustely depryved 
of all. 

The place of govermentt beinge voyde the thre busy instru- 
mentts in the plantacyon ^fered the same unto me the W^h att 
firste I refused in Regaid of ni}* Sicknes. Butt by their iupor- 
tunetie ^miseinge to undergoe the Chefeste offices and Burthen 
of govermentt for me untill I weare Recovered att lenghte I ac- 
cepted thereof and then was Smithe presently sentt for England. 

After I had bene presydentt some fowertene dayes I sentt 
Capte: Rattliefe to pointe Comforte for to Buylde A foarte there. 
The w^'h I did for towe Respectts The one for the plenty of the 
place for fisheinge The other for the comodious discovery of any 
shippeinge Wh sholde come uppon the Coaste And for the honnor 
of Your Lordshipps name and howse I named the same Alger- 
NOWNS Foarte. 

Nott Longe after Capte : Martin whome I lefte att the Island 
did come to James towne pretendinge some occasions of busyness, 
but indede his owne saffety moved him thereunto feareinge to 
be surprysed by tlie Indyans, who had made dyver excursions 
againste him, so thatt haveinge lefte Lieftenantt Sicklemore to 



"A Tbewe Relacyon" 265 

Comawnd in his absence Amongste whose company shorttly after 
did growe A dangerous mutenie in so mutche That! dyvrs of his 
men to the number of seaventene did take Away A Boate from liim 
^ force and wente therein to Kekowhaton pretendinge they 
wolde trade therefore victwells, Butt they were served acordinge to 
their desertts for nott any of them weare heard of after And in 
all lykelyhood weare Cutt of and slayne by the Salvages and w%in 
fewe dayes after Lieftenantt Sicklemore and dyvrs others weare 
fownd also slayne w^h their mowthes stopped full of Breade beinge 
donn as it seamethe in Contemptc and skorne thatt others mighte 
expecte the Lyke when they shold come to seeke for breade and 
reliefe amongste them. 

Baldivia a Spanishe Generall beinge served somewhatt An- 
swerable hereunto in Chily in the Weste Indies who beinge 
Surprised by the Indyans inforced him to drincke upp A certeine 
quantety of melted gowlde useinge theis words unto him now 
glutt thy selfe w*h gowlde Baldivia haveinge there sowghte for 
gowlde as Sicklemore did here for foode. And all the reste of 
SiCKLEMORS Company w'^h weare liveinge Retourned to us to 
James towne to feede upon the poore store we had lefte us. 

Also w%in a shorte Tyme after Capte: Weste did come downe 
to us from the Falles haveinge loste eleaven men and A Boate att 
Arsetocke besydes those men he loste att the Falles so our Num- 
ber at James Towne increasinge and our store decreaseinge fur in 
charety we cold nott deny them to participate w^h us Whereupon 
I apointed Capte: Tucker to Calculate and Caste upp our store. 
The w^h att a poore alowanse of halfe a Cann of meale for A 
man A day Amownted unto thre monthes ^vissyon yett Capte: 
Tucker by his industry and care caused the same to howlde outt 
fowere monthes. Butt haveinge noe expectacyon of Reliefe to 
come in so short A Tyme I sentt Capteyne Ratliefe to Pow- 
hatan to ^cure victewalls and come by the way of comerce and 
trade the w'^h the subtell owlde foxe att firste made good sem- 
blanse of Althoughe his intente was otherwayes onely wayteingc 
A fitteinge tyme for their destruction As after planely appered. 
The w*^h was ^bly ocasyoned by Capte: Ratliefes creduletie for 



266 Tyi^ek^s Quarterly Magazine 

Haveinge Povvhatans sonne and dowghter Aboard his pinesse 
freely suffred them to depte ageine on shoare whome if he had 
deteyned mighte have bene A Sufficyentt pledge for his saffety And 
after nott kepeinge A ^per and fitteinge Courte of Guarde butt 
suffreinge his men by towe and thre and small Numbers in A Com- 
pany to straggle into the Salvages howses when the Slye owlde 
kinge espyed A fitteinge Tyme Cutt them all of onely surprysed 
Capte : Eatliefe Alyve who he caused to be bownd unto a tree naked 
w*h a fyer before And by woemen his fleshe was skraped from his 
bones w*h mussell shelles and befre his face tliro\\Tie into the fyer. 
And so for want of circumspection miserably ^ ished. 

In the Meane Tyme Capte : William Phetiplace Eemayned in 
the pinesse w% Some fewe men and was dyvrs tymes assawlted by 
the Indyans butt after dyvs conflictts w*h the losse of some of his 
men hardly escaped and att lenghte Aryved att James Towne onely 
w*h sixtene men the Remaynder of fifty Capte Ratliefe hathe 
Charge of at his goeinge forthe And so he related unto us the 
Tragedie of Capt<^ : Ratlife nott bringeinge any Reliefe w% them 
either for themselves or us. 

Upon W^h defeate I sentt Capte : James Davis to Algernowe 
foarte to Comawnd there in Capte: Ratliefes place And Capte 
Weste I sentt To Potoamack w*h aboutt thirty sixe men to trade 
for maize and grayne where he in short tyme Loaded his pinesse 
sufficyently yett used some harshe and Crewell dealinge by cutteinge 
of towe of the Salvages heads and other extremetj'^es And eomeinge 
by Algerxowns foarte Capteine Davis did call unto them ac- 
quainteinge them w% our Create wants exhortinge them to make 
all the Spede they cowlde to Releve us upon w'h reporte Capte: 
Weste by the ^swasion or rather by the inforcement of his com- 
pany hoysed upp Sayles and shaped their course directly for Eng- 
land and lefte us in thatt extreme misery and wante. 

Now all of us att James Towne beginneinge to feele that sharpe 
pricke of hunger w^'h noe man trewly descrybe butt he 
w'^h hath Tasted the bitternesse thereof A worlde of miseries en- 
sewed as the Sequell will expresse unto yo" in so mutche thatt 
some to satisfye their hunger have robbed the store for the w*"h 



"A Trewe Relacyon" 267 

I caused them to be executed. Then haveinge fedd uponn horses 
and other beastes as long as they Lasted we weare gladd to make 
shifte w*h vermine as doggs Catts Eatts and myce All was fishe 
thatt came to Nett to satisfye Crewell hunger as to eate Bootes 
shoes or any other leather some colde Come by And those being 
Spente and devoured some weare inforced to searche the woodes 
and to feede upon Serpents and snakes and to digge the earthe 
for wylde and unknowne Eootes where many of our men weare 
Cutt off of and slayne by the Salvages. And now famin begineinge 
to Looke gastely and pale in every face thatt notheinge was spared 
to mainteyne Lyfe and to doe those things W^h seaine incredible 
As to digge up dead corpses outt of graves and to eate them and 
some have Licked upp the Bloode w4i hathe fallen from their 
weake fellowes And amongste the reste this was moste Lamentable 
Thatt one of our Colline murdered his wyfe Eipped the childe outt 
of her woambe and threw itt into the Eiver and after chopped the 
Mother in pieces and salted her for his foode The same not beinge 
discovered before he had eaten ^te thereof for the W^h crewell 
and inhumane factt I aiudged him to be executed the acknowl- 
edgm^ of the dede beinge inforced from him by torture liaveinge 
hunge by the Thumbes w*h weightes att his feete a quarter of an 
howere before he wolde confesse the same. 

Upon theis Calameties haveinge one boate and A Canoe Lefte 
us. Our Boate did accidentyally breake Loose and did dryve fower 
myles downe the Eiver before she was espyed. Whereupon Capte: 
Martin Apointeinge some to followe her the w*^h beinge neglected 
and acquaynteinge me there w*h I stepped outt of my howse 
w% my Sworde drawne and what w*h my threates & their feares 
happy was he colde shipp himselfe into the Canoe firste And so our 
Boate thatt nighte was ageine Eecovered yett wanteinge more 
Boates for fishfiiige and other nedfull ocassions Capte : Daniell 
Tucker by his greate industry and paines buylded A Large Boate 
w*h his owne hands The w'^h was some helpe and A little Eeliefe 
unto us And did kepe us from killinge one of An other. To eate 
many our men this starveinge Tyme did Eunn Away unto the 
Salvages whonie we never heard of after. 



268 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

By this Tyme being Reasonable well recovered of my sicknea 
I did undertake A Jorney unto Algeenowns foarte bothe to un- 
derstand how things weare there ordered as also to have bene 
Eevenged of the Salvages att Kekowhatan who had trecheously 
slayne dyvrs of our men. Our people I fownd in good case and 
well lykeinge haveinge concealed their plenty from us above att 
James Towne Beinge so well stored thatt the Crabb fishes where 
w*h they had fede their hoggs wold have bene a greate relefe unto 
us and saved many of our Lykves But their intente was for to 
have kept some of the better sorte Alp'e and w'h their towe pin- 
nesses to have Retoumed for England nott Regardinge our miseries 
and wantts at all where w'h I taxed Capte: Davis And tolde 
him thatt I had A full intente to bringe halfe of our men from 
James Towne to be there Releved And after to Retourne them 
backe ageine and bringe the reste to bee susteyned there Also And 
if all this wolde nott serve to save our mens Lyves I purposed to 
bringe them all unto Algerxowns foarte Tellinge Capte: Davis 
that Another towne or foarte mighte be erected and buylded butt 
mens lyves onse Loste colde never be recovered. 

Our miseries now beinge att the hygheste and intendinge as I 
formerly Related unto yo" to Remove some of our men to Alger- 
NOWNS foarte the very nexte Tyde we espyed towe pinnesses come- 
inge into the Baye nott knoweinge as yett whatt they weare butt 
kepinge A Courte of Guard and watche all That nighte The nexte 
]\Iorneinge we espyed A Boate comcingo of from one of the pin- 
nesses So standinge upon our guard we hales them and understood 
thatt S"" Tho : Gates and S'' George Somurs weare come in those 
pinnesses w*^h by their greate industry they had buylded in the Ber- 
MUDES w*h the remaynder of their wrackt shipp and other woode 
they fownde in the cowntry upon w^h newes we Receved no small 
ioye Requesteinge them in the Boate to come A shoare the w'^h 
they refused. And Retourned Aboard ageine for S"" Tho: Gates 
haveinge noe knowledge of any foarte to be Builded there was 
dowtfull whether we weare frends or noe butt beinge possessed of 
the trewthe he and S'' George Somers w^h dyvers others did come 
A shoare att Algernownes foarte And the nextt Tyde wente upp 
to James Towne where they mighte Reade A lecture of miserie in 



"A Trewe Eelacyon" 269 

our peoples faces and ^ceve the skarsety of victewalles And under- 
stande the mallice of the Salvages who knoweinge our weaknes had 
dyvrs Tymes assawlted us w^houtt the foarte Fyndeinge of fyve 
hundrethe men we had onely lefte Aboutt sixty. The reste beinge 
either sterved throwe famin or cutt of by the Salvages And those 
w'^h weare Liveinge weare so maugre and Leane thatt itt was La- 
mentable to behowlde them for many throwe extreme hunger have 
Eunne outt of their naked bedds beinge so Leane thatt they Looked 
Lyke Anotamies Cryeinge owtt we are starved We are starved 
others goeinge to bedd as we imagined in healtlie weare fownd 
deade the nexte morneinge And amongste the Reste one thinge 
hapned w'^h was very remarkable wherein god sheowd his iuste 
Judgment for one Hughe Pryse being pinched w*h extreme famin 
In A furious distracted moode did come openly into the markett 
place Blaspheameinge exclameinge and cryeinge owtt thatt there 
was noe god. Alledgeinge that if there were A god he wolde nott 
suffer his creatures whom he had made and framed to indure those 
miseries And to ^ishe for wante of foods and sustenance Butt 
itt appeared the same day that the Almighty was displeased w*h 
him for goeinge thatt afternoone w% A Butcher A corpulentt fatt 
man into the woods to seke for some Eeliefe bothe of them weare 
slaine by the Salvages. And after beinge fownde gods Indignacyon 
was showed upon Peyses Corpes w'^h was Rente in pieces w*h 
wolves or other wv'lde Beasts And his Bowles Torne outt of his 
boddy beinge A Leane spare man And the fatt Butcher nott lyenge 
Above sixe yardes from him was fownd altogether untouched onely 
by the Salvages Arrowes whereby he Receiaved his deathe 

Theis miseries considered itt was Resolved uppon By S*" Tho: 
Gates and the whole Collonie w*h all Spede to Retourne for Eng- 
land whereupon moste of our men weare sett to worke some to make 
pitche And Tar for Trimminge of our shippes others to Bake 
breade and fewe or noene not imployed in one ocassyon or another. 
So thatt A Small Space of Tyme fower pinnesses weare fitted and 
made Reddy. All prepareinge to goe Aboarde. and if S^ Tho: 
Gates had nott Laboured w*h our men they had sett the Towne on 
fyer useinge theis or the lyke words unto them, my Masters lett 
the towne Stande we knowe nott butt thatt as honneste men as our 



270 Tyler's Quartekly Magazine 

selves may come and inliabitt here Then all of us embarqueinge 
our selves S^ Tho: Gates in the deliveranse w*h his company S^ 
George Somers in the patyence my selfe in the discoverie and 
Capt. Davis in tlie Virginia. All of us sayleinge downe the Eiver 
w*h A full intente to have Reeded upon our voyage for England 
when Suddenlye we espyed A boate makeinge towards us wherein 
we fownde to be Capte : Brustee sent from my Lorde La Ware 
who was come unto us w*h many gentlemen of quallety And thre 
hundrethe men besydes greate store of victewles municyon and 
other ^vissyon wliereupon we all Retourned to James Towne 
ageine where my Torde shortly after Landed and sett all things in 
good order selecteinge A Covvncell and makeinge Capteines over 
fifty men A piece. Then S"" Tho : Gates beinge desyreous for to be 
Revendged upon the Indyans att Kekowhatan did goe thither 
by water w'h a certeine number of men and amongste the reste A 
Taborer w'h him beinge Landed he cawsed the Taborer to play and 
dawnse thereby to Allure the Indyans to come unto him the w^'h 
prevayled. And then espyeinge A fitteinge oportunety fell in upon 
them putt fyve to the sworde wownded many others some of them 
beinge after fownde in the woods w*h Sutehe extreordinary Lardge 
and mortall wownds thatt itt seamed strange they Cold flye so 
far. The reste of the Salvages he putt to flighte. And so pos- 
seseinge himselfe of the Towne and the fertill ground there unto 
Adiacentt haveinge well ordered all things he lefte his lieftenantt 
Earely to comawnd his company And then Eetourned to James 
Towne, ageine and shorttly after did take his voyadge for Eng- 
land. My Lord Generall aboutt this Tyme sentt Capteine Howld- 
crofte to buydle A foarte in the woods neare unto Kekowhatan. 
The w*h beinge finished my Lord named the same Charles foarte 
in honour of our Kings Ma*'^ that now is. 

Also my Lorde sentt S"^ George Somers and Capte : Akgoll in 
towe shippes into the Bermudes to make ^vissyon of hoggs and 
fishe for us S"" George aryved there where Shorttly after he dyed 
his men makeinge good ^ fitt of Amber griese and other comodeties 
Retourned for England. Butt Capte: Argoll fayleinge of the 
place fell to the North ward where he hapned upon some fishe 



"A Teewe Relacyon'' 271 

there w<=h haveinge salted and dryed Eetourned there w% to us 
to James Towne ageine 

S' Ferdinando Wayman aboutt this Tyme dyed whose deathe 
was mutche Lamented beinge bothe An honeste and valyantt gen- 
tleman. 

My Lord Generall not forgetteinge oulde Po^vHATANS subtell 
Trecherie sentt A Messenger unto him to demawnde certeine Armes 
and dyvrs men w^h we supposed mighte be liveinge in his cowntry 
Butt he Retourned noe other then prowde and disdaynefull An- 
swers. 

Whereupon my Lorde being mutche incensed Cawsed A Comis- 
sion to be drawne wherein he apointed me Chiefe Comawnder 
over Seaventie men and sentt me to take Revendge upon the Pas- 
PAHEAXS and Chicoxamians and so Shippeinge my selfe and my 
sowldiers in towe boates I depted from James Towne the 9'^* of 
August 1610 And the same nighte Landed W^hin thre myles of 
P ASP AH AS towne Then draweinge my sowldiers into Battalio 
placeinge a Capteyne or Leftenante att every fyle we marched to- 
wards the Towne haveinge An Indyan guyde w% me named 
Kempes whome the ^voste marshall ledd in A hande locke. This 
Subtell Salvage was leadinge us outt of the waye the w*^h I mis- 
dowteinge Bastinaded him w^h my Truncheon and threatned to 
cutt of his heade whereupon the slave alltered his Cowrse and 
browghte us the righte way near unto the towne So that then I 
Comawnded ever Leader to drawe A way his fyle before me to 
besett the salvages houses thatt noene mighte escape w% a chardge 
nott to geve the allarume untill I weare come upp unto them w% 
the Cullers. At my comeinge I appointed Capte : William Weste 
to geve the Allarume the w'^h he ^formed by shooteinge of a 
pistoll. And then we fell in upon them putt some fiftene or sixtene 
to the Sworde and Almoste all the reste to flyghte Whereupon 
I cawsed my drume to beate and drewe all my Sowldiers to tlie 
Cullers My Lieftenantt bringeinge w*h him the Queue and her 
Children and one Indyann prisoners for the w*h I taxed him be- 
cawse he had Spared them his Answer was thatt haveinge them 



272 Tyler's Qtjaeterly Magazine 

now in my Custodie I miglite doe w*h them whatt I pleased. Upon 
the same I eawsed the Indians heade to be cutt of. And then 
disused my fyles Apointeinge my Sowldiers to burne their howses 
and to cutt downe their Corne groweinge aboutt the Towne, And 
after we marched w% the quene And her Children to our Boates 
ageine, where beinge noe soener well shipped my sowldiers did 
begin to murmur bccawsc the quene and her Children weare spared. 
So upon the same A Cowncell beinge called itt was Agreed upon 
to putt the Children to deathe the w''h was effected by Throweinge 
them overboard and shoteinge owtt their Braynes in the water 
yett for all this Crewellty the Sowldiers weare nott well pleased 
And I had mutche to doe To save the queues lyfe for thatt Tyme. 

Then sayleinge some towe myles downe the River I sentt Capte : 
Davis A shoare wth Moste of my Sowldiers my Selfe beinge 
wearyed before and for my owne %1 te butt an easie foote man Capte 
Davis att his landeinge was Apponted by some Indyans who spared 
nott to send their Arrowes amongste our men but w*hin A shorte 
Tyme he putt them to flighte and landed w^houtt further opposi- 
tyon marclioinge Aboutt fowrtene myles into the Cowntry cutt 
downe their Corne burned their howses Temples and Idolles and 
amongste the reste A Spacyous Temple cleane and neattly keptt 
A thinge strange and seldome sene amongste the Indyans in those 
^tes So haveinge ^formed all the spoyle he cowlde Retourned 
Aboarde to me ageine and then we sayled downe the River to 
James Towne. 

My Lord Oenerall not beinge well did lye A Shippboard to 
whome vre Rowed he being ioyfull of our Safe Retourne yett 
Seamed to be discontente becawse the quene was spared as Cap- 
teyne Davis towlde me and thatt itt was my Lords pleasure thatt 
we sholde see her dispatched The way he thowghte beste to Burne 
her. To the first I replyed thatt haveinge scene so mutche Blood- 
shedd thatt day now in my Cowldbloode I desyred to see noe more 
and for to Burne her I did not howlde itt fitteinge butt either 
by shott or Sworde to geve her A quicker dispatche So Turninge 
my selfe from Capte Davis he did take the quene w*h towe sowl- 



"A Trewe Relacyon" 273 

diers A shoare and in the woods putt her to the Sworde and al- 
thoughe Capte: Davis towlde me itt was my Lords direction yett 
I ame ^swaded to the contrary. 

Nott longe after our Retourne to James Towne Capte : Argoll 
was sentt w% the lyke Commission ageinste the Wariscoyans. 
The Salvages beinge warned by their neighbours harmes weare very 
vigilante and Carefull and all of them fledd and escaped So thatt 
Capte: Argoll Cowlde have other Eevendge then by Cutteinge 
downe their Corne burneinge their bowses and Sutche lyke The 
W^h being ^formed he Retourned to James Towne ageine. 

The Salvages still contineweinge their mallice Ageinste us 
Sentt some as spyes to our foarte who beinge Apprehended my 
Lord Cawsed one to have his hande Cutt of And so Sentte unto 
his fellowes to geve them wameinge for Attemptinge the lyke. 

Aboutt this Tyme there was A Conspiracy plotteinge amongste 
some of our men w'^h wrought in Iron mynes To Runn away w*h 
A barkque The same beinge discovered my Lord for An example 
adiudged one of them by marshall lawe to be executed. The 
execution ^veinge strange And seldome heard of I thoughtte nott 
to omitt, for the ^ty beinge thro wen of the Lather whatt w% 
the Swindge and weighte of his body the Roape did breake and he 
fell upon the grownde And in Regard of the Accident my Lord 
^doned him althowglie itt nothinge Avayled him haveinge Receved 
his deathe w% the gerde of the Roape and extremety of the fall so 
that w^hin 2 days after he dyed My Lord intendinge to searche 
for Mineralls and to make further ^fe of the Iron mynes sentt 
dyvrs men in A barkque upp to the falles and goeinge b}^ A 
PoAMATAKE they weare called A shoare by the Salvages and beinge 
to fill their Baricoes w*h water weare easely thereunto induced 
and after intysed by the Salvages upp to their bowses pretendeinge 
to feaste them butt our men forgetteinge their Subtellties lyke 
greedy fooles accepted thereof more esteameinge of A Little foode 
then their own lyves and saffety for when the Indyans had them 
in their bowses And found A fitteinge Tyme when they Leaste 
dreaded any dawnger did fall upon them Slewe dyvrs and wownded 



274 Tylee's Quakteblt Magazine 

all the rest who w^hin towe dayes after also dyed onely Dowse 
the Taborer who flyeinge to their boate was hardly pursewed liutt 
gayneinge the same he made A vertewe of neceessity useinge the 
Eudder insteade of A Targett to kepe their Arrowes outt of his 
body. And bo skulleinge of by little and little gott out of their 
Reache and freed himselfe The Salvages be nott Soe Simple as 
many Imagin who be not Acquaynted w*h their Subtellties for they 
had nott forgotten how their neighbours att Kekowhatan wer 
alured And defeated by S' Tho: Gates when he had the same 
Taborer with him 

Presently after Capte: Bruster was eentte upp to the falles 
w*h A Certeine number of men To Attende there for my Lords 
Comeinge who purposed to ^cede in the Searche of mineralles 
In liis iorney he had dyvrs encownters and skirmishes w% the 
Indyans Att I^engthe aryveinge att the falles where my Lord did 
shortly after Come unto him Leaveinge the Chardge and Comawnd 
of James Towne w*h me. 

Now my Lorde beinge att the Falles and winter Comeinge on 
he Cawsed A foarte to be buylded there bothe for their defence and 
shelter and named the same Lawares foarte Intendinge to have 
Reposed himselfe there all the winter and to have Reeded upon the 
discovery of mineralls the next Springe where for A Tyme we 
will Leave him and Retoume to our ^cedeinges att James Towne 
ageine. 

The govermentt whereof beinge lefte to me Paspahe w*h a 
small Troope of Indyans in sheowe did come unto our Blockhowse 
thinkeinge by some poUecy either to have Surprysed the same or 
some of our men. ' The w^h comeinge to my hearinge I presently 
sent Capte: Powell then my Antyentt w'h a certeine Number 
of men to surprise Paspahe Allyve if possible they cowlde for the 
same wolde have bene to good purpose if itt cowld have bene ef- 
fected whereupon our men draweinge neare unto him where he 
fitoode upon the ende of A Banke when presently M' John Waller 
stepped unto him and cawghtt howlde of him and gave the Watche 



"A Trewe Relacyon" 275 

worde for the Reste to Come to Assiste him The w<^h the Salvages 
^ceveinge dyvrs of them Appeared w^h before weare nott seene 
sendeinge their Arrowes frely amongste our men. The w'^h Capte : 
Powell seeinge did Apprehend thatt their was small hope to 
bringe in Paspahe Alyve for he strugled maynely "Whereupon he 
Thruste him twyse throwghe the body w*h his Sworde and for all 
thatt the stowte Indyan Lived and was Caryed away upon Rafters 
by the Salvages And lieftenantt Puttocke encowntringe w*h one 
of the Salvages hande to fiste grapled w*h him and stabbed him to 
deathe w% his ponnyard. 

My Lord Generall all this Tyme Eemajoieinge att the Falles 
where nether sicknes nor sakrsety was wanteinge had dyvrs en- 
cownters w*h the Indyans some of his men beinge slajrne amonge 
the Reste his Kinsman Capte: William Weste and Capteine 
Bruster narrowly escaped. 

And now my Lords groweinge very Sicke he was inforced to 
Allter his former determinacyon and to retourne to James towne 
ageine where his Sickness nothinge Abated butt rather increased 
So thatt for the Recovery of his healthe he did take his voyadge 
for the bathe att Meuis in the Weste Indies Butt the wyndes not 
favoreinge them they weare inforced to shape their Cowrse di- 
rectly for England my Lorde haveinge lefte and apointed me 
deputy governour in his Absence To execute Marshall lawe or any 
other power and Authority as Absolute as himselfe. 

After my Lords depture the Indyans did fall to their wonted 
practyses ageine Comeinge one eaveninge Late and Called att our 
blocke howse The w^h when I understood I presently sentt to 
Lieftenantt Pcttocke who comawnded there thatt he sholde by 
noe meanes Stur owtt of the Blocke howse, butt to kepe An ex- 
cedinge Carefull guarde and watches, and to strengthen him I 
sentt him more men to double his guard Ageine expresly geveinge 
him Chardge thatt he shold nott goe owtt of the block howse upon 
Any Tearmes whattsoever ^misseinge him that the nextt mom- 
einge I wolde send him A convenyentt number of men to discover 
whatt they weare and of whatt strenghtt w^h had soe called them. 



276 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Butt Lieftenantt Puttocke beinge called ageine early the nextt 
morneinge before our watche was discharged in the foarte, Con- 
trary to my Comawnde and moste unadvysedly did goe outt of the 
Block howse w*h the small number of men he had Sheowinge more 
vallour then will more fury then Judgementt. And some fewe 
Indyans beinge in Sheowe he followed them w%outt apprehensyon 
of that w*^h ensewed for the Salvages still Retyreinge he followed 
them untill they browghte him into their ambuskado where beinge 
five or sixe hundrethe of Salvages lett fiye their Arrowes as thicke 
As hayle amongste our handfull of men And defeated and Cutt 
them all of in A moment The Arrowes w'^h they had shott beinge 
so many in Number thatt the grownd there aboutts was allmoste 
Covered w*h them upon w^h defeate the Salvages did so Aclamate 
Showte and hallowe in Tryumphe of their gayned victory thatt 
the Ecchoe there of made botb.e the Ayere and woods to Ringe. 
The w^h filleinge our eares in the Foarte presently w*h all Spede 
I sentt lieftenant Abbott w*h fifty men to Assiste Puttocke 
nott knoweinge derecttly whatt liad befallen them Althoughe we 
feared thatt w'^h had alercddy bapned. Xeverthelesse Lieften* 
Abbott encowntred w^h the Salvages They then Chaugeinge their 
noate Cryeinge Paspahe Paspahe Thereby importeinge as mutche, 
as thatt they had Revendged bis wrongs att lengbtt Abbott putt 
the Indyans to flight Recovered the deade bodycs of our men 
whome he browghte to our foarte where they weare Buryed. 

Upon this disaster I sentt A messenger unto Algernowns foarte 
supposeinge my Lorde La Ware had bene noe further on his voydge 
to have informed liim hereof butt the messenger Loste his Labour 
my Ix)rd beinge before depted. In shorte Tyme after Capte: 
Addames did come into our bay in a shipped called the blessinge 
w^b freshe Supply bothe of men and victewells geveinge us notice 
thatt S' Tho: Dale was to come shorttly after w*h A greater 
supply tlie w*^h ^ved Trewe for w%in towe monthes after he 
Aryved in Virginia and browghtt w*h him thre hundrethe men 
besydes greatt store of Armour, Municyon victewalls and other 
^vissyon. And beinge Landed he ordeyned newe Lawes sett downe 
good Articles w*^h weare well observed All our men beinge setto 



'^A Trewe Relacyon^' 277 

worcke some to plante some to sowe come and others to buyld 
boates and bowses moste men inployed in one thinge or another. 
All things in Tyme beinge well settled and ordered S'" Thomas 
Dale made preparacyon and wente ageinste the Nancemondies 
w^i a hundrethe men in Armour where he had dyvrs encownters 
and skirmishes w'h the Salvages bothe by Lande and water dyvrs 
of his company beinge wownded. Amongste the Eeste Capte : 
Francis Weste was shott into the Thyghe and Capteine Martin 
into the Arme. Sir Tho : Dale himselfe narrowly eskapeinge for 
An arrow light, iuste upon the edge or Brimme of his headepiece 
The w'^h if itt had fallen A thowght Lower mightt have Shott him 
into the Braynes and indangered his Lyfe. In theis Conflictts 
many Indyans beinge also slayne and wownded. And nott beinge 
acquainted nor acustomed to encownter w*h men in Armour mutche 
wondered thereatt especyally thatt they did nott see any of our 
men fall as they had donne in other conflictts. WTiereupon they 
did fall into their exorcismes coniuracyons and charmes throw- 
einge fyer upp into the skyes Eunneinge up and downe w*h Rattles 
and makeinge many dyabolicall gestures w^h many irigramantcke 
Spelles and incantacionus Imageinge thereby to cawse Eaine to fall 
from the Clowdes to extinguishe and putt owtt our mens matches 
and to wett and spoyle their powder butt nether the dievall whome 
they adore nor all their Sorcerres did anytheinge Avayle them 
for our men Cutt downe their Corne Burned their bowses and 
besydes those w*^h they had slayne browghtt some of them pris- 
soners to our foarte. 

S'' Tho : Dale makeinge more invasyons & excursions upon the 
Salvages had many conflictts w% them and one thinge amongste the 
reste was very remarkable The w<^h may be supposed to have bene 
ocasyoned by the Salvages Sorceries and Charmes for S"" Thomas 
Dale w% Some of the better sorte sitteinge in An Indyans bowse 
A fantasy possessed them thatt they imagined the Salvages were 
sett upon them cache man Takeinge one another for an Indyan 
And so did fall pell mell one upon An other beateinge one another 
downe and breakeinge one of Anothers heades, thatt Mutche mis- 
chiefe mighte have bene donn butt thatt itt pleased god the fantasy 



278 Tyler^s Quakteely Magazine 

was taken away whereby they had bene deluded and every man 
understood his errour. 

Aboutt this Tynie A Spauishe Caravell Aryved upon the Coaste 

and did come into the Bay w*howt command of Shotte. Thre 

principall of the Spanyards comeinge A shoare in their Boate 
nott furr of Algernowns foarte The w*h Capte : Davis espyeinge 
layd in Ambushe for them they nott knoweinge of any foarte to 
be theare and so surprysed them the chefeste of them beinge one 
Diego Malinos A comawnder of some foarte or houlde in the 
Weste Indies the other Antonio Pereos his companyon The thirde 
A pylott who wentt under the name and babbitt of A Spanyard, 
butt was after fownde and discovered to be Inglishe man his name 
beinge Limbrecke haveinge lived many years Amongste the Span- 
yards and Reputed to be A Goode Pylott After the serpryseinge of 
theis thre tlie boate wherein they did come putt from the shoare the 
men therein beinge questyoned pretended to seke for one of the 
Kinge of Spaynes shippes loaden w^h municyon bownd for the 
Weste Indies Requesteinge Capte : DAV^s to lett them have A pylott 
to bringe their shipp into the harbour the w'^h was grawnted Butt 
haveinge the pylott noe soener a board hoysed upp their sayles and 
caryed the pylott quyte away w*h them Leaveinge the thre w4i 
weare surprysed in his steade behynd them, who weare thereupon 
broughtt to James Towne and sentt as prissoners A board severall 
shippes And shortly after S*" Tho: Dale sentt my Selfe Capte 
Newport and M"" Stracy secretary to the Collonie to examin 
them And so Acuseinge them to have come for spyes they utterly 
denyed the same butt still urgeinge them there w*h Anto: Pereoh 
answered thatt we had noe cawse att all to feare any thinge this 
yere butt whatt mightt happen the nextt he coulde nott tell. And 
itt after appeared their intente was as eavell as we imagined for 
the Spanishe Ambassadour shorttly after gayned A Commissyon 
from the Kings Ma"** Kinge James Thatt we sholde send the 
principall Diego Malinos into England the w'^h w*h all spede was 
effected Capte: Martin beinge his conductt. Don Diego stayed 
nott longe in England. Butt was sentt hoame where he was made 
Generall of six tall shippes in All lykeliehoode and as we weare 



"A Tbewe Relacyon'' 279 

after certenely informed sett outt of purpose to Supplantt us. 
Butt haveinge bene att Sea about A monthe A mutenie did growe 
amongste them in so mutche thatt one of diegoes company stabbed 
him to deathe "\iVTiereupon their Course was alltered and their 
former determinacyon ceased. Antonio Pereos he dyed before in 
Virginia and S"" Tho: Dale att his goeinge for England did take 
our hispanyolated Inglishe man Limbrecke w% him. And acord- 
inge to some prp^ate Comissyon when he did come w*hin sighte of 
the Inglishe Shoare he cawsed him to be hanged upp att the yardes 
Arme as afterwards itt was trewly reported. 

Before S'' Tho: Dales depture Capte Davis att Algernowns 
foarte espyed nyne shippes upon the coaste Supposeinge them to 
be Spanishe And Sendeinge notice thereof to Sir Tho: Dale he 
presenttly sentt Capte : Bruster and Lieftenantt Abbott w% 
forty men to discover whatt they weare And they nott Retourninge 
acordinge to Sir Thomas expectacyon he feared thatt they weare 
either Surprysed or defeated. Whereupon he drewe All his forces 
into forme and order reddy for encownter Calleinge A Cowncell 
to Eesolve whether itt weare beste to mete w*h them. A board 
our shippes or for to maynteine the foarte. My opinyon I delyv- 
ered to Sir Tho: Dale and the Eeste. Thatt is was dowttfull 
whether our men wolde stande unto itt A shoare and Abyde the 
Bninte, butt A shippboard of necessety they muste for there was 
noe runneinge Away. So makeinge preparacyon to goe A board 
Capt: Bruster and Lieftenantt Abbott retourned and broughte 
us certeine newes thatt itt was S' Tho : Gates flete who was come 
now to be governour And Aryved there thatt eaveninge w*h A 
freshe supply bothe of men And ^vissyon haveinge unladen the 
shippes & ordered other necessary ocassyons S'" Tho: Gates 
Apointed S'' Tho: Dale their Marshall of the Collonie as itt 
was agreed upon in England to passe upp into the Cowntry neare 
unto the Ealles w*h aboutt towe hundrethe men to inhabitt there 
Capte : Bruster Leadinge Moste of his men overland and him 
selfe And A small company goeinge by water Capteyne Bruster 
in his martche was dyvs tymes assawlted and encowntered by the 
salvages beinge sente from Powhatax haveinge for their Leader 
one Munetute comonly called amongste us Jacke of the feathers. 



280 Tyler^s Quarterly Magazine 

By Reason thatt he used to come into the felde all covered OTer 
w*h feathers and Swans wings fastened unto his showlders as 
thowghe he meante to flye Capte : Bruster comeinge to the place 
apointed where S"" Tho: Dale did also mete w% him. And after 
dyvs encownter and skirmishes w^h the salvages gayned A con- 
venyentt place for fortificatyon where presenttly they did begin 
to buylde A foarte And S"" Tho : Dale named the same Henericas 
foarte in honnor of prinse Henry The Salvages weare nott Idle 
all this Tyme butt hindred their designes as muche as they colde 
slioteinge Arrowes into the foarte where w^h dyvrs of our men weare 
wownded & others indangered And some haveinge inplo3rmentt 
w^outt The foarte did come shorte hoame and weare slayne by the 
Salvages. 

S"" Tho: Dale haveinge allmoste finished the foarte and set- 
tled A plantacyon in thatt ^te dyvrs of his men beinge Idile and 
not willeinge to take paynes did Runne Away unto the Indyans 
many of them beinge taken ageine S"" Thomas in A moste severe 
mannor cawsed to be executed. Some he apointed to be hanged 
Some burned Some to be broken upon wheles, others to be staked 
and some to be shott to deathe all theis extreme and crewell tor- 
tures he used and inflicted upon them To terrefy the rests for At- 
tempteinge the Lyke and some w^'h Robbed the store he cawsed 
them to be bownd faste unto Trees and so sterved tliem to deathe. 

So leaveinge S"" Thomas busely inployed in finisheinge the 
foarte and settleinge their habitacyons lett us Retourne to James 
Towne ageine where our governour S*" Tho: Gates was resydentt 
Onely by the waye Southe A little att Algernownes foarte the 
w<^h was accidentially burned downe to the grownd except Capte: 
Davis howse and store howse. Whereupon Capte : Davis feareinge 
to Receve some displeasure and to be Removed from thense the 
same beinge the moste plentifulleste place for food, he used sutche 
expedityon In the Rebuyldeinge of the same ageine thatt it is 
allmoste incredible. 

Dyvrs Indyans used to come to our foarte att James Towne 
bringeinge victewalls w*h them Butt indede did Rather come as 



"A Tkewe Relacyon'' 281 

Spyes then any good affectyon they did beare unto us. Some of 
them S"" Tho: Gates cawsed to be Apprehended and executed for 
A Terrour to the Reste to cawse them to desiste from their subtell 
practyses. 

Thus haveinge Related unto your Lordshipp the Trewe ^ced- 
einges in Virginia from S'' Tho: Gates shippwracke upon the 
Bermudes untill my depture outt of the cowntry w^h was the 
22'^ Aprell 1612 The W^h day I sett sayle in A shipp named the 
Tryall And haveinge by computacyon sayled Aboutt 200 leauges 
w*h A Reasonable good wynde and fayere weather upon A Sudden 
A Greate storme did Aryse In so mutche thatt the mission maste 
did springe w*h the vyolence of the \\7ndes. And lyeinge in the 
Great Cabbin where the misson stoode I was thereby muche in- 
dawngered and in perrill of my Lyfe, for the same w*h greate 
force did grate upon my Cabbin and narrowly missed me And A 
barrell full w% here Beinge in the Cabbin the misson strucke the 
same to pieces thatt all the here did Runne Aboutt the Cabbin. 

The Storme ceasinge and our misson amended we Recovered 
flores Cowes and St Michelles nott towcheinge att any of theis 
Islands Butt shaped our Cowrse Northwarde where, falleinge 
beeallmed our dawnger was greater tlien the former for feare of 
famin and wante of foode haveinge butt a poore small quantetie 
of freshe water and thatt was so stencheous thatt onely washeinge 
my hands there w^h I cold nott endure the sentt thereof. Our 
greateste store of foode was pease. And those weare so corrupted 
mowldie Rotten worme eaten thatt there was noe Substance lefte 
in them butt beinge stiwred wolde Crumbell into duste, so thatt for 
wante of foode we weare lyke to ^ishe. Butt god lookeinge mercy- 
fully upon us, when we leaste expected to see our native Cowntry 
ageine. We happely mett w% A shipp of London bownde for newe 
fownd lande one Baker beinge master thereof who Releved us w^h 
Befe fishe Breade here and Tobaco w'^h greattly Comforted us and 
saved our lyves for itt was Above Thirty dayes after before we 
made lande w'^h was Ireland So after A longe dangerous voyage 
we did fall w% the Lande and putt into Crookehaven. Where we 



282 Tyler's Quabteely Magazine 

Remayned some fowertene dayes in w*^h Tyme we Refreshed our- 
selres and Eevicteweled our shipp. And then sett sayle ageine 
And w*hin eight dayes after Aryved in England and Anchored in 
Dover Roade, where we did mete w% S'' Samuell Argall bownde 
for newe England To displante the frenche Collonie there. The 
w*^h As I after hearde he valliantly ^formed, Butt how iuste the 
Cawse was I refer the same to A Judityous Censure. So stayeinge 
some fewe dayes att Dover to Acompany S'" Samuell I toake poaste 
horse and from thense Roade to London 

finis 



SYDNOR FAMILY AND ITS CONNECTIONS. 

In the Virginia Magazine, Vol. XXX, p. 44, is published an 
abstract of the will of Francis Sydnor, of Gray's Inn, Middlesex 
Co., England, dated 1653. In it he refers to his kinsman For- 
tunatus Sydnor, of Greenwich, in Kent, aged about 15 years. 

He was probably the Fortunatus Sydnor who figures in the 
records of Lancaster County, Virginia, about 1670. There are 
many references to his descendants in the Win. and Mary College 
Quarterly and in the Virginia Magazine, and persons of the Syd- 
nor name are now to be found in many parts of the State. Wil- 
liam Sydnor was living in Lunenburg County in 1804, and accord- 
ing to the Family Bible, whose record is given below, he appears 
to have been born April 27, 1752, and was son of Anthony Sydnor 
and Elizabeth his wife. Anthony Sydnor was bom January 18, 
1712, and was a son of Fortunatus and Ruth Sydnor. Fortunatus 
Sydnor was bom Nov. 8, 1673, and was son of Fortunatus Sydnor 
the immigrant to Virginia and Joanna, his wife. 

A copy of the entries in the Family Bible made in 1896 was 
furnished to the editor by Mr. Walter Sydnor, of Hanover County, 
Virginia. The original Bible is still extant in Missouri. 

Bible Record 
Opposite to the first page of the Record is written : 
"This Bible is the property of William Sydnor, Lunenburg." 



Sydnoe Family and Its Connections 283 

[First page, first column, 2d Tacan.] 

"Marriages 

William Sydnor was married to Sarah Garland March 5tb 
1778 

& to his second wife ) „,. , ,, _, 
the 27th Jany 1795 | Elizabeth Cross. 

Ann Sydnor Daughter to William & Sarah Sydnor was married to 
Thomas Blackwell the 1793 

Elizabeth Taylor Sydnor Daughter to William & Sarah Sydnor 
was married to William Trueheart the October 1799. 

Amanda Trueheart Daughter to William & Elizabeth True- 
heart was married to Burwell Starke the 15 of April 1828. 

Burwell Starke & Ann Baylor Hatchett daughter of William 
Hatchett were married the 14th of March 1839 

Burwell Starke & Fanny Lewis Hatchett daughter of William 
Hatchett were married the 29th of July 1853. 

(Second page of Record.) 

Births. 
First Column 

Children of Fortunatus Sydnor, an Englishman, & Joanna 
his wife & their births viz. 

Ruth Sydnor was born April 11^*" 1671 

Fortunatus Sydnor was born Nov^ 8*^** 1673. 

Ruth Sydnor was bom Augt 24^*^ 1676. 

Joan Sydnor was bom Augt 2"^ 1678. 

William Sydnor was bom NoV IS^^* 1680. 

Anthony Sydnor was bom Jany 18**" 1682 

[of] Children of Fortunatus & Ruth Sydnor his wife viz. 
William Sydnor was born Feby 26*'' 1699 
Judith Sydnor was born May 6*^' 1705 
Fortunatus Sydnor was born Jany 2'3''<' 1707 
Joanna Sydnor was bora Feby 8*'» 1709 
Anthony Sydnor was born Jany 18^*' 1711/12 



284 Tyler's Quaeteely Magazine 

Elizabeth Sydnor wife of Antliony Sydnor was born March 
2"'! 1722 
[of] Children of Anthony & Elizabeth Sydnor his wife viz. 

Fortunatus Sydnor was born Jany 30*** 1737/8 

John Sydnor was born March 19t»> 1739/40 
Second Column, 

Catharine Sydnor was born Jany. 3''<^ 1742/3 

Judith Sydnor was born April 16*** 1745 

Susanna Sydnor was born May 27'^ 1747 

Joseph Sydnor was born Oct 17'^ 1749 

William Sydnor was born April 27'*' 1752 

Bettey Sydnor was bom Feb 11*^ 1755 

Ann Sydnor was born Sept 9**» 1757 

Ruth Sydnor was born January 1^' 1760 

Anthony Sydnor was born May 27*'* 1762 

Fanny Mitchell Sydnor was born Nov. 19*^ 1766. 

Sarah Sydnor wife to William Sydnor was bom Octob"" 3^^ 
1752 

OF Children of William & Sarah Sydnor his wife viz. 

Ann Sydnor was born Feby IS*** 1779. 

Elizabeth Taylor Sydnor was born Nov S^^ 1780. 

Elizabeth Cross the second wife to William Sydnor was born 
in 1741. 

(Third page of Record) 
First Column. 

Burwell Starke was born the 27'*' May 1806. 
& Amanda his wife was born the 3P' Dec. 1809. 

Benjamin Franklin son to Burwell & Amanda Starke was born 
June 25'»> 1829. 

Elizabeth Taylor 1^ Daughter to Burwell & Amanda Starke 
was bom March 2'i^^ 1831. 

William Thomas, second son of Burwell & Amanda Starke was 
born March o^^ 1833 



Sydnoe Family and Its Connections 285 

Alfred Lewis third son of Burwell & Amanda was born April 
13tJ> 1835. 

Amanda Trueheart second daughter of Burwell & Amanda 
Starke v/as born 20^^ of April 1837. 

Edwin Temple first son of Burwell & Ann B. Starke was born 
the 20'h July 1840 

Virginia Burwell first daughter of B & Ann B. Starke was born 
18*^ July 1843 

Judson second son of B & Ann B. Starke was born 21^ Nov 
1844 

Edward Brooke third son of B & Ann B. Starke was born IT*** 
Sept 1846 

James Newton fourth son of B. & A. B. Starke was born 4*^ 
of Oct' 1847. 

(Third page of Record. Second column) 

Deaths. 
Fortunatus Sydnor departed this life 1728 

Anthony Sydnor departed this life October 1759 
William Sydnor departed this life Jan 23'-d 1751 
Fortunatus Sydnor departed tliis life March 14*^ 1750 
Joanna Sydnor departed this life young. 
Anthony Sydnor departed this life Oct 5^^ 1779 
Fortunatus Sydnor departed this life February 12*^^ 1781 
Judith Sydnor departed this life in March 1778. 
Susanna Sydnor departed this life March 5*^ 1766 
Fanny Mitchell Sydnor departed this life Octob'" 27*^^ 1769 
Sarah Sydnor first wife to W" Sydnor departed this life Jan 
7"-^ 1789 

Ann Sydnor departed this life October 23'"'' 1793 



286 Tyi^ek^s Quaeteely Magazine 

(Fourth page of record. First column) 
Elizabeth Sydnor second wife to William Sydnor Departed 
this life the 1 day of October 1815 
Children of B & Ann B. Starke 
Edwin Temple born July gO"* 1840 
Virginia Burwell born July 18^ 1843 
Judson born Nov 21^ 1844 
Edward Brooke Sept IT^** 1846 
James Newton born Oct 4** 1847. 

Children of B. & Fanny L. Starke. 

Mar)' Ann born May 17*^ 1854. 

William Gwathmey born Apr 24^ 1858. 

I^wis Newton bom Nov 1^ 1859 

Eobert Lee born Aug 10^ 1861 

Lucy Gwathmey bom the 28^ of September 1863 

Americus Hatchett born the 4*** of September 1865 

(Fourth page of Record) 
Second Column. 

Amanda Starke wife of Burwell Starke & daughter of Wil- 
liam Trueheait departed this life July 10'*' 1837 in the 
27''' year of her age, 

Ann Baylor 2"** wife of Burwell Starke & daughter of Elder 
W"" Hatchett departed this life March S^'^ 1851 in the 33^"^ year 
of her age. 

Amanda Trueheart 5''' child of Burwell & Amanda Starke 
died 20'*' of July 1837 aged 4 month. 

Alfred Lewis son of Burwell & Amanda Starke departed this 
life July 18''' 1855 in the 21^ year of his age. 

James Newton son of Burwell & Ann Baylor Starke departed 
this life January 13"' 1855 in the 9''' year of his age. 

Mary Ann first daughter of Burwell & Fanny L. Starke his 
wife was born May the 17''' 1854 and died the 9^^ of May 1855 

William Gwathmey first son of Burw'ell & Fanny Lewis Starke 
was born the 24"' of April 1858 and died on the 2"*^ day of October 
aged 5 months & 8 days. 



NoKTON Correspondence 287 

AmericTis Hatchett son of B. and Fanny L. Starke died Oct. 
1&^ 1890. Age 25-1-12 

Fanny L. wife of Burwell Starke died July 2S^^ 1891. Age 
67-5-6. 

Burwell Starke died July 16**" 1895. Age 89-1-19. 

These Eecords copied from the Family Eecord in an old Bible 
at present in possession of Lucy Gwathmey Fleet (nee Starke) 
daughter of Burwell Starke by William B. Sydnor. 

August 18^^ 1896. 

Corder: Lafayette County, Mo. 



NOETOX COEEESPONDENCE. 

John Xorton came to Virginia and settled in Yorktown before 
1745. He was one of the Justices of York County and repre- 
sented the County in the House of Burgesses in the Assembly of 
1752-1754. He had a store and warehouse at Yorktown and be- 
came one of the leading merchants of Virginia. He married Court- 
ney "Walker, daughter of Jacob Walker of Elizabeth City County, 
who was brother of Margaret Walker, who married Thomas Wythe, 
father of Chancellor George Wythe. Jacob Walker was son of 
George Walker, pilot of James Eiver in 1697 and gimner and 
storekeeper at Fort Point Comfort in 1723, and Anne Keith, his 
wife, daughter of the celebrated George Keith^ who figures ex- 
tensively in Quaker history (Willmm and Mary College Quarterly, 
IX, 127; X, 207, 281; XVIII, 289-291). 

John Norton was son of John Norton, of London^ and Anne 
Hatley, his wife, daughter of George Hatley and Miss Scott, widow 
of John Flowerdew. By his marriage with Courtney Walker, 
John Norton had four sons, John Hatley Norton, George Flower- 
dew, Daniel and Henry, and one daughter, Frances. 

After staying in Virginia many years, John Norton returned 
to London in 1764, leaving his son John Hatley Norton to repre- 
sent him at Yorktown. This gentleman was bom September 4, 



288 Tylek's Quaeteely Magazine 

1745, and was a Justice of York County and a prominent mer- 
chant. He married, first, Sarah Nicholas, daughter of the Treas- 
urer, Eobert Carter Nicholas, and 2dly. Catherine Bush, daugh- 
ter of Philip Bush, of Winchester. Frances Norton, his sister, 
married her first cousin, John Baylor, son of John Baylor and 
Lucy Walker, another daughter of Jacob Walker, of Elizabeth 
City County. 

The letters which follow are selected from a mass of papers in 
the possession of Judge J. K. M. Norton^ of Alexandria, who is a 
son of George Hatley Norton and his wife Anne Burwell Mar- 
shall, grandson of George Hatley Norton and Maria Gault, his 
wife, and great-grandson of John Hatley Norton and Sarah 
Nicholas his wife. 

To John Hatley Norton. 

London the 10th may 1767. 
Dear Hatley. 

I wrote you the 17th past & intended it pr. Capt. Wilkinson he 
told me on change he was goe:g to Gravesend himself this afternoon, 
that Mr. Athawes's youngest son wd. follow him in ye even.g after 
with all his letters, & if mine were sent any time in ye fornoon they 
wd. be soon enough, but Instead thereof I went with them to Mr. 
Athawes* in ye morn:g and he went down the Night Tide, so they were 
left, & those sent pr. post to Ramsgate (it being a bye post) did not 
get there till day Noon, & they were left likewise as I expected, & 
have been since returned home, you have them pr. this opporty. in 
which Mr. Ballard is passenger with Capt. Littell bound to Jas. River. 
In looking over matters since ye ship sailed I find by Mr. Barwick's 
neglect: g to make out 2 bills of pchs. 1 for Col. Edw. Digges ye other 
Mr. Jno. Perrin for each a pr. of silk which your mother hot. for 
her own wear:g but substituted them instead of those they order'd 
neither of them have been charged in their invoices. I have wrote 
them off & must charge them with it, also Mr. Barwick has added his 

bill of patt8(?) for Mr. Prentis's goods £10 short at least Mr. 

Prentis is cha:d £10 too little for the same pr. his invoice, have 

since charged him with ye error & pr. the 1st opporty. advised him 
of it. We are all much as you left us, your Sr. has been to Whitfields 



♦Samuel Athaws a prominent merchant of London, in the Virginia 
trade. 



Norton Correspondence 289 

Tabernacle & satisfied her curiosity, she seemed much disappointed, 
his oratory fell greatly short of her expectations. I have done little 
in the Tobo, way since I wrote have sold only 10 hhds. of Sticky Stript 
Leaf to Mr. Grote at 3d ye 36 hhds. sold Lyde of Stript Leaf Prov'd 
in gen'l very rotten on delivery, old Mr. Hodgkin too 900 allowce. 
& wou'd hardly agree to take them at that, many hhds. turn'd out 
rotten quite thro, they belonged to Mr. Benja. Herndon, Geo. Halloway, 
Hy. Hill, Geo. Brooke & Wm. Thomson. I have got off the leaf of 
that Stamp to Andrews & Co. & Sayer, on pretty good terms, except 
ye hhd. DVN wch. was so bad I let him have it at 2d & without 
allowce. I have only hhds. Leaf & 18 hhds. Stript of Anderson's 

Cargo & 80 of Lilley's by odd ships unsold, many of them by Lilley 
being new I fear will stick on hand, but the old Tobo. I am not much 
afraid of as most of the Merchts. have clear'd their warehouses. Lilly 
has put his ship up at the Coffee house to sail this mo. pr. him 
probably you hear from me again at prest. remain with all our good 
wishes to you & frds. in Virga. 
Dr. Hadley 

Yrs. Affectionately, John Norton. 

P. S. I have pd. ye greatest part of the Tradesmen & hope ye 
remainder will be so before the week expires. 



To Mr. John Norton. 

Dear Sir. 

I shall be obliged to you if you will send me eight or ten gallons 
of the best arrack in carboys properly secured and some gardenseeds. 
Your son left us this morning. He is in very good health and spirits. 
He was was going to Hanover court. With my best wishes for yours 
and your family's happiness I am, 

Dear Sir, Your most obedient sevt. 

G. Wythe. 
Williamsburg, June 1768. 

Addressed "To Mr. John Norton, Merchant in London. 
By favour of Mr. Stevenson. 

On Back. 

Virginia 1st June 1768. George Wythe. Rec'd 25th July. Mr. Steven- 
son Goods entd. 452. Answd. the August 1768. Woodford 



290 Tyler's Quabterly Magazine 

To John Norton. 
Dear Sir. 

I wrote many months ago to Messrs. James Buchanan and Com- 
pany for an elegant set of table and tea china, with bowls of the 
same of different sizes, decanters and drinking glasses, an handsome 
service of glass for a desert, four middlesized and six lesser dishes, 
and three dozen plates of hard metal, 100 skins of writing parchment 
proper for enrolling our acts of assembly on, several bundles of bed 
guilts, two pieces of blanketing and as many of rolls for servants, 
10 or 12 pair of shoes and two slippers for myself, and one or two 
other articles which I do not recollect. At that time there was due 
to me about thirty pounds, I believe, for I have mislaid their last 
account current; and besides I had shipped four hogshead of tobacco 
to that house. Tlie goods have not come to hand, neither have I yet 
an account of sales of the tobacco. If they have not sent, nor design 
to send the goods, I desire you will be so kind as to let me have them, 
with a bonnet for Mrs. Wythe, and present the inclosed order and re- 
ceive the balance. A few days since I desired you would procure for 
me an handsome well built charriot, with the device now sent painted 
on it, for which you may depend on a seasonable remittance. I again 
beg the favour of your attention to the affair of the journals. If they 
are not to be procured let me be informed what 120 printed copies of 
them to the year 1752 will cost. If they do not exceed the sum I 
suppose the assembly, I doubt not, will defray the expence. The pros- 
pect of a benefit to me, I flatter myself, will not only excuse the earn- 
estness and frequency of my importunities, but stimulate your en- 
deavors to serve me in this business. You will oblige me by sending 
a copper plate, with the arms of Virginia neatly engraved, and some 
impressions of them to be pasted on the books belonging to the house 
of burgesses. If any additions are made on the plate in consequence 
of wnat is proposed within, I will cheerfully pay the extraordinary 
cost. J. H. N. left us a day or two ago in good health &c. I forgot 
to mention that I had drawn bills on Messrs. James Buchanan and 
company for about sixteen pounds payable to Mr. James Cocke. 

I am, Dear Sir, Your sincere friend and well wisher, 

G. Wythe. 
Williamsburg. Aug. 18th 1768. 
Addressed "To John Norton, Esq., Merchant in London. 

On Back. 

Virginia 18th Augst. 1768. George Wythe Esqr. Rec'd 24th October. 
Goods entd. pa: 76. pr. Capt. Robertson. Answd. the March 1769 

pr. Brilliant. 



I 



Norton Correspondence 291 

To John Norton. 

Rosewell May the 27th 1769. 
Dr. Sir. 

I wrote to you some time ago thanking you for the confidence you 
had put in me in sending me so many goods upon so small a con- 
signment, acquainting you with my disappointment, & showing how 
far I had complied with my promise of paying your Son &c. I cannot 
help assuring you again that I should not have sent you such an in- 
voice last year if I had known the amount of my debts here, & could 
have foreseen the expenses of Electioneering, for nobody hates the 
thought of being in debt more than I do, but the great scarcety of 
money here, the shortness of my crops for four years past, & the 
necessary expences of an increasing family joined to the commence- 
ment of house-keeping in a large house, have forced me to submit to 
it for a while; but I hope it will not be long, as I have a very good 
prospect for a crop, have engaged a good overseer, have resolved not 
to send to England for anything this year, & have entered into the 
Association. I like the Association because I think it will repeal 
the disagreeable acts of Parliament, open the eyes of the people with 
you, & must certainly clear us of our debts. All North America will 
join in this cheme. How must your Manufacturers curse the Minister 
who has driven the Colonies to this! I am astonished at Ld. Hills- 
borough. His method of quelling riots in London, & supporting the 
civil power in America, as he terms it, will render him eternally 
ridiculous & odious to both English & Americans. I am amazed at 
the influence he seems to have over both houses of Parliament; their 
Resolves are almost a copy of his letter to Governor Bernard. Is it 
not shocking to think that he not only executed that dangerous & 
impolitic scheme of sending troops to Boston, but was able to get 
the approbation of Lds. & Commons? Is not every honest Englishman 
alarmed at their resolves & address? Mentioning their resolves & 
address puts me in mind of ours,* but I suppose you will see them 
before you get this. Ld. Botetourt required nothing of the Assembly, 
but they were so provoked at the resolves of the Lords & Commons 
that they enter'd the resolves for which his Lordship thought proper 
to dissolve them. This has not lessened him in their esteem, for 
they suppose he was obliged to do so; he is universally esteemed here 
for his great assiduity in his office, condescension, good nature & true 
Politeness. 

I hope our unhappy differences will soon be soon at an end; for 



*The celebrated resolves of May 16, 1769, by which Virginia rallied 
the whole continent to resistance. 



292 Tyi^er's Quarterly Magazine 

I think that the Parliament must be soon convinced that the acts 
we complain of are unconstitutional & anticommercial, & then will, 
with a greatness of mind worthy of that august body, repeal them as 
such. 

I have given Capt. Robertson 10 Hhds. which was all I had after 
paying levies & overseers. I shall be obliged to you if you will in- 
sure them. I believe I have had one of the worst overseers in the 
world. My wife joins me in best wishes to you yr. l^dy & Family. 
I am yours sincerely 

John Page, Jun.r 
On Back. 
Virga., 27th May, 1769. John Page, Jun.r. Re:;cived 25th July. 
Ansd. the 26th Augst. 1769. Capt. Cocke. 

To John Norton. 

York, 14th Aug't, 1769 
Dear Sir, 

Your kind letter shou'd have been answer'd sooner but some little 
disappointments and perplexities prevented me. I have now enclosed 
a bill of Exchange for some necessaries for Housekeeping; I imagine 
you'l be a little surprised at my undertaking; when I might with more 
propriety perhaps have consulted the undertaker but such is the 
propensity of Mankind to be Whimsical that I am affraid wee shall 
be so as long as wee live in this world. 

You'l see by my invoice that I am an Associator; that I am so 
I am sure will give me some Merit with Mrs. Norton; not that I 
doubt Mr. Norton neither: But believe me, our poor Country never 
stood in more need of an effort to save her from ruin than now; not 
more from the taxes, and want of trayd than from our own extrava- 
gances. The 2 shilling linen being for my own Wear, I recommend 
it to your choice; I expect to be dress't in Virginia cloth very soon, 
and as I am a little incommoded with corns, in Mockasins likewise. 
I have given up the Article of Tea, but some are nof quite so tractable; 
however, if wee can convince the good folks on your side the Water 
of their Error, wee may hope to see happier timea. Whatever our 
fare may be I wish you and yours health and Happiness and remain. 

Sir 

Your Afft friend 
and oblgd hum Servt. 

M. Jaquelin* 



♦Martha Jaquelin, daughter of Edward Jaquelin, of Jamestown. 
For other ladies of the Association, see William and Mary Quarterly, 
VIII, 36. 



Norton Correspondence 293 

To John Norton. 

Virginia, Norfolk, December 17, 1769. 
Dear Sir: — 

It is some time since I had the pleasure of hearing from you, and 
take this opportunity to ask the favour of your assistance, as I am 
satisfied from your known disposition that you axe always ready to 
serve any of your friends in Virginia. I have been an Ofl&cer of the 
Customs, a Surveyor of Elizabeth River for better than thirty years 
and by the records of the Court of Admiralty I have made more 
seizures than most all the OflQcers in the Colony, and it is immagined 
there will be a new Custom House Erected at Norfolk soon. A few 
days past Mr. Williams, Inspector General, arrived in Norfolk from 
Boston who is appointed to inspect into the OflSces of the Customs in 
the Several Colonys and on his return to the Commissioners at Bos- 
ton his report will be accordingly, by what I can understand from 
him he is much surprised a place of such Consequence in Trade should 
be without a Custom House, tho he is very Cautious what he sais. 
Since I made the three seizures which was last winter of two Brigs 
& a Sloop which I wrote to the Commissioners relative thereto, I had 
in answer a very polite Letter and highly approving of my conduct, 
upon the return of the inspector General if he thinks Norfolk ought 
to have a Custom house Erected there, the Commissioners is to report 
It home and I am creditably informed Mr. Wm. Bradley is waiting for 
that purpose, Exi)ecting either to be appointed Collector or Naval 
oflicer. now as I have been an oflScer there so many years, I think 
in Justice I ought to be prefered, and if you can make Interest lor 
me vnth your friends to ingage one of those places either Collector 
or Naval Officer, I shall readily pay with pleasure the Expense you'd 
be at in obtaining it and do Earnestly beg you will do all you can 
which I shall ever acknowledge. I have wrote to Mr. Dintoiddie 
and hope he vnll do all in his power and shall he glad you will speake 
to him about it. also wrote to E. Steuart hut am doubtful, as he is 
fond of prefering his Countrymen, tho he promised me. I have not 
mentioned a word to Col. Hunter for fear of his thinking of Balfour 
or Barraud, therefore the Sooner if possible it can be ingaged for me 
the better, and if I am so happy to obtain it, it will suit me to live in 
Norfolk it being so near and convenient to my Estate, and beg Dear 
Sir you will be my friend and do all you can, which you may depend 
I shall do all in my power here to serve you. Mrs. Moseley Joines me 
with our best wishes to you and Mrs. Norton, and am with great 
Esteem 

D'r Sir your mo't Humble Servt., 

Edw. Hack Moseley. 



294 Tylek's Quaetekly Magazine 

I have forgot to mention to you one thing that is my son Bassett 
Moseley who dos business for himself in the dry goods way and Is 
well situated in the Town of Norfolk desires me that I would men- 
tion him to you as he wants a few goods to sort his store to the 
value of one hundred & fifty or two hundred pounds if you'l please 
to send them out to him he will remit you for them in three or four 
months tho I believe he will send you a bill much sooner by the next 
ship. I am D'r Sir, 

With great Exteem your 
most H. Servt. 
E. H. Moseley 
Addressed to Mr. John Norton, Merchant in London. 

To John Norton. 

Virginia, July 20, 1770. 
Sir: — 

I beg you will excuse my presuming to trouble you with this, 
perhaps you, or yr Lady, may Remember my Daughter Mary Moir 
Left two sons & a Daughter when she Dy'd. the boys I Brought up, 
& they are Bound one to a trade, the other to the sea. the girl my 
Daughter Davenport took, & is still here. I was obllg'd to break up 
housekeeping & Live with her after Mr. Davenport Dy'd, and have 
been a cripple with the Rhumatism this three years. I am more than 
70 years old, & am helpt from the Bed to the chair, confined to one 
Room. Now to the substance of what I Desire to acquaint you with, 
if I may be permitted so to doe. Mr. Moir was here a few days since, 
and inform'd me he had Rec'd a Letter from Mr. Mackey, which 
married his sister, that a friend in Sweeden was Dead & had Left him 
a Leggacy, and Desired him to come to England, and to bring his 
Daughter, & his wife would take care of her and bring her up. this 
I should be glad off, as I am so old, & her Aunt Davenport is so very 
Low & weak, in a consumption, she is advis'd as the Last Remedy to 
cross the sea, and is gone to Bermuda, if she should Die, god only 
knows what will become of poor Nancy Moir, for she has no near Rela- 
tion here Left. Mr. Wm. Nelson has Let Mr. Moir have money & 
goods, I am told, on that Letter. Now what I humbly Request of 
you is, if Mr. Mackey Does not Live at too great a Distance, that you, 
or Yr Lady if it is not too great a favour to ask, could see Mrs. 
Mackey, & know from her, if she will send for her Niece Nancy Moir, 
there is many prittey traids there that she might put her to, that is 
not in my power to doe here, & Nancy is very willing to goe to her 
aunt, but she would not goe to Maryland with her father, as he has 



Norton Correspondence 295 

another wife. I believe she was afraid he would Leave her with his 
wife, & not carry her to her aunt, as you are the only person I know 
in England, I thus made bold to write to you, and was incourag'd 
so to Doe, as I know you both delight to doe good, & help the Dis- 
trest, and such must poor Nancy Moir be without a friend. I am with 
the greatest Respect yr most oblig'd & obed. Servt. 

Anne Matthews.* 
Mr Daniel Mackey Lives in Friday Street Mercht in London 
Addressed to John Norton, Esq., Mercht. in London 

To John Norton. 

Williamsburg 2d Jan, 1772. 
Dear Sir: 

This will be delivered to you by Mr. William Leigh.f a young Gen- 
tleman, who has lately finish'd his Studies at our College & is just 
embarking for England to take Holy Orders. His exceeding great 
merit has justly entitled him to the Esteem of all his Acquaintance 
in Virginia & I beg Leave to recommend him to your particular favour 
and Regard. 

Sincerely wishing you and all yours a long and uninterupted Ser- 
vice of happy years, I am very truly, D'r Sir, 

Yr. afft. hbl. Servt. 

Ro. C. Nicholas 

To John Hatley Norton. 

My Dear Son. 

This is to congratulate you & my daughter on your marriage wish- 
ing you both all worldly happiness. I expected a letter by Cap. White 
but imagine it might have miscarried as neither your father nor 
myself have had any account from you in your last you mentioned 
that you were to be married tomorrow but as tomorrow is a day that 
may never come I did not rest myself satisfied with that certainty. 
Pay my respectful compts to Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas my cousin With 
[Wythe] & his lady, not forgetting my nephew Jacob Walker, my 
dear father's favorate; as to your future settlement in life I must 



*The will of Anne Matthews was proved in York County 21 Sept., 
1772. She names her son-in-law Mr. George Davenport (who was a 
lawyer), and daughter Catherine, son John Baker and daughter Anne 
Wright. TTie will was witnessed by David Jameson, Laurence Smith, Jr., 
and Matthew Hubberd. 

tRev. William Leigh, father of Senator Benj. Watkins Leigh. 



296 Tyler's Quakterly Magazine 

leave that to your father's advice & your own prudence, should be 
glad to know what your plan Is by the first opportunity as a proper 
beginning often terminates in a happy issue. You are now blessed 
with a woman capable of making you happy which I hope you will 
love & cherish as you lately promised, my best respects to all my 
good friends not forgetting Mr. Reynolds.* I will write him by Cap. 
Necks as I cannot now being much interrupted by my poor Harry's 
illness, the rest of the family thank God are very well 
Your Affectionate Mother, 

Courtenay Norton 

Addressed "To John Hatley Norton, Esq., in York Town, Virginia. 
By favor of Cap. Robertson." 
On back. London Mar. 72. Courtenay Norton, Rec'd June 72. Answd. 

To John Norton. 

Virginia, Williamsburg, 26 March, 1772. 

Sir: 

I am directed by the Presidt. & Proffessors of William and Mary 
College to inclose you a bill lading for 7 hhds. Toba. on board the 
Greenvale Capt. Bowie, addressed to you. They gave your son orders 
for 13 hhds. which the Capt. says he sent a craft for, but those were 
only ready, the other 6 will go, probably, in one of your own ships 
if they should arrive soon. 

Mr. Camm, who was appointed Presidt. during the Comys.f ab- 
sence, desires me to offer his compliments, & that he would himself 
have wrote you but that he is not quite recovered from a fit of the 
gout in his hands. 

Pray offer my respectfull compliments to Mrs. Norton & your 
family, & be assured the Civilities I reed, from you while in London I 
shall ever remr. with gratitude, & wish for nothing more than an 
opportunity of serving you. 

I am with equal respt. & regard. Sir, Your mo. ob Servt. 
Rob. Miller, Bursar of Wm. & Mary College. 



*Capt. Thomas Reynolds lived in Yorktown where he was partner 
in many seagoing vessels. He married Susanna Rogers, daughter of 
Capt. William Rogers. Reynolds died in 1759 and Mr. John Norton 
was one of his expcutors. His son William was the person referred 
to in the letter. 

iRev. Thomas Horrocks, president of William and Mary College 
and Commissary of the Church. 



!N^OKTOx Correspondence 297 

John Norton, Esq. 

Addressed "To John Norton, Esq. & Son, Merchants, London. 

Tlie Greenvale Capt. Bowie, Q. D. C. 

On Back. 
Virga. 26 March 1772. Robert Miller, Reed. 25 May. Answd. the 
July. 

To John Hatley Norton. 

May ye 5th— 1772. 
My dear Son. 

I hope this will be delivered you by Mr. Powell who goes pas- 
senger in Capt. Necks with a few triffles for you & my daughter 
pray my love to her. I hope my dear you have had no return of your 
illness since your marriage but hope a good wife will take care of 
you & comfort you. Your Uncle Fludger* has lately had a stroke 
of the palsey but hope if he has no return of it he may get the better. 
Your Fds. are well and desire to be remembered to you. As I know 
my dear my health is not indifferent to you I can with pleasure say 
that I am a great deal better though not quite well. Pray God bless 
you & yours. Amongst the things your sister has sent a work bag 
to her sister with her kind love to you both wishing you all the hap- 
piness this world can afford. 

Your truly affectionate mother 

Courtenay Norton. 

Addressed "To John Hatley Norton, Esq., Merchant in York Town, 
Virginia." To the care of Mr. Powell. 

To John Hatley Norton. 

Oct'br ye 28th 1772 
Dear Brother 

by your last letter I Understood you were gone up to the Springs 
for your Health. I heartily wish you a reisstablishment of it as that 
is Certainly the most Essential part of our happiness. I am sorry to 
hear that my Sister has had an Inflammation in her eyes I have 
been in the same state for near these 3 Months past at times so that 
hardly able to attend either book or work but what has done me the 
most good of any thing that I have yet Tried is Dipping my head in 
Cold water every Morning which thank God by his assistance has 
made them well. My Mama sent out your Goods by Capt. White 
which she hopes will prove to your entire Satisfaction; she has made 
some little alterations which she hopes will not be Disagreeable, as 



♦Flowerdew? 



298 Tyler's Quabteely Magazine 

they were ordered to the best of her Judgment I must thank you for 
your kind letter & the good Instruction which it Contain'd I shall 
try to follow as near as possible so as deserve the good opinion that 
my F'ds & Relatives entertain of me & especially to answer the ex- 
pectations that my dear Parents have of me I have no news to Re- 
late to you at Present except that is thought Wilks will be our Lord 
Mayor, the other Party have demanded a Scrutiny it will not be finally 
ended till next Month my Brother George is a strong Wilkite he is 
continually railing at the Ministry we laugh and tell him he knows 
better how to add an 8th or a 16th to the pound in selling Tobacco 
my Mama tells him that neither he nor she were made to rule the 
state my Aunt Fludger Joins in love, she is now so blind as to be 
just able to sign her name, therefore beggs leave to assure you of her 
sincerest wishes for your & my Sisters happiness the same as if she 
wrote my Mama gives her love she received your letter but has 
not leisure to answer it at Present we all join in love to you & my 
Sister 

I remain Dear Brother with Fillial Love 
your Affectionate Sister 

Frances Norton* 
P. S. 

pray my love to Mr. Reynolds tell him I 
received his letter will answer it by 
another opportunity 

Frances Norton 
To John Hatley Norton Esq. Williamsburg 



*She married John Baylor 

(To be continued.) 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 

Goldsmiths and Silversmiths. — These trades were repre- 
sented at Williamsburg in colonial days. John Brodnax was a 
goldsmith in Williamsburg before 1719, when his will was proved, 
and John Coke before 1744. John Bryan was a silversmith before 
1749, when he is mentioned as such. They imported plate from 
England but also made some themselves. Thus, in the inventory 
of Henry Bowcock, tavern keeper of Williamsburg, there is men- 
tion of "silver" as follows: 



Historical and Genealogical I^otes 299 

101 oz. 14 wt, plate of new sterling @ 6s=£30.10. 2% 
106 oz. 14 do. old sterling @ 5s=£29. 6.10 

36 oz. 16 do. Virginia made @ 5s:=£ 9. 4.10 

Henry Bowcock, Tavern keeper, of Williamsburg, names in 
his will a son Henry, who married Elizabeth Lowe Tyler, sister 
of John Tyler, marshall of the Vice Admiralty Court, and in 
1742 Henry Tyler, her uncle, administered on the estate of Henry 
Bowcock, who died without will. They appear to have had at least 
two children, Mary, mentioned as such in the will of Agnes Hil- 
liard (1746), and probably Henry Bowcock, a printer in Wil- 
liamsburg, who died about 1779, when his will was proved at 
Yorktown. In 1752 a deed shows that Elizabeth Lowe (Tyler) 
Bowcock had married John Palmer, a lawyer, who was also bursar 
of William and Mary College. He died in 1760. In 1775 John 
Tyler (afterwards governor) advertised in the Va. Gazette "a brick 
house and its appurtenances, belonging to the daughters of the late 
John Palmer." {Wm. & Mary Quarterly, XVII, p. 150.) Eliza- 
beth Palmer, one of the daughters, married in 1770 Eichard Marot 
Booker, of Halifax County, Va., son of Col. Richard Booker, of 
Amelia, and Rachel Marot, his wife, daughter of John Marot of 
Williamsburg. (Halifax Co. Marriage Bonds.) 

Gunsmiths in Williamsburg. — Governor Spotswood brought 
to Virginia John Brush, as gunsmith. His daughter Susanna mar- 
ried I, Thomas Barber, II, Rev. Francis Fontaine, Professor of 
Oriental Languages in William and Mary College. (William and 
Mary Quarterly, V, 195, 213.) In 1729 Henry Bowcock bequeatlis 
to his son Henry "his silver watch and gun made by John Brush, 
and a case of pistols with brass barrels made by Hawkins, and my 
bowsing and holster caps." In Henry Bowcock's inventory the 
gun made by Brush is referred to as "1 bird piece made by Brush" 
(valued at) £2.10. After Brush came James Geddy, gunsmith, to 
whom in 1738 Samuel Boush and Frances, his wife, sold lot 62 in 
the plan of the City. And in 1751 David and William Geddy, 
his sons, were smiths, who, besides repairing all kinds of gunwork, 
made all kinds of cutlery. At Yorktown similar work was carried 
on by Ephraim Goosley. He stated that 'Tiis materials and work- 
men were from the best shops in London." {WiUiam and Mary 
Quarterly, XII, 83, 157.) 



300 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Maeston Church in York County. — This church was sit- 
uated near Magruder, in York County, and is marked by some old 
brick and some tombstones of the Garrett family. It is referred 
to in the following order: "It is ordered that Richard Booker, 
Gent., be appointed surveyor of the Road which leads from the old 
church over the Capitol Landing, in the room of Robert Clarke, 
but it is ordered that he keep the said Bridge and cosway in good 
repair at the County's charge." 

BusHROD, Thomas. — Judge Bushrod Washington was de- 
scended from Richard Bushrod (born 1626). The last was brother 
of Thomas Bushrod (born 1604), who was a resident of York 
County, Va. He appears to have come from Massachusetts, being 
unable to reconcile himself to the rules of that despotic country. 
Thus, in the Massachusetts Records : "3rd 7 month, 1639, Thomas 
Bushrode being accused of defaming the Government was con- 
victed and fined 6£ 13s 4d wch paying to bee discharged." 

Probably it was not long after this order that he removed to 
Virginia. We find him in York Count in 1647, where he was a 
member of the House of Burgesses in 1658-59. He sympathized 
with the Quakers, and in 1661, when a persecution was begun 
against them in Virginia, Bushrod was particularly obstreperous. 
His wife was a Quakeress, and, for his interference with her, 
Bushrod called Rev. Justinian Aylmer "a blind priest," "auti- 
Christ" and "proceeded from the Pope," and to Col. Augustine 
Warner, one of the Council, Bushrod said that he would not meddle 
with him as a councillor but that "bee ye said Warner," was "a 
Rogue & a dogg." In these remarks, while paying due deference 
to authority, he was quite positive in expressing his opinions of 
Aylmer and Warner. He was arrested and remanded to the auth- 
orities at Jamestown, but made his peace in some way. 

Bushrod engaged in merchandising and acquired a large estate. 
He married 1. Mary, widow of Capt. Thomas Hill, of Essex Lodge 
in York County, and 2. Elizabeth whose eldest daugh- 
ter, Lydia, apparently by another marriage, married Major Ed- 
mund Chisman, of Bacon's Rebellion. Mr. Bushrod, describing 
himself as of Essex Lodge, made his will December 18, 1676, and 
desired to be buried "in my old garden by the side of my wife 
Mary without comon prayeres or other customes used at ffunerals." 



Historical and Genealogical Notes 301 

It is suggestive of the inconstant actions of people at that time, 
who were much like children in their sudden gusts of passion, that 
Augustine Warner was one of his executors. 

Lydia Chisman was the heroine who, when her husband was 
arraigned before Gov, William Berkeley, took all the blame of his 
rebellion on herself and desired to be hanged in his stead. But Sir 
William repulsed her in a very unworthy manner. 

For Bushrod Family, see William and Mary College Quarterly, 
XIV, p. 177, XI, 29-32. 

In a notice in Vol. I, 30-33, there are some errors. 

Irby. — (William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, VII, 61.) Mary 
Tyler, sister of John Tyler, Governor of Virginia, married Wil- 
liam Irby, Jr., not John Irby as stated. There is a deed dated 
Nov. 24, 1799, from William Irby, Jr., and Mary, his wife, of 
Charles City Co., Virginia and parish of Westover to Littleberry 
Irby, of the said county, for 991/^ acres, which he, the said Wil- 
liam Irby, purchased of Joshua Knibb. It probably indicates the 
time of Irby's removal from the county to South Carolina. There 
was a commission appointed by the court priorly to examine the 
said Mary, and the report says that she was examined March 5, 
1802, and that William Irby was then dead. 

EoLFE.— The will of William Eolfe, dated December 30, 1784, 
is recorded in Mecklenburg County, Va., in which he mentions his 
wife, Elizabeth, sons William, Lewis, Edward and John, daughters 
Elizabeth Brame and Sarah Brame, the wives respectively of 
Thomas and James Brame and several grandchildren. The given 
names Addison and Warner Lewis and James Washington appear 
among the children and grandchildren of Thomas and James 
Brame. It is desired to know the maiden name of William Eolfe's 
wife, the names of his antecedents and whence he came to Meck- 
lenburg County. It is also desired to know the maiden name of the 
wife of Eichens Brame, whose will, probated in Mecklenburg 
County, Va., December 14, 1789, mentions her as Susannah; he 
removed from Caroline County, in 1760, to the portion of Lunen- 
burg County now embraced in Mecklenburg. What was the maiden 
name of the wife Mary of John Brame (grandfather of Eichens 
Brame), who patented 200 acres of land in Middlesex County, Va., 
October 23, 1690, and was he the emigrant of the family and 



302 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

whom did Melchizedek, Jemima, Kezia and Kerenhappuch Brame 
(brother and sisters of the above Richens Brame), born in 1717, 
1719, 1720 and 1724 respectively in Middlesex County, Va., marry 
and who are some of their descendants ? — Miss Lucile Brame, Apt. 
No. 2, 1 North Fifth Sreet, Richmond, Va. 

Chiskiack. — At the time of the arrival of the whites the region 
about the present Yorktown on the south side of York river was 
ruled by tlie Chiskiack Indians, whose chief village was located at 
a place three miles above Yorktown. These Indians were active in 
assaulting the whites at Jamestown, and in 1612 their chief was 
named Ottahotin. They took part in the Indian massacre of 1622, 
and, afterwards, to escape the vengeance of the whites, tliey emi- 
grated to the Pyanketank river. Here they continued until they 
dwindled away to nothing. 

Among the early proprietors of land in the Chiskiack district 
of the York was Henry Lee, who was a physician, and one of the 
magistrates of York County. His residence, called "Chiskiack," 
was not far from the Indian town. Later, his son of the same 
name prol;ably built the brick house which was burned and restored 
not many years ago. It continued in the family till both property 
and house were taken over by the Federal government in 1917. The 
last proprietor was W. H. H. Ijce, of Richmond, and in the Rich- 
mond newspapers is tlie announcement of the marriage of his 
daughter, Elizabeth Vestella Lee to W. L. Armstrong, of Boston, 
by Rev. Dr. Tuttle, of the Methodist Church, on Friday, 11 o'clock, 
March 31, 1922'. The young couple will reside in Augusta County, 
Virginia. 

Informatiox wanted concerning Thomas Lee, of Northum- 
berland Co., Va. Afterwards of "Wythe Co., Va., and as early as 
1783 he had business transactions in the vicinity of Rogersville, 
Tennessee. Later, deeds of sale and gift show that he resided there 
in Ijee Valley, now Hawkins Co. 

Was he the Thomas Lee who was Adjutant of Grayson's Regi- 
ment 1777 to 1778? 

He is styled Capt. Thomas Lee. His will was probated July 
4th, 1816. He calls his wife Mary Lee. — Mrs. Peter A. Boyle, 2801 
Rhodes Circle, Birmingham, Ala. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



VOL. III. 



The Ashburton Treaty (1842), 256, 257. 

The .\merican Luther League, 14. 

Amherst Co.: MiUtia Officers, 216. 

Appomattox Church, 71. 

Armistead, Ellyson, 70. 

Bailey, Robert, sport and gambler, 54-58. 

Baker, John, will of, 51. 

Baker, Judith, tombstone of, 153. 

Bedinger, Henry, tombstone of, 53. 

Berkeley County, West Va., 44-53. 

Bird, Thomas, will of, 137. 

Black Beard, 19. 

Book Reviews: The Mortons and Their 
Kin, 72; Andrew Meade of Ireland, 
147; History of the University of 
Virginia, 147, 148; American Lib- 
erty Enlightening the World, 148; 
Bulletin No. 1 of the Fauquier Co. 
Historical Society, 220; Old Marster 
and other Verses, 220. 

Botetourt, Lord: Sketch of, 106-108; 
announcement of his death, 109; 
statue voted him, 108, 116; his 
library, 123-126; founds two gold 
medaUic prizes, 107, 108; leaves to 
the Virginia Council his coach and 
portraits of the King and Queen, 
112, 114. 

Burgoyne's captured army, 6-13, 28-44. 

Bushrod, Thomas, 300. 

Butler, Benjamin F., his Order No. 28 
in New Orleans, 7-8. 

The Chenoweth Family, 186-194. 

Chiskiack: Indian tribe; name of Lee 
home, 302. 

Claiborne, Capt. Thomas, 219. 

Deeds and Wills, when recorded in Vir- 
ginia, 253-255; an outgrowth of Eng- 
hsh Statutes, 255. 

Democracy: Born at Jamestown in 1619, 
227; finds an exponent in Jefferson, 
81. 

Dr. Evans and the War (1861-1865), 157- 
164. 

Federal Armies: character under Mc- 
Clellan, under Grant, under Sher- 
man, 158. 

Fredericksburg, Physicians and Surgeons 
of, 219. 

Fontenoy, Battle of, 1-2. 

Gamble, Capt. Robert, 36, 40. 



Gates, Maj. Gen. Horatio, his deeds to 
property, 48-49. 

General Warrants in Virginia, 252, 253. 

Gerrard, John, Will of, 51. 

Greensville Co., Va., Marriage Bonds, 
58-66, 194-210. 

Harrison, Benjamin: Letters regarding 
Virginia's necessitous condition in 
1781, 23-27. 

Harrisburg Convention: How John Tyler 
was nominated Vice-President, 214- 
216. 

Hawkins, Joseph H. : A founder of Texas, 
20-23. 

Hessians: Experience as Prisoners, 6-13. 

Hite, John, Will of, 49. 

Hite, Thomas, Inventory of, 49. 

Honor System, 85, 86, 148. 

Jefferson, Thomas, exponent of de- 
mocracy, 80, 240; religious freedom, 
81; and education, 83; ignored by 
propagandists, 149-162; founder of 
"Americanism," 154, 234. 

King George Co. Will Book returned, 71. 

Lane, Joseph, Jr., and his Descendants, 
166-174. 

Lanier Family, 126-143, 210, 211. 

Lee, Jesse, Apostle of Methodism to New 
England, 2-6, 18. 

Lee, Major Gen. Charles, his will, 46-48. 

Leigh, Benj. Watkins, and the Vice-Presi- 
dency, 214-216. 

Leland, John, Baptist Missionary, 
preaches democracy, 18. 

Letters: Benjamin Harrison, 23-27; O. 
Towles, 29; Moses Hunter, 31; 
John Roberts, 33; John Nevill, 33; 
La Fayette, 34; F. Gannt, 35; Fra. 
Taylor, 36; Ro. Gambia, 36, 40; 
James McCalester, 37; Cad Jones, 
41; J. Syme, 42; C. Blackburn, 42; 
Thos. Bowyer, 43; Wm. Nelson, 
John Randolph, Robert Carter 
Nicholas, George Wythe, Jno. Blair, 
109-111, 113-115, 116-117, 117-118; 
Duke of Beaufort, 111-113, 115, 
118-119; Ehz. Williams, 39; Dr. M. 
F. T. Evans, 158-163; de la Pena, 
164; W. O. Davis, 210; Mrs. Charles 



INDEX 



W. Dixon, 211; H. R. Pollard, 212; 
Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, 214-216; Mrs. 
Julia G. Tyler, 255; George Percy, 
260; John Norton, 288; George 
Wythe, 289, 290; John Page, 291; 
Martha Jaquelin, 292; E. H. Mose- 
ley, 293; Anne Matthews, 294; 
Robert C. Nicholas, 295; Courtenay 
Norton, 295, 297; Robert Miller, 
296; Frances Norton, 297. 

Madison, James, St., Notice of, 70. 

Marriage Bonds (Greenesville Co.), 58- 
66, 194-210. 

Maury, Matthew Fontaine, 237. 

Maury, Walker, his .school, 219. 

Mayflower Compact, 73. 

McKinne, Patience, and her Descend- 
ants, 166-174. 

Morgan, Morgan, Will of, 52. 

Morrison, Dr. A. J., Remarks on the 
Civil War, 14-16. 

Mumford and Munford Families, 66-68. 

New England — How it learned De- 
mocracy, 2-6; Methodism brought 
by Je.sse Lee to, 3-6; description of 
the inhabitants of, 9-12; Illiteracy 
and drinking in, 9; an autocracy 
political, educational and religious, 
17-19, 73-84. 

Norton Correspondence, 287-298. 

Notes from V'a. Gazette, 219. 

"Old Marster and other Verses." By B. 

B. Valentine, 220. 
Old times in Virginia, 257. 
Otis, James, false claim made for, 150, 
249. 

Percy's "A Trewe Relacyon," 259-282. 

The 'Pla vers, 219. 

Pollard Family, 211-214. 

Poynor-Digges, 71. 

Provincetown, Mass., forbids the erection 

of a Methodist Church; lumber 

burned, 81. 
Propaganda, 149-152. 

Quakers, 302. 

Queries: Wimbish-Henderson, Povnor- 

Diggas, 71; Finch, 72; Palmer, 72; 

Yerby-Stoneham, or Stonum, 220; 

Brame, 301. 

Rebel and Rebellion: terms resented by 
Americans of the Revolution and 
Southerners in 1861. 

Riedesel, General, Commander-in-chief 
of the Hessians, 6-13. 



Robinson, John Hamilton, Notice of, 

154-156 
Rolfe Family, 301. 
Rumsev, Inventor of the steamboat, his 

will, 45. 
Rutherford, Robert, Accounts-Current, 

50; Inventory, 52. 
Rutherford, Thomas, Jr., 50. 
The School Ideal in America, 81. 
The Stamp Act, 246-251. 
Sugar Bill, 246-248. 

Sydnor Family Bible Records, 282-287. 
Swann, Samuel, Marriage Deed, 68. 
Swearingen, Thomas, Will of, 52. 

Tabb, Edward, will, 52. 

Tabb, George, will, 50. 

Tabb, Robert, Account, Current, 50. 

Thornton Family, 181-185. 

Tombstones: Judith Baker, 53; Major 
Henrv Bedinger, 53; Isaac Brown, 
69; Capt. John Hill Smith, 69; Alex- 
ander Mathy, 69. 

Towles, Col. Oliver, a prisoner at Long 
Island, 29-30. 

Tyler, John, and the Ashburton treaty, 
256, 257; and the Vice-Presidency, 
214-216. 

Van Meter, Henry, Will of, 50. 

Virginians: Why indolent, 11, 12; women 
verv industrious, 12. 

Virginia: Its Priorities, 84-86, 226-237; 
founder of the nation and its Ideals, 
S4-S.'i; founder of the World's Navies, 
84-97; her resolutions in May, 1769 
stirs the Continent, 107; leadership 
in the Stamp .\ct, 246-248; exclusive 
legislative powers, 249-255; Percy's 
account of, from 1609 to 1612; wheat 
farming in, 2.58. 

The Virginia Dynasty, 252-253. 

The Virginia or Merrimac: Revolutionizes 
Naval Warfare, 84-97, 287; defeats 
the Monitor, Ibid. 

Vobe, Mrs. Jane, Ordinary Keeper, 218, 
219. 

Washingtons of Surry, 142-143. 

Washington, Charles, will of, 52. 

Washington, Saml., will of, 51. 

Washington, Susanna, will of, 51. 

Washington, Thornton, will of, 52. 

Washington and Lee: Ideal Americans, 
218, 236. 

Wills: James Rumsey, 45; Major General 
Charles Lee, 46; Hite, John, 49; 
George Tabb, 50; Thomas Ruther- 
ford, 50; Henry Van Metre, 50; 
John Baker, 51; John Gerrard, 51; 



INDEX 



Robert Carter Willis, 51; Samuel 
Washington, 51; Charles Washing- 
ton, 52; Morgan Morgan, 52; Thomas 
Swearingen, 52; Thornton Washing- 
ton, 52; Edward Tabb, 52; Thomas 
Bird, 132; John Lanier, 144; Nicholas 
Lanier, 145. 

Whiting, Francis, estate recorded, 52. 

Whiting Matthew, account current, 52. 

Willis, Robert Carter, Will of, 51. 

Wimbish, Henderson, 71. 



Worden, John L., his report, 98-106. 

Williamsburg: Caricatured, 164; gold- 
smiths and silversmiths in, 298; 
Henry Bowcock, tavern keeper in, 
299; gunsmiths in, 299. 

Wood, Col. James, correspondence, 28- 
44. 

William and Mary College: C. de la 
Pena, professor of Modern Lan- 
guages at, 164, 165; a school of 
honor, 148. 



INDEX 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abbott, 276, 279. 

Abingdon Parish, 66, 67. 

Adams (Addams), 60, 61, 74, 79, 85, 145, 

155, 165, 196, 207, 238, 239, 244, 

249, 276. 
Adams, The Founding of New England, 

74. 
Alabama Territory, 155. 
Albemarle, 31. 

Albemarle Co., 32, 33, 155, 217. 
Allen, 61, 66, 194, 195, 200, 206, 208. 
Allen Co., Ky., 170. 
Allenton, 51. 
Alexandria, Va., 33, 38. 
Algernown's Fort, 264, 266, 268, 278, 

279, 280. 
Amelia Co., 66, 67, 158, 160, 174, 177. 
American Farmer, 257. 
Amherst Co., 216. 
American Luther League, 149. 
Ancell, 72. 

Anderson, 67, 70, 170, 171, 172. 289. 
Andover, Mass., 76. 
Andrew Co., Missouri, 193. 
Andrews, Fathers of New England, 75, 

80. 
Andrews, Colonial Folk Ways, 76. 
Andros, 106. 
Annapolis, 232. 
Anson Co., N. C, 172. 
Appleton, 20. 
Applewhite, 209. 
Apomatake, 273. 
Appomattox C. H., 71. 
Arbuckle, 39. 
Ardier, 264. 
ArgoU, 270, 272, 282. 
Armistead, 70. 
Armstrong, 302, 
Arsetock, 265. 
Artis, 202. 206. 
Arundel, 126. 
Asburv, 3. 
Ashbrooke, 189. 
Ashburton, 255, 256, 257. 
Ashbv, 39. 
Ashton, 51, 72, 190. 
Asten, 173. 
Astoria, L. I., 216. 
Athawes, 288. 
Adkins, 62, 138, 199, 205. 
Atkinson, 58, 196, 203. 



Augusta Co., Va., 33, 49, 154, 171, 172 

302. 
Austin, 22, 171. 
Avent, 60, 198, 209. 
Avery, 208. 
Aycock, 167, 168. 
Aylmer, 300. 

Bacon, 128, 227. 

Bacon's Rebellion, 127, 218, 228, 300. 

Bagbv, 212, 213. 

Badminton, 113, 119. 

Bailev, 54, 55, 57. 

Baker, 49, 51, 53, 281, 295. 

Baldivia, 265. 

Baldridge, 71. 

Balfour, 293. 

Ballard, 288. 

Ballow, 217. 

The Baltimore, 95. 

Baltimore, 24, 35, 47. 

Baltimore Co., 186, 187, 189-191. 

Baltimore, Lord, 193. 

Bancroft, 107, 156, 239. 

Bani.ster, 177. 

Banks, 72. 

liarbadoes, 128. 

Barber, 299. 

Barbour, 70. 

liarker, 143. 

Barlow, 206, 208. 

Barner, 72. 

Barnes, 45. 

Barr, 171. 

Barraud, 293. 

Barrow, 34, 129. 

Barwick, 288. 

Baskerv'ille, 147. 

Bass, 59, 64, 198, 207, 209. 

Batchellor, 72. 

Battaile, 184. 

Batte, 59, 61, 64, 65. 

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 99. 

Baur, 153. 

Baxter, 180. 

Bavlor, 184, 288, 298. 

Beale, 49, 72. 

Beall, 31. 

Beaufort, Duke of, 108-109. 

The Beaufort, 88. 

Beaufort Co., N. C, 128, 129, 136. 

Beckley, 32. 



INDEX 



Beckwith, 72. 

Bedinger, 53. 

Beecher, 85. 

Beeson, 44. 

Bel Air, 181, 184. 

Belgium, 2. 

Bell, 215. 

Bellfield, 72. 

Bellinger, 166. 

Bellview, 47. 

Benedict XV., 148. 

Bennett, 52, 201, 254. 

Berkeley, 106, 108, 127, 128, 187, 301. 

Berkeley Co., 11, 31, 34, 44-53, 170, 187, 

188, 191. 
JBermudas, 261, 264, 270, 281. 
Bernard, 248, 291. 
Berkeley Springs, 11. 
Berry, 202. 

Berryman, 52, 62, 200. 
Bertie Co., N. C, 166. 
Betty, 129. 

Beveridge, 239, 240, 245. 
Beverley, 178. 

Billon, Annals of St. Louis, 156. 
Bird, 46, 131, 132. 
Birmingham, Ala., 302. 
Biron, 1. 
Bishop, 209. 
Blackheath, 127. 
Black Beard, 9. 
Blackburn, 42, 43. 
Blackenell, 283. 
Blackley, 131. 
Blair, 33, 111, 177. 
Blanchan, 72. 

Bland, 108, 151, 177, 249, 250, 251. 
Bland Papers, 177. 
Blanks, 59, 61, 202, 205. 
Bliss, Old Colony Town, 82. 
Blizzard, 201. 
Blount, 156. 
Blue Ridge, 12. 
Blunt, 142. 
Boggs, 187. 
Boisseau, 137, 226. 
Boiling, 175, 258. 
Bollingbrook, 126. 
Bonner, 207. 
Boogher, Gleamings of Va. History, 171, 

172. 
Booker, 67, 158, 299. 
Booth, 180. 
Border, 171. 
Bosher, 222. 
Boston, 9-11, 15, 231, 232, 241, 246, 248, 

291. 
Botetourt, Lord, 106. 
Botetourt Co., 54. 
Botomley, 72. 



Bott, 170. 

Boush, 299. 

Bowcock, 298, 299. 

Bowie, 296, 297. 

Bowyer, 39, 44. 

Boyle, 302. 

Bradford, 84, 167, 239. 

Bradley, 209, 293. 

Brame, 301, 302. 

"Brandon," 258. 

The Brandy wine, 88, 89. 

Bransford, 18. 

Branscomb, 60, 62, 63, 206, 208, 209. 

Bray, 219. 

Brent, 43, 45. 

Brenton, 77. 

Brewer, 58, 130, 137, 143, 194, 200, 209. 

Briggs, 143. 

The Brilliant, 290. 

Bristol, 8, 114, 116. 

Brittle, 210. 

Broadus, 148, 209. 

Brodnax, 125, 126, 177, 298. 

Brooke, 87, 237, 289. 

Brooking, 176. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 100. 

Brooks, 51, 157. 

Brown, 60, 68, 69, 138, 201, 204, 207. 

Brown, First Republic, 253. 

Bruce, 191. 

Brunswick Co., Va., 72, 130, 132, 137, 

141, 144, 146, 208, 209, 210. 
Brunswick, Ga., 169. 
Brush, 299. 

Bruster, 270, 274, 275, 279, 280. 
Bryan, 298. 
Buchanan, 88, 89, 290. 
Buckner, 182. 
Bucks Co., Penn., 168. 
Buggs, 169. 
Burch, 132-135. 
Burgoyne, 6, 28. 
Burnaby, 251. 
Burnett, 63, 65, 209. 
Burr, 156. 
Burrell, 198. 
Burrow, 145. 
Burton, 139. 
Burwell, 61, 63. 
Bush, 288. 
Bushrod, 300, 301. 
Butler, 7, 8, 135, 190. 
Butts, 62. 
Bynum, 204. 
Byrd, 1, 75, 178. 
Cabell, 42, 217. 
Cacapon, 186, 189. 
Cain, 197, 201, 209. 
Caldwell, 72. 
Calhoun, 72, 245. 



INDEX 



Caline, 106. 

Call, 139. 

Calvert, ISl. 

Cambridge, 12. 

Camm, 296. 

Camp, 59, 60, 198, 199, 200, 207, 209, 

210. 
Camp Ashley-Hill, S. C, 36, 40. 
Campbell, The Puritan, etc., 255. 
Campbell, 45, 165. 
Canada, 7, 12. 
Cape Cod, 229. 
Capell, 200. 
Cape Henry, 101. 
Capitol Landing, 300. 
Caroline Co., 30, 181, 182, 184, .301. 
Carrington, 41. 
Carthagena, 261. 
Carter, 30, 186, 191, 2.50, 258. 
Caruth (Carruth), 170-173. 
Carruth Fort, 171. 
Ca,sey, 39, 40. 
Catlett, 184. 

Cato, 61, 64, 201, 202, 206, 207. 
Causey, 116, 117. 
Cavvsons, 177. 
Chabanes, Count, 1. 
Chalmers, 139. 

Chalkley, New Augusta County Rec, 172. 
Chamberlain, 210. 
Chamberlin, 134. 
Chambliss, 59, 65, 207. 
Champe, 51. 
Chaplin's Choice, 174. 
Chapman, 51. 
Charles, 202. 
Charles I., 228. 
Charles II., 228, 251. 
Charles Citv Co., Va., 70, 72, 1.30 174 

175, 176, 177, 180, 256, 301. ' 
Charles Fort, 270. 
Chariest own, 45, 50, 52. 
Charlotte, 126. 
Charlotte Co., 212. 
Charlestown, Mass., 87. 
Chariot te.svi]le, 8, 11, 12, 28. 
Chenoweth (Chennenveth &c.), 186-193. 
Cherokee, 49. 
Cherry, 31. 
Chester, 54. 
Chesterfield Co., 38. 
Chew, 30. 
Chicago, 72, 181. 
Chihuahua, 1.54, 155. 
Chiconamians, 271. 
Chilly (Chile), 265. 
China, 72. 
Chiskiack, 302. 
Chisman, 300, .301. 
Chowan, 19, 68, 128. 



Christ Church, Alexandria, 180. 

Christian, 71. 

Cincinnati, 21. 

Clack, 146, 203. 

Claiborne, 207, 219. 

Claiborne's Rebellion, 228. 

Clanton, 205. 

Clarke Co., Ga., 167, 168, 169. 

Clarke (Clark), 23, 30, 31, 58, 64, 67, 

196, 201, 202, 205, 209, 300. 
Clarke North Carolina Records, 135, 143. 
Clay, 22, 55, 215, 216. 
Clayton, Digest of the Laws of Georgia, 

169. 
Cleaveland, 141. 
Clifton, 194, 197, 202, 210. 
Clinton, 12, 34. 
Coleman (Coalman). 60. 
Cochran, 54. 
Cocke, 72, 209, 290, 292. 
Coghill, 169. 
Coke, 52, 53, 298. 
Cole, 165, 189, 216, 219. 
Collev, 168. 

CoHier, 61, 62, 65, 196, 198, 204. 
Colonial Families in the Southern States, 

52. 
Colston, 72. 
Combs, 202. 
The Cotigress, 88, 89. 
Connecticut, 18, 29, 33, 77, 79. 
"Conjurors Neck," 174. 
Con.stable, 95. 
Conwav, 182, 184. 
Cook (Cooke), 63, 65, 72, 208. 
Copsev, 188. 
Cordall, 195. 
Corder, 287. 
Corn, 58. 
Cornwallis, 34. 
Corinth Farm, 170. 
Cosby, 160. 

Coues, Pike's Expedition, 156. 
Cotton, 60. 
Cowpens, 54. 
Cox, 156, 192, 197. 
Crabb, 48. 
Craghill, 51. 

Craney Island, 92, 95, 97. 
Creek Indians, 140, 169 
The Creole, 257. 
Cres.swell, 189. 
Crittenden, 215. 
Crocket, 31. 
Crookehaven, 281. 
Cross, 283, 284. 
Culpeper Co., 33, 54. 
Cumberland Co., Va., 232. 
Cumberland, Duke of, 1. 
Cumberland Co., Penn., 173. 



INDEX 



The Cumberland, 88, 89, 93, 95. 
Currie, 175, 177, 182 (Curry). 
The Currituck, 107. 
Curtis, 142, 179, 255. 
Cutshaw, 182. 

Dabney, 148. 

Dade, 182, 185. 

Dahlgreen, 88. 

Dale, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280. 

Dallas, 171. 

Dallas Co., Texas, 170, 171. 

Dancy, 198. 

Dandridge, 31. 

Daniel, 30. 

Darke, 50. 

Darnell, 170. 

Dan, 149, 150. 

Davenport, 294, 295. 

Davis, 59, 60, 72, 159, 161, 176, 194, 198, 

204, 208, 210, 216, 217, 266, 268, 

272, 273, 278, 279, 280. 
Dean, 64, 200, 206. 
Delbridge, 60. 
Delkin, 33. 
Delony, 204. 
Denby, 165. 
Dennison, 202. 
Denton Co., Tex., 170. 
Derby, Eng., 69. 
Dickson, 198, 220. 
Dickmeyer, 153. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 126. 
Diggs, 71, 288. 
Dillard, 217. 
Dillehay, 61. 
Dinwiddle, 72, 293. 
Dinwiddle Co., 71, 145, 177. 
The Discovery, 226, 227. 
Doel, 153. 

Dorr's Rebellion, 234. 
Dover Road, 282. 
Downing, 191. 
Draper, 190, 191. 
Drew, 32, 45, 48, 49, 209. 
Drewry's Bluff, 97. 
Dubois, 72. 
Dudley, 183. 
Duemling, 153. 
Dumfries, 46. 
Dungall, 58. 
Dunmore, 44. 
Dunmore Co., 44. 
Dunn, 46, 47. 

Dupree, 60, 61, 65, 196, 202, 203. 
Du Roy, 11. 
Early (Yardley), 270. 
Eaton, 137. 
Eaves, 199, 209. 
Edgecomb Co., N. C, 166, 167. 



Edmunds, 129, 130. 

Edmunstone, 10. 

Edwards, 47, 58, 72, 198, 208. 

Eggleston, 147. 

Egle, 172, 173. 

Elberton Co., Ga., 168. 

Elizabeth City Co., Va., 219, 288. 

Elizabeth River, 88, 96, 293. 

Ellettsville, Ind., 181. 

EUis, 179. 

Ettinge, 72. 

Emmerley, 65, 196, 209. 

Endicott, 175. 

England, 8, 16, 55, 255, 259, 266. 

Eppes, 61, 207. 

Erricsson, 86. 

Essex, 185. 

Essex Lodge, 300. 

Esten, 108. 

Evans, 63, 157-163, 201, 208. 

Everard, 147. 

Eves, 133. 

Ewell, 209. 

Exum, 166. 

Ezell, 63. 

Fagan, 134. 

Fairfax, 188. 

"Fairfield," 184. 

"Fall Hill," 52, 185. 

Fanning, 23, 197. 

Farmer, 129. 

Farragut, 14. 

Farrel & Jones, 116. 

Fauquier, 83, 117, 185, 250. 

Fauquier Co., 184, 185, 220. 

Fayette Co., Ky., 21. 

Feildenia, 35. 

Fendall, 68. 

Fenn, 219. 

Fennell, 62. 

Fenton, 8, 194. 

Ferguson, 61, 63, 165, 206, 208, 209. 

Fern Bank, Ohio, 81. 

Finch, 72. 

Fiske, 239. 

Fisher, 199, 202. 

Fitzgerald, 185. 

Fitzhugh, 140, 142, 181, 182, 184. 

Fleet, 213, 287. 

Fletcher, 126. 

Flint, 167. 

Florida, 155, 233, 240, 261. 

Flournoy, 170. 

Flowerdew, 287, 297. 

Floyd, 170. 

Fludger, 297, 298. 

Fontaine, 299. 

Fontenoy, 1. 

Forbes, 185. 



INDEX 



Ford, 140, 142. 

Fort Monroe, 88, 92, 94, 96-98. 

Fort Sumter, 242. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., 109. 

Fort Washington, 53. 

Foster, 63, 191. 

Fox, 55, 198, 207. 

France, 1, 7. 

Francis, 58. 

Franklin, 85, 245. 

Frederick, 35. 

Fredericksburg, 41, 185, 219, 258. 

Frederick Co., 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 

192, 193. 
Frederick Springs, 11, 12. 
Fredericktown, 12, 38. 
Freeman, 58, 199, 203, 210. 
French, 219. 
Freuchtenecht, 154. 
Frog Lsland, 169. 
Fry, 70. 

Gaines, 211-214. 

The Galena, 97. 

Galliardo, 126. 

Gait, 65. 

Gamble, 37, 40. 

Gardiner, 256. 

Garland, 283. 

Garner, 64, 209. 

Garrett, 50, 300. 

Garris, 197. 

The Gas pee, 231. 

Gates, 7, 4S, 49, 229, 260, 261, 264, 268, 

269, 270, 271, 274, 279, 280, 281. 
Galling, 14. 
Gault, 288. 
Gaunt, 35. 
Gay, 189. 
Gcddes, 178. 
Geddy, 299. 
Gee, 138, 147. 
George III., 217. 
George, 210. 
Georgetown, D. C., 155. 
Gcrmantown, 81. 
Gerrard, 51. 
Gibbs, 33, 49. 
Gilderi^leeve, 147. 
Gilliam, 203. 
Gilmer, 49, 221. 
Gist, 35. 
Gloucester Co., 34, 52, 66, 67, 106, 109, 

174, 180. 
Glynn Co., Ga., 169. 
Goddard, 47, 48. 
Goldsborough, 95. 
Gooch, 169. 
Goodrich, 64, 65, 132, 135, 195, 201, 203, 

205, 206. 



Goodrum, 59, 200, 203, 209. 

The Goodspeed, 226, 227. 

Goodwvn, 58, 63, 204, 207. 

Gooselev, 299. 

Gowing; 58, 60, 66, 204. 

Gowyn, 62. 

Graham, 59, 201. 

Granville Co., N. C, 129, 140. 

Grant, 59, 85, 158, 218. 

Gravatt, 222. 

Graves, 59. 

Gravesend, 288. 

Grav, 169. 

Graydon, 218. 

Grav's Inn, 282. 

Gravson, 46, 201, 302. 

Great Creek, 132. 

Great Cacapacon, 188. 

Greene (Green), 5, 30, 59, 90, 91, 96, 99, 

100, 105, 208, 209. 
Greenbrier Co., 54. 
The Greenvale, 296. 
Greenwav, 208. 
Greenwich, 127, 282. 
Greenville, Tenn., 140. 
Grenville, 246. 
Gregorv, 52, 59, 72. 
Gretworth, 142. 
Griffin, 59, 61, 199. 
Griffith. 50. 
Grigg, 59, 63, 65, 66, 194, 197, 202, 204, 

206, 20S. 
Grizzard, 197, 200. 
Groome, 220. 
Grosvenor Square, 116. 
Grote, 289. 
Grove, 180. 
Grymes, 183. 
Gutierrez, 155. 
Gwin, 184. 

Haden, 72. 

Hagerstown, 36. 

Hale, 238. 

Halifax, 140, 166, 175, 176, 177, 299. 

Hall, 60, 176, 177. 

Hallowav, 289. 

Hamilton, 85, 148, 154, 156, 245. 

Hamlin, 144. 

Hammonds, 60. 

Hampshire Co., 186, 188, 192, 193. 

Hampton Roads, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 104, 

105, 257. 
Hampton River, 94. 
Hancock, 9. 
Hanna, 187. 

Hanovertown, Penn., 173. 
Hanover Co., Va., 69, 169, 282, 289. 
Hapley Creek, 185. 
Hardaway, 147. 



INDEX 



Harden Co., Ky., 193. 

Hardy, 52, 64. 

Harewood, 51. 

Harford Co., Md., 190. 

Hargrove, 60. 

Harmon, 68. 

Harnan, 192. 

Harper's Ferrj', 45. 

Harris, 58, 59, 60, 61, 194, 203, 205, 206, 

209. 
Harrisburg, 214. 
Harrison, 23-27, 30, 60, 204, 205, 206, 

209, 215, 218, 219, 258. 
Hart, 61, 65, 143. 
Harvard College, 76, 82, 256. 
Harwell, 59, 66. 
Harwood, 180. 
Hathaway, 128. 
Hauteroches, 1, 2. 
Hawkins Co., Tenn., 302. 
Hawkins, 299. 
Hawthorne, 15. 
Hay (Hai), 1, 2. 
Hayden, Va. Genealogies, 28. 
Hayley, 58, 61. 
Haywood, 72, 98, 166, 167. 
Hazlewood, 201. 
Hearin, 62, 209. 
Heartwell, 210. 
Heath, 61. 
Heathcock, 62, 209. 
Henderson, 71. 
Hendricks, 170. 
Henericas Fort, 280. 
Heitman, 53. 

Hening, Statutes at Large, 251. 
Henry, 42, 229, 231, 233, 248, 249, 250. 
Henry, Life of Henry, 79, 139. 
Hermitage Camp, 156. 
Herndon, 183, 289. 
Hicks, 62, 129, 1.38, 206, 207. 
Hill, 58, 59, 63, 68, 69, 168, 205, 289, 300. 
Hilliard, 299. 
Hines, 59, 209. 
Hinton, 167, 206. 
Kite, 44, 49, 54, 72. 
Hoar, 215. 
Hobbs, 62, 66. 
Hodgkin, 289. 
Holden (Holding), 51, 52. 
Holland, 255. 
Holly, 62. 

Hollywood Cemetery, 222. 
Holmes, 13, 212. 
Holt, 62. 
Holterman, 153. 
Holy Minories, 126. 
"Hominv Hall," 52. 
Hood, 159. 
Hopewell, 127. 



Hopkin, 71. 

Horner, 160. 

Horrocks, 115, 296. 

Horsford, 255, 256. 

Horseshoe, 140. 

House, 62, 105, 201, 203. 

Howe, 10. 

Howell, 207. 

Howldcroft, 270. 

Hubberd, 295. 

Hudson, 58. 

Hudgins, 130. 

Huldane, 62. 

Hues, 52. 

Hunt, 59, 62. 

Hunter, 3, 31, 167, 209, 293. 

Hutchinson, 248. 

Illinois, 189. 

Ingram, 62, 200, 210. 

Inman, 63. 

Innes, 185. 

Irby, 301. 

Ireland, 48. 

Irvin, 192. 

Israel, 63. 

Ivey, 64, 195, 199, 200. 

"Jack of the Feathers," 279. 

Jackson, 13, 58, 63, 85, 184, 208. 

Jackson Co., Ga., 169. 

Jacksonville, 182. 

James City Co., 131, 180. 

James River, 2, 127, 180, 226, 237, 288. 

Jameson, 76, 295. 

Jamestown, 17, 78, 84, 90, 94, 166, 226, 
227, 228, 229, 232, 250, 263, 265, 
266, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 
275, 278, 280, 292, 300, 302. 

Jaquelin, 292. 

Jarratt, 2, 63, 197, 209. 

Jay's Treatv, 245. 

Jefferson Co., Ky., 187, 192. 

Jefferson, 15, 17, 18, 19, 63, 78, 79, 83- 
85, 108, 149, 150, 151, 152, 161, 204, 
232, 233, 234, 235, 238, 239, 242. 

Jefferson Co., 44, 48, 53. 

Jeffries, 62, 63, 195, 203, 205, 207, 209. 

Jenkins, 63. 

Jesse, 184. 

Jeter, 60, 63, 65, 195, 200, 203. 

Jetersville, 160. 

Johnson, 63, 64, 72, 126, 130, 160, 182, 
196, 202. 

Johnston, 45, 85, 96. 

Jolley, 168. 

JoUiffe, 186. 

Jones, 41, 42, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 88, 89, 91, 
93, 97, 132, 176, 181, 195, 196, 197, 
200, 206, 222. 



INDEX 



Jordan, 60, 64, 142, 169, 195, 198, 203, 

206, 209. 
Jordan's Point, 127. 
Jorissen, 72. 
Julian, 219. 
Justice, 65. 
Kanahway, 54. 
Kansas City, 72. 
The Kearsage, 105. 
Keeler, 105. 

Keith, 45, 49, 186, 193, 287. 
Kekowaton, 265, 268, 270, 274. 
Kempes, 271. 
Kendall, 29. 
Kennedy, 31. 
Kennon", 174, 177, 178. 
Kentucky, 21, 22, 72, 188, 192. 
Kerby, 209. 
Kerr, 139, 191. 
Kerwin, 65. 
Key, 219. 
Kincade, 42, 43. 
King, 139, 172. 
King George Co., 71. 
King George, 9. 

King and Queen Co., 67, 212-214, 219. 
King James, 251. 
King's Mountain, 134, 141, 168. 
King William, 76. 
King William Co., 219. 
Kinkeade, 34. 
Kirkpatrick, 168. 
Kirtley, 182. 
Knibb, 301. 
Knight (see Night). 

Lacy, 170. 

Lafayette, 7, 35. 

Lafayette Co., Mo., 287. 

Lamb's Creek Church, 71. 

Lancaster, 33, 60. 

Lancaster Co., 282. 

Lancaster Co., Penn., 173. 

Land, 203. 

Lane, 65, 72, 166-177. 

Langdon, 39. 

Lanier, 59, 61, 126-147, 197, 201, 203, 

206, 210, 211. 
Laughlin, 185. 

Lawrence, 65, 66, 132, 201, 208, 209. 
Lawrenceyille, 141. 
La Ware, Lord, 270, 276. 
La Ware's Fort, 274. 
Leconfield, Lord, 260. 
Lee, 2-6, 18, 46-48, 65, 80, 81, 85, 148, 

157, 159, 160, 161, 162, 218, 231, 232, 

236, 302. 
Leeds, Yorkshire, 177. 
Lee Valley, 302. 
Leigh, 179, 214-216, 295. 



Leland, 5, 18, SO. 

Lenoir, 141. 

Lewis, 51, 65, 181, 217, 233. 

Lexington, Ga., 169. 

Lexington, Mass., 232. 

Lexington, Va., 21, 22, 237, 256. 

Library of Congress, 72. 

Lifsay, 194, 209. 

Lilley, 289. 

Lillington, 68. 

Limbrecke, 278, 279. 

Lincoln Co., 111., 171, 179. 

Lincoln Co., N. C, 172, 173. 

Lincoln, 14, 17, 85, 148, 149, 218, 242, 

243, 245. 
Little, 44, 209. 
Little Rock, Ark., 171. 
Littell, 288. 
Llewellin, 65, 196. 
Locke, 65, 158, 198. 
Lockhart, 65, 194. 
Lodge, 15, 20, 21. 
London, 108, 180, 251, 288, 289, 290, 294, 

296, 297. 
London Company, 229. 
Long, 60, 201. 
Long Creek, 169. 
Long Island, 12, 28. 
Los Angeles, Cal., 182. 
Louisiana, 155, 156, 171, 233, 240. 
Love, 66, 129. 
Lowry ,168. 

Lucas, 59, 63, 66, 200, 203. 
Luekie, 168. 
Lunday, 60. 

Lundy (Lundie), 194, 197, 204. 
Lunenburg Co., 138, 140, 282. 
Lyde, 289. 
Lyle, 44. 
Lynch, 217. 
Lynchburg, 30. 

Mabrvs 59, 62, 194, 195, 202, 203, 207, 

208. 
Mackey 294 295. 
Maclin,'62, 133, 135, 145, 194, 195, 202, 

209. 
Macon Co., Tenn., 171. 
Madison, 22, 39, 70, 84, 85, 232, 238, 

239, 240, 242, 244. 
Madison, Wis., 190. 
Madison Co., 182. 
Magelane, 261. 
Magill, 45. 
Magna Carta, 150. 
Magruder, 300. 
Mahan School. 72. 
Maholland, 195. 
Maine, 177, 205, 229. 
Majors, 167. 



INDEX 



Malinos, 278. 

Mallorv, 167. 

Malone, 195, 197, 199, 208. 

Malvern Hill, 159. 

Mangum, 65, 195, 204. 

Manion, 171. 

Mansfield, 89, 171. 

Marie Michaux, 156. 

Mark, 48, 49. 

Marlborough, 46. 

Marot, 299. 

Marshall, 53, 84, 85, 185, 232, 239, 241, 

288. 
Marshman, 112, 117. 
Marston Church, 300. 
Martin, 48, 94, 217, 262, 263, 264, 267, 

277, 278. 
Martinsbrough, 38, 45. 
Marvin, 108. 

Maryland, 3, 12, 35, 36, 159. 
Mason, 54, 64, 136, 170, 195, 197, 202, 

209, 234, 252. 
Mason and Dixon's Line, 235. 
Massachusetts, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 18, 74- 

80, 82, 86, 107, 150, 151, 230, 235, 

236, 246, 247, 248, 254, 300. 
Massev, 60, 95, 207. 
Matthews, 28, 212. 
Mathy, 69. 
Maury, 219, 237. 
Mayes, 59, 99, 202. 
The May Flower, 73, 74, 229. 
McCabe, 148. 
McCalister, 38. 
McCarty, 182, 192. 
McClellan, 158, 162. 
McCormick, 173, 237. 
McGuire, 13. 
McHenny', 34. 
McKain, 51. 
McKendree, 60, 63, 194. 
McKee, 39. 
McKinne. 166, 177. 
McLean Co., Kentucky, 170. 
McLemore, 199. 
McMullen, 173. 
McQueen, 173. 
Meade, 147. 
Meanes, 72. 
Meade & Baker, 159. 
Meachum, 196. 

Mecklenburg Co., N. C, 171, 172, 179. 
Mecklenburg Co., Va., 71, 176, 177, 301. 
Medell, 196. 
Megrow, 189. 
Mendoza, 261. 
Mercer, 46, 53. 
Merchants Hope, 144. 
Meredith, 255. 
The Merrimac, 87, 104, 237. 



Merriwether, 42, 72, 181. 

Metcalf, 194. 

Mevis, 275. 

Mexico, 155, 156. 

Middlebrook, 38, 39. 

Middlesex Co., Va., 301. 

Mill Creek, 187, 219. 

Miller, 192, 296. 

Mills, 29, 188. 

Mine a Burton, 22. 

The Minnesota, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 

101, 103, 104. 
Mina, 155. 
Minor, 88, 89, 147. 
Miranda, 156. 
Missouri Territory, 155. 
Missouri, 22, 72, 181. 
Mississippi, 155, 170. 
Mitchell, 39, 62, 196. 
Mitchell's Creek, 138. 
Moir, 294, 295. 
Moncure, 43. 

The Monitor, 86, 106, 237. 
Monroe, 155, 189, 233, 238, 239, 240, 244, 

245. 
Monroe County, 54, 181. 
Montesquieu, 83. 
Montgomerv Co., Md., 190. 
Montgomery, 170, 190. 
Montross, 71. 
Montzall, 50. 
Moore, 65, 189, 196, 201. 
Moore's Cr. Bridge, 231. 
Morgan, 34, 44, 52, 53, 68, 186, 238-240, 

244, 245. 
Morres, 47. 
Morris, 65, 190, 194, 196, 197, 200, 209, 

238 
Morrison, 14, 16, 17, 20, 257. 
Morrow, 45. 
Morton, 72, 209. 
Morvson, 219. 
Moseley, 196, 293, 294. 
Mothershead, 92. 
Mountfort, 124. 
Mountjov, 72. 
"Mt. Airy," 258. 
Muhlenburg Co., Ky., 37, 42, 170, 182, 

183. 
Mumford, 174, 180. 
Munetute, 279. 
Munford, 174-180. 
Munn, 169. 
Murfee, 197. 
Murrell, 197, 205. 
Muse, 213. 

Naked Creek, 172. 
Nance, 38. 
"Nanjemoy," 258. 



INDEX 



Nansemond Co., 66. 

Nanny, 197. 

Nanamondies, 277. 

Nansemunde, 262. 

Nash, 192. 

Nassau, 257. 

The Naugatuck, 95. 

Naval War Records, 93, 95, 96. 

Necks, 296, 297. 

NeUl, 134. 

Neill, Virginia Vetusta, 259. 

Nelson, 111, 114, 137, 138, 141, 194, 211, 

263, 294. 
Nevada, 181. 
Nevil (Neavil, Nevill, Neville), 34, 44, 49, 

216, 217. 
New, 197, 209. 
Newbern, N. C, 172. 
Newberrv Librarv, 72. 
New Castle, 34, 69. 
New England, 2-6, 17, 18, 75, 77, 78, 79, 

80, 81, 84, 86, 151, 152, 229, 230, 

233, 235, 236, 239, 240, 242-248, 255, 

257, 282. 
New England Hist. & Gen. Mag., 142. 
New Jersev, 3, 10. 
Newitt, 209. 

New Hampshire, 77, 215. 
New Haven, 77, 83. 
New Kent, 219. 
New London, Conn., 180. 
New Orleans, 7, 22, 84, 86, 240. 
Newport, 140, 261, 278. 
Newport News, 88. 
Newsom, 60, 197, 205. 
New York, 3, 8, 10, 12, 27, 33, 34, 48, 

53, 72, 86, 102, 104, 241. 
New York Gen. & Biog. Mag., 135. 
New York Herald, 45. 
New York Home Jonmal, 48. 
New York Evening Post, 93, 218. 
Nicholas, 21, 22, 106, 109, 115, 117, 122, 

131, 132, 247, 287, 288. 
Nichols, 63. 

Niles Register, 155, 156, 214. 
Night (Knight), 64. 
Nixon, 189. 

NoUev, 197, 201, 202, 205. 
Norborne, 182. 
Norfleet, 182. 
Norfolk, 87, 88, 91, 95, 96, 104, 231, 293, 

294. 
Norfolk Co., Mass., 17, 77. 
North, 13, 183. 
Northampton, 70, 254. 
Northamptonshire, 42. 
North Carolina, 3, 9, 19, 25, 32, 49, 68, 

102. 
The North Carolina, 102. 
North Carolina Hist. & Gen. Reg., 167. 



North Carolina Records, 128, 142, 166, 

167, 231. 
North Garden, 181. 
Northington, 197. 
Northumberland Co., N. C, 167. 
Northumberland, Earl of, 259, 260. 
Northwestern University, 15. 
Norton, 63, 116, 287-298. 
Nova Scotia, 229. 
Norwood, 197. 
Nottoway Co., 176. 
Nourse, 49. 
Nutt, 220. 

O'Bannon, 49. 

Oconee, 169. 

Oglethorpe Co., Ga., 168. 

Old Church, 69. 

Oldham, 45. 

Oldham Co., Ky., 181. 

Orange, 36, 70. 

Orange Co., Va., 181, 219. 

Orcutt, 46. 

Orgain, 130. 

Ormsbv, 184. 

Osburn, 130. 

Oswald, 47. 

Otis, 150, 153, 246, 248, 249, 252. 

Ottahotin, 302. 

Overton, 142. 

Owen, 196, 197, 215. 

Oxford, N. C, 140. 

Ozmoor, 197. 

Pace, 167. 

Paige, 180. 

Painville (Painsville), 157, 159, 160. 

Palfrev, A>»' England, 95, 249. 

Palmer, 72, 299. 

Palmerston, Lord, 8. 

Pannill, 72. 

Pargiter, 142. 

Parham, 61, 197, 207, 209. 

Parker, 182. 

Parks, 197, 203. 

Parton, 8. 

Pa.spake, 271, 274, 276. 

Pa.spavheans, 271. 

Patrick, 197. 

Patterson, 50, 52, 53. 

Payne, 196, 198, 199. 

Pearis, 49. 

Pearson, 51, 198, 209. 

Peebles, 60, 64, 144, 198, 201, 207, 209. 

Pelham, 62, 63, 64, 198, 199, 202, 204, 

206. 
Peiho, 97. 
Pemberton, 14. 
De La Pena, 164, 165. 
Pendleton, 45, 211-214. 



INDEX 



Penn, 216. 

Pennsylvania, 10, 54, 72, 157, 161, 172, 

173, 218. 
Pentecost, 210. 
Pepper, 199. 
Percy, 259, 260. 
Perebs, 278, 279. 
Perquimans Co., N. C, 19, 68. 
Perrin, 51, 52, 72, 288. 
Perry, 135, 200. 

PerrV, 111., 193. 

Person, 61, 196, 198. 

Peters, 134, 204. 

Petersburgh, 41. 

Peterson, 194, 198, 200, 202. 

Petit, 186. 

Pettus, 147, ISO. 

"Petworth House," 259. 

Pettway, 62, 136, 198, 202, 209. 

Peyton, 163, 177. 

Phettiplace, 266. 

Philadelphia, 23, 24, 26, 43, 45, 46, 47, 

54 232. 
Phillips Co"i Ark., 220. 
Pike, 154. 
Piland, 198, 200. 
Pilkinton, 198. 
Pitt Co., N. C, 129. 
Pittsylvania Co., Va., 139. 
Pleasants, 139. 
Plymouth, Mass., 73, 74, 75, 82, 84, 86, 

229, 254. 
Point Comfort Cr., 219, 287. 
Point Comfort, 264. 
Pollard, 199, 211-214. 
Pope, 142. 
Pope's Creek, 71. 
Pope's Island, 179. 
Poquosin, 66. 
Porch, 65, 199, 208. 
Porter, 87, 237. 
Portsmouth, Va., 34, 38, 237. 
Potomac, 2, 44, 49, 266. 
Powell, 180, 199, 207, 274, 275, 297. 
Powhatan Co., 21. 
Powhatan, 266, 271, 279. 
Poynor, 71, 72. 
Prentis, 288. 
Preston, 215. 
Presley, 33, 34. 
Price, '173, 190, 196, 197, 207. 
Pride, 67. 
Prince, 210. 
Prince George Co., Va., 130, 137, 144, 

174, 175, 177. 

Prince George Co., Md., 188. 
Proctor, 64. 

Providence Island, 166. 
Proyincetown, 4, 82. 
Pryor, 30, 72. 



Pryse, 269. 
Pugh, 189. 
Purnell, 199. 
Putney, 205. 
Puttock, 275, 276. 
Pyankitank river, 302. 

Quakers, 300. 
Queen Elizabeth, 86. 
Quincy, 152. 
Quitman, 14. 

Radford, 179. 

Ragland, 199. 

Rakestraw, 168. 

Raleigh, 98. 

Raleigh Parish, 67. 

The Raleigh, 98. 

Rains, 199. 

Ramsgate, 288. 

Randall, 199. 

Randolph, 59, 84, 111, 206, 209, 231. 

Randolph Co., Va., 189. 

Rattliffe, 264, 265, 266. 

Rawlings, 60, 199, 210. 

RcbeUion Records, 89. 

Redeout, 43. 

Reed, 237. 

Reese, 64, 199, 201, 206. 

Reynolds, 51, 296. 

Rhode Island, 77, 80, 82, 86, 140, 180, 

231. 
Ricahock, 30. 
Rice, 169. 
Richlands, 61, 199. 
Richardson, 199, 200, 208, 210. 
Richmond, 54, 157, 158, 159, 253, 302. 
Richter, 153. 
Riddle, 199, 200. 
Riedesel, 6-12. 
The Rinaldo, 96. 
Rippe, 154. 
Ripraps, 88, 98. 
Rivers, 64, 66, 200, 205. 
Rives, 62, 63, 195, 197, 200, 204, 205, 

206. 
The Roanoke, 88, 101. 
Roanoke Island, 88. 
Roberts, 33. 

Robertson, 290, 292, 296. 
Robinson, 19, 44, 62, 65, 154-156, 196, 

198, 199, 202, 205, 206, 210. 
Rockbridge Co., 54. 
Rockev Mills, 42. 
Rockfish Gap, 33. 
Roddy, 182. 
Roe, 200. 

Rogers, 147, 197, 296. 
Rogersville, Tenn., 302. 
Rolfe, 301. 



INDEX 



RoUings, 196. 

Roper, 200. 

Rosewell, 291. 

Ross, 24, 201. 

Rosser, 200. 

Rowan Co., N. C, 172. 

Rowell, 200, 204. 

Rowland, 201. 

Rovall, 72. 

Royster, 185. 

Ruff in. Farmer's Register, 257. 

Rump, 153. 

Rumsev, 45, 46, 49, 237. 

Rutherford, 44, 49, 50, 52. 

Ruth, 49. 

Ryland, 213. 

Ryon, 219. 

The Sabine, 102. 

The Sachem, 102. 

Salem, 15. 

The San Jaciuto, 96. 

Salsberry, 186. 

Sammons, 62, 201. 

Sandiford, 63. 

Santa I-Y-, 154. 

Saut^e, 20. 

The Sarah Constant, 226, 227. 

Saratoga, 6, 26. 

Saunders, 64, 122, 123, 210. 

Sayer, 289. 

Saxe, 1. 

Scanlin (Scantlin), 220. 

Scheuman, 154. 

Schlozer, 8. 

Schroeder, 154. 

Schuyler, 12. 

Scoggin, 129. 

Scotland, 16. 

Scott, 43, 63, 70, 173, 196, 207, 220, 233, 

287. 
Seay, IGO. 
Seawright, 172. 
Selden, 180, 258. 
Seldens of Virginia and Allied Families, 

31. 
Semple, 148, 219. 
Seven Pines, 157. 
Seward, 17, 64, 201. 
Sexton, 44, 59. 201. 
"Shabby Hall," 180. 
Shaw, 156. 

Shawnee Indians, 192. 
Shearling, 195. 
Shehorn, 201, 207. 
Shelby Co., Tenn., 181. 
Shelhorse, 63. 
Shelton, 37, 201. 
Shenandoah Co., 44. 
Shepard, 201. 



Shepherdstown, 45, 48, 49, 53. 

Sherman, 85, 158, 180. 

Sherrard, 179. 

Shenvin, 176. 

Shenvood, 179. 

"Sherwood Forest," 256. 

Shippen, 47. 

Shore. 201. 

Short, 201. 

Shurling, 201. 

Sicklemore, 264, 265. 

Sills, 62. 98, 201, 206. 

Sims, 200, 201, 210. 

Simmons, 61, 141. 

Simpson, 169. 

Skinner, Journal of Agriculture, 258. 

Sissoms, 63. 

Slack, 170. 

Slate, 210. 

Slaughter, 46. 

Sclecht, 72. 

Sledge, 63, 202. 

Slidcll, 14. 

Small, 83, 84, 197. 

Smelly, 58. 

Smith (Smithe), 28, 30, 48, 61, 62, 66, 
69, 72, 135, 147, 164, 167, 186, 188, 
194, 198, 199, 202, 204, 207, 210, 
259, 262, 263, 264, 295. 
Smoot, 182. 
Society Hill, 182. 
Somers, 261, 268, 270. 
Southall, 69. 
Southampton Co., 209. 
South Carolina, 11,36, 49. 
Southern Historical Society Papers, 91. 
Southington, 18. 
Spain, 202. 
Span, 202. 
Sparks Fort, 169. 
Speed, 140. 
Spence, 203. 

Spencer, 61, 195, 197. 203. 
Spottsylvania Co., 30, 183, 185, 219. 
Spotswood, 299. 
Spraggins, 139, 140. 

St. Andrew's Pari.sh, 134, 137, 144, 146. 
St. George's Parish, Md., 186, 189. 
St. Luke's Hospital, 221, 222. 
St. Joseph, Mo., 72. 
St. Michael's Parish, 128. 
St. Michelles, 281. 
St. Olave Parish, 126. 
The St. Lawrence, 88, 89. 
Stafford Co., 181. 
Stanard, 220. 
Stanley, 182, 186. 
Stark "(Starke), 59, 174, 197, 202, 283, 

284, 285, 286, 287. 
Staunton, 54. 



INDEX 



Stephens, 31, 44, 45, 48. 

Stepney, 68. 
Step toe, 46, 51. 

Stewart, 293. 

Steuben, 41. 

Stevens, 143. 

Stevenson, 172, 289. 

Stewart, 63, 197, 202, 204. 

Stirness, 105. 

Stith, 208. 

Stockton, 157. 

Stogden, 44. 

Stoke Gifford, 106, 109. 

Stokes, 129. 

Stone, 76, 170. 

Stonum, 220. 

Stony Run, 141. 

Stoval, 216. 

Stracy, 278. 

Strode, 44. 

Stuart, 187. 

Sturdivant, 64, 202. 

Sturgis, 49. 

Suggs, 170. 

Surry Co., 131, 142, 143. 

Sussex Co., 133, 134, 135, 136, 209. 

Susse.x, Eng., 259. 

Sutherlin, 52. 

Swain, 167, 168. 

Swann, 68. 

Swearingen (Swearington) , 44, 48, 51, 52. 

Sweathouse Creek, 175, 176. 

Sweden, 17, 294. 

Sweet Springs, 55. 

Swift, 52, 53. 

Sydnor, 282-287. 

Sykes, 59, 65, 203, 204. 

Syme, 42. 

Syms, 228. 

Symmes, 181. 

Tabb, 50, 52, 67. 

Talbot, 67, 170. 

Taliaferro, 181, 182. 

Tallmadge, 225. 

Tarplev, 72. 

Tarry, 67. 

Tatum, 196, 203. 

Tayloe, 258. 

Taylor, 36, 203, 233. 

Tazewell, 197. 

The Teazer, 89. 

Temple, 144, 199. 

Tennessee, 139, 140. 

Terrell, 72. 

Tewell, 195. 

Texas, 22, 23, 155, 170, 171, 233, 235. 

Thach (Thatch, Teach), 19. 

Thacher, 246. 

Thackers, 203. 

The Thames, 226. 



Thomas, 35, 203. 

Thomson, 289. 

Thompkinson, 165. 

Thompson, 195, 197, 203, 217. 

Thornton, 51, 52, 72, 181-185, 203. 

Thruston, 46, 47. 

Thweatt, 59. 

Tiffen, 50. 

Tillar, 194, 203. 

Tillman, 203. 

Timberlake, 165. 

Toffey, 105. 

Toledo, 155. 

Tomahun Cr., 177. 

Tomlinson, 200, 203, 204. 

Torke, 194, 203, 204. 

Towles, 28, 30. 

"Travellers Rest," 48. 

Trueheart, 283, 286. 

Tucker, 31, 204, 265, 267. 

Turnbull, 146, 147, 208. 

Turner, 194, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 209, 
210, 213. > > , , 

Tuttle, 302. 

Tyler, 14, 16, 85, 88, 151, 179, 214-216, 
221, 233, 246, 251, 255, 256, 257, 
259, 299, 301. 
Tyler, Texas, 85, 170. 
Tyne, 194. 

Tyus, 60, 194, 204, 208. 
Tyrrell Co., N. C, 128. 
Tyrtaeus, 151. 

Ulster, 48, 49. 
Underhill, 204. 
Underwood, 205. 
Union Co., Ky., 169. 
University of N. C, 86. 
University of Penn., 157. 
University of Va., 86, 147. 
Upper Chippokes Creek, 131. 

Valentine, 220. 

Valley Forge, 9. 

Van Brunt, 91, 92, 95, 101. 

Van Meter (van Mater), 50, 72, 192. 

Vaughan, 58, 61, 64, 139, 205. 

Vanse, 39. 

Vernon Co., Mo., 181. 

Vick, 195, 199. 

Victor, 21, 22. 

Vincent, 64, 66, 197, 205, 207. 

Vines, 205. 

Virginia Company of London (London, 

Company), 66. 
The Virginia, 87-104, 108, 237. 
Virginia Gazette, 108, 251, 299. 
Virginia Magazine, 127, 214, 252, 254, 

255,282. 



INDEX 



Virginia Historical Society Collections, 91, 

94. 
Vobe, 218. 
Voltaire, 127. 

Waggoner, 39, 40. 

Wake Co., Ga., 167. 

Wakefield, 51. 

Waldrip, 219. 

Walkers, 60, 66, 68, 72, 183, 204-206, 287, 

295. 
Wall, 63, 196, 201, 204, 205, 210, 220. 
Waller, 274. 
Walton, 135, 176, 195, 198, 199, 200, 203, 

205, 206, 208. 
Ward, 175. 
Wampole, 46. 
Ware, 219. 
Wariscovans, 273. 
War^vick Co., 66, 67, 174. 
Warner, 300, 301. 

Washington, 1, 11, 14, 16, 24, 26, 34, 72, 
85,91, 129, 131, 141, 143, 148,232, 
236, 257. 
Washington College, 256. 
Watery Branch, 36. 
Watkins, 36, 62, 66, 201, 206. 
Watkinsville, 169. 
Watson, 59, 140, 186, 196, 199, 203, 206, 

208, 209, 210. 
Wavman, 271. 

Wci)l), 70, 205, 206. 
Wedderburn, 183. 

Webster, 85, 255, 256, 257. 

Weedon, 40, 42, 53. 

Weld, 108. 

Welford, 219. 

West, 181, 263, 264, 266, 271, 275, 277. 

Westmoreland Co., Va., 2, 51, 52, 71, 
142. 

"Westover," 258, 301. 

Westover Pari.sh, 130, 174. 

West Virginia, 48 

Wheeler, North Carolina, 140, 141. 

Wheeler, Reminiscences, 139. 

Whig Convention, 214. 

White, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 295, 297. 

Whitehorn, 63, 209. 

Whitfield, 206. 

Whitefield, 288. 

Whiting, 52. 

Whittington, 63, 199, 204, 206, 207. 

Wigg, 56. 

Wilburn, 61. 

Wilkes, 252. 

Wilkes Co., N. C, 141, 167. 

Wilkins, 195, 198, 199, 201, 206, 207. 

Wilkinson, 194, 196, 198, 202, 207, 288. 

Wilev, 157, 159. 

William and Marj- Coll., 83, 86, 107, 109, 



165, 177, 214, 219, 221, 222, 235, 

259, 299. 
William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, 96, 

108, 128, 133, 148, 152, 175, 177, 250, 

252, 257, 287, 292, 299. 
Williams, 2, 3, 62, 77, 105, 138, 139, 140, 

206, 293. 
Williamsburg, 28, 83, 164, 177, 218, 219, 

221, 247, 289, 290, 296, 298, 299. 
Williamson, 61, 135, 204. 
Willis, 30, 44, 51, 52, 53. 
Wilts Co., Eng., 106. 
Wilson, 20, 21, 49, 72. 
Wimbish, 71, 139, 140. 
Winchester, 12, 13, 28, 36, 42, 43. 
Windham, 207. 
Windsor, 181. 
Wingfield, 185, 207. 
Winslow, 14. 
Winston, 179. 
Winthrop, 75. 
Woddrop, 180. 
Womack, 203. 

Wood, 13, 28, 31-38, 42-44, 51, 72. 
Woodall, 62. 

Woodford, 29, 65, 195, 201, 289. 
Woodlev, 209. 
Woodroof (Woodruff), 60, 200, 205, 207, 

208, 210. 
Woolfolk, 213. 

Worden, 86, 90, 91, 94, 98, 106. 
Wormelcy, 44. 
Worthington, 170. 
Wotten, 207. 

Wrenn, 59, 195, 196, 197, 205, 208, 209. 
Wright, 295. 
\\vatt, 174, 208. 
Wvoher, 195, 199, 205, 207, 208. 
Wycke, 130, 137. 
Wyndham, 260. 
Wvnkoop, 45. 
Wynne, 208. 

Wythe (With), 111, 247, 287, 289, 295. 
Wythe Co., 302. 

Yale University, 77, 229. 

Yardley, 253. 

Yangchow, 72. 

Yates, 208. 

Yerbv, 220. 

York", 33, 34. 

York County, 254, 287, 288, 295, 300. 

York Co., Va., Records, 180. 

York River, 34, 97, 98. 

The Yorktown, 89, 164 

Yorktown, 83, 232, 287, 292, 296, 297, 

299, 302. 
Young, 61, 62, 64, 131, 132, 199, 203, 208. 

Zane, 39. 




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